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Apa reference website example

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business plan co za A business plan is a working document that is maintained by apa reference a business containing the strategy going forward, in order to external, ensure sustainability and apa reference example growth of the business. The document should be maintained by all businesses and Disorder About Essay updated continuously to reflect any changes which may potentially affect the business. A business plan should also be drafted for a start-up business and then updated when necessary thereafter. When submitting a business plan to a financier as part of the funding application process (either for an existing or start-up business), the apa reference example, business plan should provide sufficient information to convince a financier or potential investor of the success of the business venture. It is crucial that the foundations of the business plan are based predominantly on facts and market research, as opposed to opinion and belief.

The more facts in the business plan, the easier it is to make a decision on whether or not to invest in a business. The plan should demonstrate that the business venture is viable and that all those involved in the project, from management to employees and consultants, are able to deliver on the plan. All commitments should be formally put in writing, as far as possible. These would include contracts with customers for the supply of Context goods and services, letters of intent from customers, lease agreements, offers to purchase and so on. A good business plan should consist of the apa reference website example, following minimum content: General overview of the business: Background/history of the business. Products/services being offered. Outline of expansion plan/start-up. Other material issues such as new business secured, change in market forces affecting the business, key risks, mitigating factors, etc.

Registration documents (CM1, CM22, CK1, CK2 etc.). Income Tax and VAT documents (if applicable). Registered proof of Spectrum Disorder and Attitudes About Inclusion address of the apa reference, company. Inclusion! Tax Clearance Certificate (existing business). FICA documents for all shareholders and the company. Detailed CVs of all shareholders/members, directors, senior management and key personnel (include ID numbers, contact details, education and work experience). Website! Details of shareholders’ involvement in external psychology the business. Motivation that management has the necessary experience to successfully manage all aspects of the business, including manufacturing, operations, administration, human resources, finance and marketing. Apa Reference Example! Signed (or at least draft) shareholders agreement.

Signed (or at least draft) shareholders agreement. Amount of funds that shareholders will be injecting into the project as their own contribution and the source of these funds. Balance sheets of all shareholders (including individuals, companies or trusts, etc.). Other business interests of shareholders and directors. Details of any other professionals assisting management, such as auditors or lawyers. Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment. Langston Hughes! BBBEE ratings certificate: If you are an existing business with a turnover of more than R5 million. If you do not have a rating, please do a self-assessment at Remember that your BBBEE rating is apa reference example not necessarily dependent on ownership alone. Group structure (if there is more than one company).

Hierarchy of Women Things Apart Essay staff. Lease agreement or Offer to Purchase/Purchase and Sale agreement. The IDC does not generally fund the acquisition of apa reference website example and/or construction of buildings. If you have very specialised building requirements, please contact the IDC for more information regarding the works, information required for construction projects. Proof that all necessary regulatory approvals have been obtained or at least applied for i.e. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA), rezoning of property if required, etc. If these have not been obtained, please provide indicative timing for such approvals. Motivation of the site in terms of logistics regarding raw material supply, target market etc.

Availability of bulk services to the site such as water, electricity etc. For land and buildings to be purchased, a recent valuation is necessary. This will need to website, be performed by a registered valuator. Current quotations for what all building work to apa reference example, be performed. This should preferably be approved by external a quantity surveyor or another suitable person in the construction industry. Technical drawings for apa reference website all building work to be performed - this should be done by a qualified architect and the necessary municipal approval obtained. Quotations from suppliers for all fixed assets to be purchased (not older than 3 months).

Terms and conditions of payment for machinery to be purchased (deposits, progress payments etc.). Ensure that the fixed assets to in Achebe's, be purchased are sufficient to meet production forecasts from a capacity point of view. Be sure to apa reference website example, budget adequately for other ‘soft assets’ such as office furniture, photocopy and fax machine as well as other equipment which are not directly related to the production process. Copies of langston all warranties and guarantees, repairs and maintenance agreements relating to the assets to be acquired. Example! Production process description and process flow diagram. A copy of the factory/building layout. A detailed bill of materials, together with recent quotations for all raw material input costs. Details of any registered processes (patents, trademarks etc.) if applicable. Cost-to-company breakdown of all salaried, waged, part-time and contract employees, historical and going forward: Number of staff and their cost-to-company by occupational level. Please include details of all staff, from part-time to director level.

Ensure that staff numbers are adequate and in line with production capacity and forecasts. Ensure that salaries and wages are preferably market-related and not below minimum wage guidelines for of the Barometer Essay the industry Details of apa reference any key and/or specialist skills and transfer of skills programme. External! Bargaining council compliance certificates where applicable. Sales forecasts. Projected turnover levels need to be based on example secured contracts, letters of intent and/or detailed market research. Copies of all contracts with customers (these may still be in draft form), letters of intent from external validity, potential customers and market research to apa reference website example, be provided. Turnover levels projected without any marketing backup or based purely on verbal agreements will be significantly discounted, which could result in the business forecasts being non-viable.

For existing businesses, full details of existing contracts being serviced and remaining periods on works these contracts. Apa Reference Website! For existing businesses, full details of major customers and non-contract based work done over the past 12 months. A detailed marketing strategy and market research: Over and above general market research, it is hughes vital that there is a specific marketing strategy in place that encompasses how the business is going to attract market share and achieve projected turnover levels. Website Example! Some of the areas that the marketing research should focus on absolute versus are: Competitor analysis; Competitive edge of the business; Demand vs. supply; Sustainability of demand; Future developments (technological, new market entrants, alternate products etc.); Contracts with customers; Letters of intent from potential customers; Other networks and relationships created; and Strategic location of the apa reference example, business. Financial information and validity forecasts. Historical financial statements for two years (audited/draft where applicable) and latest management accounts (not older than three months). Detailed five-year income statement, balance sheet and apa reference cash flow forecasts. Show monthly forecasts for the first 12 months.

Amount of absolute funding applied for website and the application of these funds. Copies of advantage agreements with other financiers for existing loans, including security offered for these loans. Details of overdraft facilities in place and security offered for apa reference website these. Include all existing assets and liabilities as well as those that will be brought into the company as per the current application for finance. For new loans, budget on realistic payback periods (usually five years for IDC purposes, but will depend on the company’s cash flow forecasts and may vary based on external validity the industry). Apa Reference Website Example! Working capital levels (debtors and creditors) to be budgeted for in terms of company’s payment policies or as negotiated with debtors and creditors. Stock to langston works, be budgeted for based on anticipated stock levels to website, be held (include raw materials, work in Essay progress and apa reference website finished goods). Owners’ contribution towards the business to be included as shareholders’/members’ loans. This needs to be unencumbered, interest-free and with no fixed repayment terms. Non-distributable reserves must be based on valuations performed by a registered valuator.

Details on value and nature of goodwill to what is just in time inventory, be provided. Sales projections should tie in closely with any contracts and letters of intent obtained from potential customers and marketing research performed. Sales should be conservatively phased into expected levels over a reasonable period to allow for example the time it will take to penetrate the market. Cost of sales to be accurately costed and what is just in time inventory budgeted for per product item. Take all possible expenses into account. Expenses frequently omitted include: Depreciation; Security costs; Insurance costs; Bank, audit, legal and IT related charges; Interest costs; and Royalties and example commissions. All expenses in the income statement should be adequate for the size of the business and its operations. For example, the salaries and wages bill should be directly linked to the number of staff (including directors) to be hired, multiplied by their total cost-to-company. Interest rates on all new loans should be budgeted for at a minimum of prime.

Normal company tax to be factored into the income statement. Langston Hughes Works! Target company’s past three years’ historical financial statements and latest management accounts (not older than three months). Offer to example, purchase agreement or draft purchase and sale agreement, including exclusivity periods. Company valuation. Include details of your due diligence on the target company, including a discounted cash flow valuation to confirm the company value. For IDC purposes, the following will apply: The purchaser must be a historically disadvantaged person or majority black-owned business. At least 50% of the total IDC funding required is to be reinvested into the company for growth and expansion. There must be an expansion phase which forms part of the acquisition, i.e. an Things Apart Essay increase in the industrial capacity base and potentially an increase in employment. The selling price needs to be to the satisfaction of the apa reference website example, IDC as determined by the discounted cash flow method of valuing a business.

The selling price may be paid to absolute versus comparative, the seller over a period of 2-3 years, subject to pre-determined targets of profitability being achieved. The financing requirements in this document are designed to ensure the smooth operation and sustainability of the business post-financing. The above is apa reference website example not an Historical of the Barometer Essay exhaustive list of requirements, and further information may be required based on the specifics of the application and the industry in which the business operates in. Our strategic business units work in three distinct areas: the services sector; within the mining and manufacturing sector; and in the agro-processing and new industries environment. MORE We make an impact across the country, helping develop new business, growing existing companies, boosting local economies and providing expertise wherever needed. MORE Advancing Industrial Development covers our financial and non-financial strategy and performance aspects for 2015. MORE We offer a wide range of products from debt equity to providing working capital and equipment finance. MORE Stay informed and read our award-winning research reports, as our team keep tabs on the economic trends globally, regionally and locally. MORE We are playing our part in improving the quality of life of all our communities, especially in rural and underdeveloped areas. MORE This is your one-stop-shop where you can engage with us directly via our e-services. MORE Domestic Medium Term Note Programme.

The Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa Ltd has established a ZAR15,000,000,000 Domestic Medium Term Note Programme (as amended and updated on 17 July 2012). You can read the memorandum here. MORE

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rogerian style essay An Alternative to Traditional Rhetoric. University of Calgary. As the Introduction to this volume points out, all of the approaches to argumentation collected here offer some form of alternative to example, the argument as war metaphor. In each approach, argument is redefined as one or another form of negotiated inquiry into common grounds for belief. Rogerian rhetoric also moves away from a combative stance, but is distinct from other models of argumentation in three ways. Langston Hughes Works! First, it goes even farther than most other models in avoiding an adversarial approach. Second, it offers specific strategies based on nondirective therapy for building the co-operative bridges necessary for noncombative inquiry. Example! Third, and in my opinion most important, it has the potential to absolute comparative advantage, offer students an opportunity for long-term cognitive and ethical growth. Ever since Young, Becker and Pike introduced the discipline of composition to apa reference website, Rogerian rhetoric in 1970, our profession has remained deeply divided over Historical Context of the Barometer, whether such a rhetoric is conceptually sound, useful in practice, or even possible.

Some have argued that it is nothing but warmed- over Aristotelian rhetoric (Lunsford 1979); others, that it is website example untrue to Disorder and Attitudes, Carl Rogers' principles (Mader 1980), or that it is a cumbersome welding-together of persuasion and non-directive therapy, two fundamentally incompatible processes (Ede 1984). Apa Reference Website! All of these criticisms point to Historical Barometer Essay, real problems with the model, problems which often reflect the way it has been conceptualized by its proponents. Nonetheless, the literature of composition studies reflects a continuing fascination with Rogerian principles. Textbooks continue to suggest these principles as alternative methods of persuasion (Coe 1990; Flower 1993), and a recent collection edited by Nathaniel Teich (1992a) presents a wide variety of both philosophical and pedagogical investigations into Rogerian perspectives. In this chapter I will try to website example, account for this continuing fascination with Rogerian rhetoric and Context Essay, explain what it can offer that no other approach to argumentation can quite match. To do so I will briefly survey the history of apa reference example, Rogerian rhetoric and outline its basic principles. Then I will discuss some of the ways in which Rogerian principles can be used in practice to teach both a technique of inquiry and an ethic of inquiry. BACKGROUND: ROGERIAN THERAPY AND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Carl Rogers is more familiar to many as a therapist than as a rhetorician.

However, the goal of therapy, like the goal of rhetoric, can be broadly described as attitude change. Historical Of The Barometer Essay! Whereas the apa reference example rhetorician may want his audience to adopt certain specific beliefs, the therapist may not--in fact, should not--have a clear model of specific behaviors which he wants the Autism Spectrum and Attitudes Inclusion Essay client to adopt in apa reference, place of the dysfunctional ones that brought her into therapy in the first place. Rather, he aims for langston a broader change in the way the website client interacts with the Things Fall Essay world. Apa Reference! Nonetheless, the essence of both arts is to induce change through verbal means--Plato's art of influencing the soul through words (1956, 48). Rogerian therapy informs rhetoric by offering a new way of thinking about the external validity means of inducing change. Rogers (1951) describes how, as a young practitioner, he quickly discovered that he could not change the attitudes or behavior of his clients by rational argument. The ideal rhetorical situation as described by Plato involves an audience which, like his hero Socrates, is not less happy to be refuted than to refute (1951, 17). Alas, this attitude is rare among real, vulnerable human beings who are not characters in a Platonic dialogue.

Clients in therapy, at the peak of their vulnerability, are particularly unhappy to website example, be refuted. When Rogers began to explain how unreasonable his clients' unreasonable fears were, how self-destructive their self-destructive behavior was, he met a blank wall of resistance. The problem, he decided, was that rational argument of this type always implies a form of absolute, evaluation. Argument may convince a person to buy this kind of car or to vote for that politician, but the apa reference website closer the subject of argument comes to the beliefs that constitute the core of a person's sense of self, of identity, the more any attempt to change beliefs is perceived as a threat and met with walls of defence. The way around these walls, Rogers discovered, was to change the role of the in Achebe's therapist. The therapist, in Roger's view, is not a healer, but rather a facilitator of healing. She does not explain her point of view to the client, but instead listens actively to the client as he gets in touch with his own thoughts and apa reference example, emotions and does his own healing. For the art of rhetoric, the most immediately useful aspect of Rogerian therapy is the specific technique that Rogers developed to facilitate this self-healing process.

This technique is called restatement or saying back. Rogers is quite explicit that this is not simply a passive process (1965, 27). The therapist continually repeats back her understanding of the client's words in summary form in order to check her understanding of the client's mental state. Thus the therapist might say, It sounds as though what you are really saying is Spectrum About that you hate your father. The client might respond, No, that's not quite it, and the therapist would continue with more probes such as, Well, perhaps you were just angry with him at that moment. Always the therapist must walk the fine line between giving the client words to express hitherto inexpressible feelings and putting words in his mouth. As a therapeutic tool, Rogerian reflection is both difficult--it can quickly degenerate into an irritating echo-chamber of voices--and breathtakingly successful when done well.1 In this pure form, Rogerian therapy is not argument. It is in apa reference example, fact anti-argument, a form of discourse in which the speaker must specifically avoid stating a point of view either directly or indirectly. However, Rogers himself speculated on how his principles could be applied in rhetorical situations, though always under the rubric of communication rather than rhetoric.

In his 1951 paper, Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation, he proposes that the empathy and feedback model could be used to facilitate communication in emotion-laden situations outside the therapeutic relationship, such as political or labor negotiations. His formula is simple: Each person can speak up for himself only Context of the Barometer after he has first restated the ideas and apa reference example, feelings of the previous speaker, and to Women in Achebe's Fall, that speaker's satisfaction (332). Website Example! In later articles he details Rogerian-style negotiation sessions that have produced astonishing results, including the Camp David negotiations conducted by Jimmy Carter, a conference involving health care providers and Context Barometer, impoverished and embittered health care consumers, and even opposing sides in apa reference website example, Northern Ireland (Rogers and Ryback 1984). It is Context Barometer this power to create an atmosphere of co-operation that led Young, Becker and website, Pike to propose an alternative form of rhetoric based on Women Essay, Rogerian principles (1970).2 Rogerian rhetoric as recreated by Young, Becker and Pike is aimed at apa reference, those situations in which more confrontational techniques are most apt to fail: that is, in highly emotional situations in which opposing sides fail to establish even provisional grounds for discussion. Young, Becker and absolute versus comparative advantage, Pike recommend that, rather than trying immediately to present arguments for her point of view and to refute her opponent's, the writer should first undertake a task similar to apa reference, that of the Rogerian psychotherapist. She should try to reduce the reader's sense of Historical Context of the Barometer Essay, threat by showing that the writer has genuinely listened to the reader's position.

This reduction of threat will in turn induce an assumption of similarity: the reader will see the apa reference website example writer as a human being more or less like herself and therefore be more likely to listen to what the writer has to say. Although they argue that it should not be reduced to a mechanical formula, Young, Becker and Pike outline four basic stages through which a Rogerian argument should pass: 1. An introduction to versus comparative advantage, the problem and a demonstration that the opponent's position is understood. 2. A statement of the contexts in apa reference example, which the opponent's position may be valid. 3. A statement of the of the Essay writer's position, including the contexts in which it is valid. 4. A statement of how the opponent's position would benefit if he were to adopt elements of the writer's position.

If the writer can show that the positions complement each other, that each supplies what the example other lacks, so much the absolute versus comparative better. (283) Not every version of Rogerian rhetoric emphasises exactly these stages, but the common denominator among all versions is that the writer must state the opposing viewpoint first, before stating her own, and apa reference, do so honestly, with understanding, and without either overt or covert evaluation. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN THE WRITING CLASSROOM. Beginning with Maxine Hairston's seminal article (1976), a number of writers have recommended Rogerian rhetoric as an alternative form of argument to be used, as Young, Becker and Spectrum Disorder About Inclusion Teaching Essay, Pike originally recommended, when emotions and a sense of website, threat preclude direct debate in the classical mode (Bator 1980, 1992; Coe, 1992). Lunsford and Ede (1984), Gage (this volume) and others have argued that those who view classical rhetoric as inherently combative have been misled both by later misreadings of Aristotle and his contemporaries and by Spectrum Disorder About Teaching an incomplete understanding of the website role of the enthymeme. They argue that the enthymeme, the Autism Disorder and Attitudes About Inclusion heart of Aristotle's structure of argumentation, differs from the logical syllogism precisely in that it involves the rhetor in the building an example, argument from the opinions of the absolute comparative advantage audience. Classical rhetoric can therefore be seen as co-operative, not combative.

This in fact is the apa reference basis for Lunsford's argument that a Rogerian alternative to traditional rhetoric is unnecessary (1979). Regardless of the merits of these arguments, the traditional conception of rhetoric still poses limitations. Traditional rhetoric as envisioned by Aristotle and by most modern textbooks on argument is typically triadic; that is, it is aimed at a third party who will judge the case on the basis of the arguments presented by competing advocates, politicians, researchers, advertisers, or other partisan arguers. In this case it matters little if one arguer threatens the beliefs and self-esteem of the Spectrum Disorder and Attitudes other, for it is not the opponent he is trying to apa reference, convince, but the audience as third party. The process of Women Things Apart Essay, inquiry claimed for the enthymeme creates co-operation between rhetor and audience, not between rhetor and opponent. But what about the instances--far more common in everyday life--in which two parties are directly trying to convince each other? In these dyadic situations, standard persuasive strategies will usually do more harm than good, tending to harden rather than soften positions. In such cases of dyadic argument, a technique is website required that will create the grounds for reasonable discussion that classical rhetoric presupposes. Rogerian rhetoric offers such a technique (Coe 1992). The challenge for the composition teacher, of course, is how to teach students to put Rogerian principles into practice.

Rogerian rhetoric is often tried and dismissed as impractical, too difficult for students to Historical Essay, use, too difficult to apa reference website example, teach, or too easy for students to misinterpret as a particularly sly form of manipulation. I believe that some of these problems stem from is just in time inventory, a failure to recognize just what Rogerian rhetoric really is. The basic model of Rogerian argument, particularly when abstracted from the rich context of heuristic techniques in which Young, Becker and Pike originally embedded it, looks like a form of arrangement: a recipe for what to say first. But arrangement is apa reference only part of the business of any rhetorical system. Logically prior to Historical Barometer Essay, arrangement--and as I will argue, embedded in website example, the process of arrangement, not separate from it--is the process of invention. In Rogerian terms, this means exploring an opposing point of view in sufficiently rich complexity that it is possible to reflect it back convincingly to an audience. The problem of invention is accentuated by the written medium. In Time! A writer is in website example, a much worse position than the therapist, for writing does not allow the back-and-forth movement of face to face conversation that makes possible the continual readjustment of the discourse. Autism Spectrum About Inclusion Teaching Essay! But if we are content to relax our standards somewhat, it is apa reference example still possible for students to learn how to apply a form of validity psychology, Rogerian principles in writing.

To do so, they must learn how to imagine with empathy and how to read with empathy. By imagining with empathy, I mean more than teaching students to imagine another's views. Apa Reference Website! This would be little different from external validity, classical audience analysis. I mean teaching students to think carefully about how another person could hold views that are different from one's own. This is what Young, Becker and Pike mean by finding the contexts in which the opposing viewpoint is valid. Rather than simply imagining an isolated set of arguments for an opposing viewpoint, the writer must imagine the entire worldview that allows those arguments to exist, that makes them valid for apa reference example the other. By reading with empathy, I mean teaching students to external validity psychology, use the printed words of apa reference, another as a guide to this imagining process. Is Just In Time! In a sense, this is no more than what is usually known as research. When preparing any written argument it is useful to do one's homework. But whereas students often associate research with the apa reference website mere looking-up of versus comparative advantage, facts, research in a Rogerian context emphasises the looking-up of facts in the context of the arguments that support them, and looking at those arguments in apa reference website example, the context of other worldviews, other ways of seeing. This kind of imaginative reconstruction does not come easily.

In terms of validity, actual classroom practice, it usually does very little good simply to explain these points. Rather, the teacher must set up situations in which the students can practice Rogerian reflection and the Rogerian attitude long enough that it can sink in. For instance, the teacher can set up a dialectical situation in which they can practice on apa reference website, real, present people in Autism and Attitudes About Inclusion Teaching, a context more like the original therapeutic situations for which Rogerian principles were originally designed. The oral, face to apa reference website, face conversation serves as a bridge to the more difficult imaginative task of the distanced written conversation. Though these tasks are in one sense designed to serve as preparation for comparative another, they are in no sense mere warm-up drill or prewriting activities separate from the business of apa reference website, argument itself. They are integral parts of external psychology, what Rogerian rhetoric understands by argument: a process of mutual exploration that may culminate in a written text but which may also take oral and apa reference example, other pathways.

As I argue throughout this chapter, Rogerian rhetoric is a broad rubric for a way of seeing, not just a specific technique for structuring a text. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN ACTION: SOME CLOSEUPS. I will often begin with a discussion of in Achebe's Things Fall Essay, a controversial issue that students pick from a list generated by the class.3 For this exercise I usually depend on the knowledge that students already possess on website, the subject, though in more advanced classes I ask students to research the topic beforehand. I get students to identify themselves with one side or the other. Versus Advantage! Then I will call on a volunteer from each side to engage in a public Rogerian discussion (since my disastrous first experience with this technique I am careful not to use the word debate). The discussion is website example organized according to Roger's own rules as suggested in Communication: Its Blocking and in time, its Facilitation (1951). Neither person can mention his own views until he has restated the other person's to that person's satisfaction. Thus the first round would consist of student A stating an argument, student B restating that argument in summary form, and apa reference website example, student A either agreeing that the summary is accurate or attempting to correct it.

This goes on in Achebe's Fall Apart Essay, until student A is happy with the apa reference example summary; then student B gets a turn to state his own point of view (not to is just, refute A). The exercise often breaks down into apa reference example a traditional debate in which one person either tries to refute the other's views or restates them in langston works, a way that will make them easier to attack. Emotional hot buttons get pushed, and apa reference website, more straw men begin flying about than in the monkey attack from The Wizard of Oz. One pair of students, John and Michael, picked the topic, Should foreign students have to pay the entire cost of their education? Neither was a foreign student, but John was highly active in the International Centre and felt strongly that it was unjust to require foreign students to pay more than local students. He stated his reasons, including basic principles of equity and the important contribution that foreign students make to langston works, the university.

Michael opened his restatement along the lines of, So, you think it's okay to make our taxpayers pay for the education of a student from Singapore who won't even stay in this country? Obviously, this is hardly Rogerian reflection. When one's ideas are handed back like a present with a ticking bomb inside, the fight is on. But this is apa reference exactly the point. I want students to see the in time difference between this sort of rebuttal and true Rogerian discussion. Sometimes I involve the entire class in discussing whether a particular response is genuinely Rogerian or is website example really just a sneak attack on the other's values. Langston Hughes Works! After some discussion and example, more prompting from John, Michael eventually worked himself around to identifying the what is just inventory values behind John's statement:

So, if I understand you correctly, you don't think that the cost of education should be tied directly to the amount of money one's family has paid into a given educational system, or the obvious financial returns that a country can get from educating people. Rather, you think that a more general principle of equity applies and apa reference website example, that we need to look at a more global good. He still didn't agree, but at least he understood John's point of view. Only John's assent that Michael had in fact got it right gave Michael permission to is just, go on to state the reasons for that disagreement. The process is exhausting and usually the class is over apa reference website, before the first exchange of views is is just in time complete. Example! But by what is just inventory the end of the process, students (and the teacher!) have a greater appreciation of the difference between their own default mode of argument and the process of apa reference website example, struggling toward a genuine understanding of another's point of view.

The point of this oral exchange is not so much to absolute versus advantage, invent material for a particular piece of writing as to get the general feel of Rogerian discussion in its most native mode, face-to-face communication. Apa Reference! Once I think students have got the Barometer Essay hang of this, I move them on to the more difficult task faced by writers: recovering underlying values from example, other people's written texts. Again I pair them off and they begin by writing straight-ahead, univocal arguments for their own point of view on a controversial issue. Essay! Students exchange papers and try to write summaries that satisfy the original author, who in turn may write counter-summaries that extend and correct the reflected image of their ideas. Kathy, for apa reference example instance, felt quite passionate about the Young Offenders Act, a controversial Canadian law that severely limits the sentencing of criminals under sixteen years of age even if they have committed violent crimes. Her statement began like this: I feel that we must dispose of the Young Offenders Act. It is a useless piece of legislation practically promoting crime. Hasn't our society enough evidence that the YOA doesn't work? The use of weapons in schoolyards, an unprecedented amount of car thefts, break ins, even children selling other children for prostitution. Absolute! A slap on example, the hand prevents nothing.

If greater punishment, including real time in jail were a threat, I guarantee that our youth would be a little more reluctant. And on Autism and Attitudes Essay, and on, rehearsing in example, no uncertain terms the works most common arguments levelled against the YOA in the media. Her partner, Tracey, began her restatement like this: You have expressed concern over the YOA. Apa Reference Website Example! You are concerned that it actually encourages crime because of the lack of external validity, deterrence. Apa Reference Website! You feel that a person under sixteen knows right from wrong and should be held responsible for his or her actions, regardless of the personal situation or background which might be used as an excuse for committing crimes. You believe that we should place the Spectrum About Essay betterment of society above the protection of criminals, regardless of their age. The important feature of this restatement is that it is apa reference not just a summary of the other's point of view, but, somewhat like Michael's, an works, attempt to get at underlying beliefs. She then went on to state her own opinion, that it is not fair for a person to be ruined for life as a result of a crime committed at an early age. But her response was moderate, and had to deal with the delicate balance between protection of society and protection of individual youths that she had detected in Kathy's position.

The effect of the restating process was not simply to website, soften up Kathy by putting her in the right frame of mind to receive Tracey's argument. Rather, it put Tracey in touch with the complexities of the matter, enabling her to see the matter from Women Apart Essay, another's point of view rather than just her own. Once students have begun to improve their ability to reflect the arguments of others who are physically present, I have them move on to Rogerian discussions of non-present writers. One fruitful assignment is to apa reference example, have students reply to validity, articles embodying worldviews that they do not share. Apa Reference Website! Sometimes I ask students to find their own article; sometimes I supply an article with which I know everyone in the class will disagree. A particularly prize article that I have used frequently is an opinion piece by Catherine Ford, associate editor of the Calgary Herald. (The entire article is included as an appendix on external psychology, page xx.) Ford addresses teenage girls who, she feels, cut themselves off from economic opportunities because they take bubblegum courses instead of science and math.

She cites chilling statistics about how much time most women spend in the work force and how little most of them are paid, and example, equates science and math--which, she says, most girls have been conned into thinking are too difficult--with one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. However, she begins by telling her audience that the world is passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and Autism Spectrum About Teaching Essay, reading People magazine, and tries to get their attention by telling them that you guys seem to have melted your brains with your stereo headphones. It's not hard to apa reference website example, see that Ford is not exactly a master of Rogerian rhetoric, and the class usually has an entertaining few minutes raking her over the coals for her unsupported generalizations and Spectrum About Essay, unflattering portrayal of the very people she is website supposedly trying to convert. Students taking a Humanities course are particularly irritated by being accused, by implication, of having chosen a bubblegum course. Then I set my students a dyadic task: to write a letter directly to Ford herself that uses Rogerian techniques to convince her to moderate her position. To do so, we discuss not only the areas of validity in Ford's argument, but also try to understand both the rhetorical situation--why she might decide to Historical Context, adopt such an aggressive tone to get her point across--and also who she is apa reference website as a person. Nobody in the class ever knows much about her personally, but with a little exploratory discussion, we begin to think about the validity implications of being a woman in her forties--to judge by her picture--who has fought her way up to associate editor of the city's major newspaper.

From this and years of experience with Ford's writing, we build up a picture of a woman who prides herself on pulling no punches, who is easily angered by behavior that she perceives as foolish, and apa reference, whose feminism frequently takes the form of being disgusted by girls who cut themselves off from the opportunities that she herself fought so hard to make for herself. Her insistence on economic independence suggests someone with a fierce personal pride and a hard-nosed attitude to life, but not--judging by other columns in which she discusses government fiscal policy--someone who values money for its own sake. In short, the students are applying consciously the reader-response process of constructing both a text and the person behind the text. They begin to understand that, solely from the evidence of her texts, we can, in a manner of speaking, know this person. None of these personal details need to find their way into the final written product, of course. There is not much to be served by presenting Ford with a detailed picture of herself that is not directly relevant to and Attitudes Essay, the issue and could very well be inaccurate. The object of this part of the exercise is apa reference website simply to sensitize the students to the idea that arguments come from somewhere, and if you can understand where they are coming from, you can negotiate meaning more effectively. Here is an Spectrum About Inclusion, example of the sort of texts students produce when they sit down to produce their actual written responses:

From what I understand, you are angry that teenage girls seem to be letting life pass them by. They are playing into the roles society seems to have laid out for them, even though the deficiency of women in math and website, science is an Women in Achebe's Things Essay, enormous myth. You are frustrated that today's teenage girls do not seem motivated--they seem totally apathetic to the economic disadvantages that they are creating for themselves. I see young girls in shopping malls who seem to be wasting their lives away, concerned more with buying the right kind of makeup than with insuring that they will have the resources to lead independent lives. However, I have to ask you this--what about all the successful women in website example, fields other than math and science?

I think there are many opportunities in math and absolute versus, science--opportunities that many teenage girls overlook because they think that these fields are too difficult. But your own success in apa reference, the field of absolute versus, journalism is a prime example of the fact that there are many other ways to achieve not only economic independence but also personal fulfilment. I don't think we should make girls feel inferior because they have genuinely chosen to enter a non-science field. But I guess the point is that girls should not feel locked out of any profession, and they should not take advantage of every strength they have and every opportunity life offers them. Website! Otherwise they are going to Spectrum Disorder Inclusion Essay, end up being dependent on apa reference website example, some guy because they don't have the skills they need to look after themselves. This little text would probably not turn Catherine Ford's life around if she read it. But it would be more likely to Women in Achebe's, engage her in apa reference website, honest debate than would a text that began How dare you tell me that I'm lazy and ignorant because I'm majoring in the humanities!

More important, it reflects a new understanding on the student's part. She has not just reached a compromise, a middle point that may not satisfy anyone. Barometer Essay! Rather, she has thought through what she and Catherine Ford might genuinely share on example, a subject that she has surely discussed before, but perhaps not explored in this way. The skills learned in this sort of reconstructive reading will, I hope, carry over from civil to academic discourse. As Booth long ago argued (1974), and as rhetorics of science and Barometer Essay, rhetorics of academic disciplines increasingly make us aware, there is no field of knowledge in which facts emerge unencumbered by values. A history paper or even the literature review section of a laboratory report can be enhanced by a Rogerian belief that points of view come from somewhere, that the lenses other people choose to hold up to reality are worthy of honest, empathic understanding.4 One may ask, if Rogerian principles go so much beyond mere form, why is example all of this Rogerian apparatus needed at all?

My answer is that, even if Rogerian rhetoric is best seen as fundamentally a matter of invention, this invention is driven by langston hughes the Rogerian form. Apa Reference Website Example! As Richard M. Coe contends (1974), to choose any form, any pattern of arrangement, is automatically to impose an invention heuristic. If students are attempting to fill in the form of works, Rogerian rhetoric, they know that they must produce a statement of another's beliefs that the other person can recognize as his own and can take seriously. This knowledge drives the painstaking process of imaginative reconstruction that constitutes Rogerian invention. The most important lesson that writing teachers can take away from this discussion is that learning to use Rogerian invention is not easy. Example! It cannot be accomplished in Disorder About Inclusion Essay, a few classes as a coda to traditional argumentation, as one might think from textbooks who spare it only a few pages. I don't mean to suggest that an entire composition course ought to apa reference, built around explicit instruction in Rogerian rhetoric from beginning to langston, end. Dialogic communication is only one kind of communication, and Rogerian rhetoric is only one kind of dialogic communication. Apa Reference Example! As a form of arrangement, Rogerian rhetoric may not always be appropriate: if communicative bridges are already in place, it may not be necessary to build them, and in Fall Apart, some forms of triadic communication it may be desirable to apa reference example, underline only langston hughes one's own point of apa reference, view.

Students therefore need to be taught a variety of rhetorical forms. However, the general spirit of Rogerian invention should be woven into the fabric of the course through a variety of absolute versus, exercises that help students learn to apa reference website, understand others' points of view. Rogerian rhetoric is not so much a strategy as a habit of mind that must be built painstakingly over a period of months--or as I argue below, over a lifetime. CRITICISMS OF ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Rogerian rhetoric has been subject to a number of criticisms which shed light on external, its strengths and website example, weaknesses. In particular, these criticisms illustrate the importance of treating Rogerian rhetoric as part of a larger system of knowing and Historical of the Essay, valuing, not as an isolated technique. One criticism of Rogerian rhetoric is that it can be manipulative. In formal structure, it looks suspiciously like the often-described indirect structure in which a writer buffers unwelcome news or an unpalatable request by flattering the reader. (One student who thought he had grasped the principles of Rogerian rhetoric exclaimed triumphantly, Oh, now I get it. First you get the reader on your side, then you hit 'em with your own ideas at the end.) Sometimes this criticism has an ethical tone, as students simply feel uncomfortable engaging in manipulative practices. (In an interview with Nathaniel Teich, Rogers himself states that using his techniques to win an argument or change another's mind is a perversion of my thinking [Teich 1992b, 55].) Sometimes it has a more practical tone.

Students frequently protest that Rogerian rhetoric is too idealistic to be used in day-to-day life. People are too hostile, they say, have too often been burned by smooth talkers, to be moved into a more co-operative mindset by Rogerian techniques. Both of these criticisms are opposing reactions to the same reading of Rogerian rhetoric as instrumental. Apa Reference Website! When seen purely as a techne, a specific tool that a student can pull out of her toolbox like a rhetorical torque wrench when a certain job needs doing, Rogerian rhetoric is always open to the charge that it doesn't always turn the nut, or that it turns one that should not be turned. But this view of Rogerian rhetoric results from an over- emphasis on arrangement. When Rogerian arrangement becomes divorced from the therapeutic roots of Roger's philosophy, it becomes little more than an updated version of the benivolentiae captatio (securing of good will) recommended in medieval and modern letter-writing practice. That structure is as inane now as it was then, and I have written elsewhere about how easily most readers see through it (Brent 1985). Aside from the ethical issues, foregrounded flattery just doesn't work very well in absolute versus advantage, an age in which readers have been inoculated by a lifetime of exposure to sales techniques that would have made Gorgias envious. However, when Rogerian techniques are taught more as a matter of apa reference website, invention than of arrangement, the emphasis falls more on the underlying attitude rather than the form, the mutual exploration rather than the attempt to convince an opponent. In Achebe's Things Fall Apart Essay! The goal of Rogerian rhetoric is to identify genuine grounds of shared understanding, not just as a precursor to an effective argument, but as a means of engaging in apa reference example, effective knowledge- making.

It is a way of activating the Historical Context of the Barometer Kantian imperative to pay as much attention to others' ideas as you would have them pay to yours. If the result sometimes looks manipulative to a cynical audience, this is simply the price we pay for living in an imperfect world in which we can never be sure of each other's intentions. A deeper criticism comes from apa reference website example, feminist approaches to language. Historical Context Barometer Essay! On the surface, Rogerian rhetoric might appear to be an ideal instantiation of feminist discourse. Studies of women's language suggest that women in conversation tend to example, engage in more transactional and co-operative rather than linear and competitive behavior. What Is Just In Time Inventory! Through question-asking and affirming utterances, women's speaking promotes understanding (Spitzack and Carter 1987:411). Rogerian rhetoric, because it privileges co-operative construction of apa reference website, meaning over goal-directed persuasion, the in Achebe's Essay building of relationships over the winning of an website example, argument, seems to fit neatly into the feminist perspective. However, Phyllis Lassner (1990), Catherine Lamb (1991), and what is just in time, other feminist rhetoricians have reported that their students, and they themselves, have felt extremely uncomfortable with Rogerian rhetoric.

The problem, as Lamb puts it, is apa reference that Rogerian rhetoric feels feminine rather than feminist (17). Although studies of women in conversation frequently show them working harder than men at promoting understanding and maintaining relationships, the typical method of doing so, especially in gender-mixed groups, is through self-effacement (Lakoff 1975). Their tendency to interrupt less than men, to ask more questions and to avoid direct confrontation, can be seen not just as a maternal desire to focus on relationships, but also as a willingness to give in, to let the in time inventory conversation be directed by men. It has always been women's work to understand others, claims Lamb. Often that has been at the expense of apa reference example, understanding self (17). For men, who have been brought up to value the individualist, goal- directed construction of self, the challenge is to absolute comparative advantage, connect with others. For women, brought up to see themselves as socially constructed through their relationships with others, the challenge is to find ways of having a well- defined self without sacrificing that connectedness. Elizabeth Flynn's comparison of compositions by male and female students (Composing as a Woman 1988) dramatically illustrates these differences in orientation to self and apa reference example, other. In their seminal study Women's Ways of Knowing (1986), Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule also paint a powerful picture of absolute versus comparative advantage, women whose selves are not simply connected to, but all too often extinguished by, the apa reference website more dominant selves (frequently but not always male) around them. The feminist language project, then, is to find ways of charting a course between combative (some might say phallocentric) rhetoric and self-effacement.

Here, the therapeutic roots of Rogerian rhetoric that are its greatest strength also pose its greatest danger. The role of the Rogerian therapist is precisely to efface the of the Essay self in order to enable the client to use language as a tool of self-exploration. Even for the therapist, this is risky. Because the client in apa reference example, a therapeutic relationship is by Historical of the Essay definition dysfunctional in apa reference website, some way, the possibility of the therapist's personality being significantly changed by the client's is not necessarily an attractive prospect. If I enter, as fully as I can, into the private world of a neurotic or psychotic individual, isn't there a risk that I might become lost in that world? (Rogers 1951, 333) The same danger confronts any student, male or female, who tries to use Rogerian exploration to enter another's world. Moreover, as Lassner points out (1990), the detached, unemotional tone recommended by standard Rogerian rhetoric goes against the grain of most women's preferred ways of knowing. As developed by Young, Becker and Women in Achebe's Fall, Pike under the apa reference example influence of General Semantics (by way of Historical of the Barometer Essay, Anatol Rapoport's studies in conflict resolution), Rogerian rhetoric insists on apa reference, a non-evaluative, neutral language of Historical Context of the, pure description that modern language theory, even without reference to feminist insights, rejects as impossible (Brent 1991). This privileging of rationalist objectivity, with its concomitant assumption that emotional involvement destroys the purity of reason, can be seen as yet another variant on the old theme that women make poor scientists, poor speakers and poor leaders of society because they are inclined to be emotional.

Women employing Rogerian rhetoric, then, can be caught in a highly contradictory double-bind. One tenet of Rogerian rhetoric, empathy, looks too much like feminine subservience; the other, suspension of judgement, looks too much like masculine detachment. To deal with the website first problem, it is important to keep in mind the differences as well as the similarities between Rogerian rhetoric and Rogerian therapy. Context Of The! Rogerian rhetoric requires that the rhetor suspend his tendency to judge temporarily, in apa reference, order to make contact with other points of view. External Validity Psychology! But the process does not end there; the Rogerian rhetor, unlike the Rogerian therapist, has his own point of view as well, and puts it forward in concert with the picture he has constructed of the other's view.

This delicate dance of self and other characterizes all rhetorical interchange. If Rogerian rhetoric is to take its place as a means of participating in this dance, it must be a whole rhetoric, a rhetoric in which the apa reference website example rhetor's views and those of others collaborate in a dialectical process of meaning-making. When students use Rogerian reflection to understand other points of what, view, then, it is important that they use the website glimpses of other selves not just to understand those other selves but also to gain a fuller understanding of their own beliefs and what has caused them to think differently from the absolute advantage others they take in. In classroom practice, this means that the teacher needs to direct discussion toward differences as well as similarities, and toward understanding the apa reference website roots of those differences. The students coming to grips with their first defensive reaction to Ford's article, for instance, explored not only what might have made Ford such an outspoken advocate of math and science, but also their own experience of gender differences, the reasons for their varied choices of specialization, and their relationship with different forms of validity psychology, knowledge in their high school years. As part of this process they use not only website example Rogerian reflection but group conversation, storytelling and freewriting--all methods of exploration that can be and have been used without a Rogerian context, but which take on new depth in a Rogerian frame. It may be that the male students profit most from the connection with others entailed by Spectrum Disorder and Attitudes Inclusion Teaching this process, while the female students profit most by apa reference website the strengthening of their understanding of Context Barometer, self. I do not, however, wish to buy into the politics of separation by setting up Rogerian exercises differently for male and female students. Rather, I try to allow space for all differences in meaning-making by website emphasising the connections between the two parts of the absolute comparative advantage process--the exploration of self and the exploration of other. To deal with the second problem, neutral language must be valued, not as a pure good in itself, but in a dialectical relationship with emotional language and the connection with self that emotion entails.

As noted above, students get a chance to try out their first reactions to an opposing point of view, responding for instance to Ford's caricature of teenage girls with the derision that an example, overstated viewpoint deserves. But it is important that their first reaction not be their last, nor that it be the reaction that is committed to paper in a text aimed directly at the author of the opposing viewpoint. And even when they are passing through the most overt stage of Rogerian reflection, in which hostile language is to be avoided at all costs, I do not make them feel that avoiding overt hostility means adopting a tone of Women in Achebe's Fall Essay, total detachment. We can strive for empathy, understanding, and the completest possible construction of the apa reference example other, without supposing that language can ever be a fully neutral descriptor. In short, most of the more problematic aspects of Rogerian rhetoric result from what is just, insufficiently complex uses of the technique and website, a failure to bring it into line with views of language, gender and langston works, politics appropriate to the nineties. Neither Rogers nor Young, Becker and Pike ever pretended that their ideas were anything but a stage in the development of new paradigms of communication.

To teach Rogerian rhetoric as if Young, Becker and Pike's twenty-year-old formulation were the last word is to ignore the promptings of teacherly common sense as well as the work of Bator, Teich, Coe, and many others in constantly updating the apa reference website spirit of Women Fall Apart, non-adversarial rhetoric. ROGERS AND THE ETHICS OF RHETORIC. Throughout this chapter, I hope that I have been clear that I believe Rogerian rhetoric is more an attitude than a technique. The specific form of Rogerian discourse, in which one must be able to reflect another's point of view before stating one's own, is apa reference website example not just a technique to get someone else to listen to you. Inventory! It's a technique that helps students learn to connect with other points of view, explore them fully, and place them in a dialectical relationship with their own as part of a process of mutual discovery.

I believe, in consequence, that the benefits of example, Rogerian rhetoric go far beyond teaching students an alternative model of argument. An important goal of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attitudes Inclusion Teaching, a liberal education is to create citizens who are fully equipped to take their place in society. Website Example! In the twentieth century, fully equipped obviously means more than having a certain necessary complement of skills. Validity Psychology! It should mean not only training in how to communicate, but also training in what communication is for. Once a person has fully internalized the process of inquiry into another's beliefs--not just the surface of apa reference website example, those beliefs but the underlying experiences and values from which they spring--it will be proportionally more difficult for comparative him to treat others as mere instruments for apa reference website example the fulfilment of his own desires. He will be in validity, a better position to website, find, as Booth puts it, grounds for Apart confidence in a multiplicity of ways of knowing (1974; see also Bator, 1992). This growth in understanding of others is frequently placed under the heading of cognitive growth by developmental researchers such as William Perry. This name is certainly not inappropriate, for apa reference the ability to think through one's own position relative to Things, those of others, and to find grounds for at least provisional confidence in an intellectual position, is certainly a cognitive act. But it is also an ethical act.

Cognition is concerned with understanding and apa reference example, ethics is concerned with valuing, but the one presupposes the other. We do not have to value positively all those whom we understand-- we may understand a Nazi prison guard, as Bruno Bettelheim does in one of Young, Becker and Pike's examples, without adopting his views. But we certainly cannot make informed ethical choices without being able to explore other points of view. Rogerian rhetoric therefore presupposes a different relationship between ethics and rhetoric than does classical rhetoric. Quintilian for instance insists on virtue as a precondition to good rhetoric: rhetoric is a good man speaking well. If virtue includes being able to achieve understanding of is just in time, other people, not only those with whom we must argue directly but also those countless others, alive and long dead, who contribute to the rhetorical building of our selves, then Rogerian rhetoric reverses the equation. Apa Reference Example! Rogerian training in absolute advantage, speaking well helps to create a good person by contributing to ethical as well as cognitive growth. Good rhetoric is a precondition to example, virtue.

This is Autism Spectrum About Inclusion Essay a heavy burden, and of course Rogerian rhetoric cannot be expected to carry it alone. The world will not become populated by caring and mutually supportive citizens simply because students are taught one particular means (even if it is, as I believe, a particularly powerful means) of exploring others' points of website, view. But we could certainly do worse than to take up Rogers' challenge to take this small scale answer, investigate it further, refine it, develop it and apply it to Things Fall Apart Essay, the tragic and apa reference website example, well-nigh fatal failures of communication that threaten the Historical of the Essay very existence of our modern world (1951:337). CODA: BEYOND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Young, Becker and apa reference website example, Pike end their book with a section called simply Beyond Analysis.

With almost no comment they reproduce A. M. Absolute Versus! Rosenthal's haunting piece There Is No News from Auschwitz, a text that presents so powerfully one nightmarish consequence of the differences that separate men that contemplation seems more appropriate than analysis (370). It is an apa reference website example, eloquent testimony to the need to develop and teach any textual practices, however imperfect and in Historical Context, need of continued development, that we can find which might help our students bridge such tragic differences. I would like to end, with equally little comment, with an incident that suggests a more optimistic counterpart to Rosenthal's dark vision: a renewed faith in the healing power of language. I had paired several sets of students for an oral Rogerian discussion as described above. One pair decided to discuss drunk driving. They are not exactly on opposing sides--who would be for drunk driving?--but they had very different views of the problem and apa reference website, its consequences. Was that all right? I told them that it was; in reality, differences of opinion seldom divide along neat bipolar lines of cleavage that allow pat yes/no sides. Lisa went first. Her initial statement of position was much fuller than usual.

In somewhat abbreviated form, it went like this: The year I was born, my grandmother was killed by a drunk driver. She was the stabilizing force in my grandpa's life, so when he died he became a bitter and miserable man. The only time I've ever spent with my grandpa is when he lived with our family after he was seriously injured in another drinking and driving incident. This time he was the in Achebe's Fall Apart Essay drunk.

This accident left him crippled and even more miserable. I see my grandpa once a year. Apa Reference Website! He is usually in his wheelchair complaining. All I think is, You did this to yourself. But then I think, if my grandma hadn't been killed maybe he would be different. The driver that killed her robbed me. Context Barometer! I have seen pictures of her; the apa reference one that stands out in my memory is her giggling in my Dad's purple dunebuggy. She was wearing a short skirt, had a beehive and was 50 years old. I never got to works, meet her. My family does not dwell on what happened so many years ago.

We never talk about what happened to the other driver. Website! But we never drink and drive. Gayleen went through the motions of reflecting back Lisa's statement, appreciating the pain and the anger contained within it. But there really wasn't much to uncover. Lisa's eloquent narrative hide little that needed to versus advantage, be dug out by Rogerian techniques, and they reached agreement very quickly that Gayleen had got it.

Gayleen's opening statement was equally full: I also learned a very hard lesson, but from a different perspective than you, Lisa. Apa Reference! I too was the victim of a drunk driver, and I too lost something that day that I will never be able to comparative, regain. The difference is that a member of my family was not killed by a drunk driver--a member of my family was the drunk driver. When I was nineteen years old, my fiance went to a stag one night. They all drank and then drove home. On the way home, he went through a stop sign and broadsided a car, killing a woman in apa reference example, the back seat.

From that day on, my life was never the same. While the court case dragged on, I was trying to plan a future. But since my fiance was charged with four counts of criminal negligence causing death, jail was a real possibility. Inventory! Several people who didn't feel comfortable confronting my fiacne said terrible, hurtful things to me, as if I condoned this act he had chosen. Friends dropped us as if we had a contagious disease, including the same guys my fiane had grown up with and partied with that night, and who also drank and drove themselves home. I also grieved for the family of the woman who was killed, a woman about my mother's age--I kept thinking that it could have been her. My fiance was never able to website example, talk about his feelings about psychology that night. Though we got married and website example, were together for twenty years, it set a pattern for external him of avoiding difficult situations and emotions. He continued to drink and drive--perhaps ten times in twenty years, but it was ten times too many, and apa reference example, it was the hughes works one thing we argued about until our marriage fell apart. I always wanted to tell the woman's family how truly sorry I was for their loss. I thought of her every day for apa reference example many years, so that now the incident is a part of the fabric of my being.

I don't drink and drive, yet I feel the same shame as if I had been behind the wheel that day. What more could be said? What could be reflected back? Lisa repeated back the pain that Gayleen had expressed, but there was little need; Gayleen had said what needed to be said without benefit of quasi-Rogerian questioning. And as for working through propositions to isolate areas of mutual validity-- well, as you might imagine, we never got that far.

At the external end of their Rogerian discussion, they shared the background of their topic. Website! Twenty years apart in age, they were not acquainted except through class discussions on rhetoric. Gayleen had recognized Lisa's name at the beginning of term, but they had not discussed the incident until they were paired by About Essay random number draw. Apa Reference! It was at that time that they decided to try discussing their beliefs on drunk driving, because they shared far more than a general interest in the subject. The accidents they had discussed were actually the same accident.

Gayleen's fiance had killed Lisa's grandmother. The class was left speechless by the courage they displayed in talking about this incident in front of people who until two months ago had been total strangers. They also had the courage to revisit the long-standing grief and anger with each other and with their families. Lisa, who had never really talked with her parents about the incident and what it had meant to her family, talked now, and gave a copy of Context Essay, Gayleen's speaking notes to website, her father. A renewed process of healing through language was begun. Rogerian rhetoric is lauded for its power to build bridges. But in this instance, the elaborate scaffolding of Rogerian rhetoric was unnecessary because Gayleen and Lisa, through the most impossible of Historical Context Barometer, chances, had already found the opportunity to work through their long-separated feelings in both private and public rhetoric.

The bridges were already in place when they stood to speak. There is no news from Auschwitz, but there is news from Communications Studies 461. One news item is that Rogerian rhetoric is not always necessary if the conversants have the will to communicate. But the website example more important news is that the power of rhetoric, Rogerian or not, to heal is as powerful as its ability to persuade. It has a power that is beyond analysis. 1. It is Historical instructive to watch Rogers in action in films such as Three Approaches to Psycholtherapy II - Dr. Rogers.

I do not necessarily suggest showing these films to a composition class, as they set up such a powerful image of apa reference, Rogers' methods as therapy that it may be difficult for students to make the of the transition to apa reference website example, written rhetoric. However, they are well worth the external validity psychology time of any teacher who wants to use Rogerian rhetoric. 2. Apa Reference! For a more thorough critical analysis of the strengths and what is just, weaknesses of Young, Becker and Pike's entire project, as well as a more complete discussion of the criticisms that have been levelled at Rogerian Rhetoric over apa reference website, the years, see my article Young, Becker and validity, Pike's 'Rogerian' Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment, College English, 53:452-66. 3. Nathaniel Teich recommends exactly the website example opposite. Fall Apart Essay! Because controversial arguments tend to produce intractable position, Teich suggest avoiding them and example, concentrating on what in time inventory, less emotionally taxing ones (Rogerian Problem-Solving 57-58). I take his point, but because emotional situations are precisely the ones in which Rogerian rhetoric is most necessary, I tend to damn the torpedoes and let students argue about gun control, nuclear disarmament and such.

Perhaps the main criterion for choosing between these paths is how long the course is--that is, how much time the instructor is able to spend on damage control. 4. In Reading as Rhetorical Invention (Urbana: NCTE 1992), I extend this argument to claim that all research, even into the most apparently factual information, is strongest when it consists of this sort of imaginative reconstruction of the person behind the text. Website Example! That we can never do so perfectly--that all reading is fundamentally indeterminate-- ought not to dissuade us from teaching our students to Autism and Attitudes About Inclusion Essay, come as close as they can. Bator, P. 1980. Aristotelian and Rogerian rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. Apa Reference Example! 31:427-32. Bator, P. 1992. Rogers and the teaching of rhetoric and composition.

In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and langston, Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Brent, D. 1985. Indirect structure and reader response. Journal of the American Business Communication Association. 22: 5-8. Brent, D. 1991. Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' rhetoric: A twenty-year reassessment, College English. 53:452-66.

Coe, R. M. 1974. An apology for form, or, who took the website form out of the process? College English. 49:13-28. Coe, R. M. Women In Achebe's Things Apart Essay! 1990. Process, Form, and Substance: A Rhetoric for Advanced Writers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Coe, R. Website! M. 1992. Classical and Rogerian persuasion: An archaeological/ecological explication. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and is just in time, Written Communication, ed.

Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Ede, L. Example! 1984. Is Rogerian rhetoric really Rogerian? Rhetoric Review 3 (1984):40-48. Flower, L. 1993. Problem-Solving Strategies for Writers. 4th ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Flynn, E. 1988.

Composing as a woman. Langston Hughes! College Composition and apa reference website, Communication 39:423-35. Hairston, M. 1976. Carl Rogers' alternative to traditional rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. 27:373-77. Lakoff, R. 1975. Language and Women's Place. Autism Disorder And Attitudes About Teaching! New York: Harper and Row. Lamb, C. E. 1991. Website! Beyond argument in feminist composition.

College Composition and Communication. 42:11-24. Lunsford, A. A. 1979. Aristotelian vs. Rogerian argument: A reassessment. College Composition and Communication. 30:146-51. Lunsford, A. A., and L. S. Ede. Women In Achebe's Things Fall Apart! 1984.

On distinctions between classical and modern rhetoric. In Essays of Classical and Modern Discourse, ed. Robert J. Connors, Lisa S. Ede and Andrea A. Apa Reference Website! Lunsford, 37-49. Carbondale and Women Things Fall Essay, Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press. Mader, D. C. 1980. What are they doing to Carl Rogers?

Et Cetera. 37:314-20 kPlato. 1951. Gorgias, trans. W. C. Helmbold. Website Example! Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Plato. 1956. Phaedrus, trans. W. Autism! C. Helmhold and W. G. Rabinowitz. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.

Rogers, C. R. 1961. This is me. Website Example! Chapter 1 of On Becoming a Person. Historical Essay! Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. 1951. Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation.

Rpt. in On Becoming a Person, C. R. Rogers, 1961, 329-337, Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. 1965. Client-Centered Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R., and D. Ryback. 1984. One alternative to planetary suicide.

The Consulting Psychologist. 12(2):3-12. Rpt. in apa reference website, Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 35-54. Northwood, NJ: Ablex, 1992. Spitzack, C., and K. Carter. 1987.

Women in external, communication studies: A typology for revision. Website Example! Quarterly Journal of Speech. 73:401-23. Teich, N., editor. 1992a. Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Teich, N. 1992b.

Conversation with Carl Rogers. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Disorder And Attitudes Inclusion! N. Teich, 55-64. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Young, R. E., A. L. Becker and K. L. Example! Pike.

1970. Rhetoric: Discovery and Change. Autism Spectrum Inclusion Teaching! New York: Harcourt. Science Courses Key to Future Jobs Catherine Ford, Calgary Herald. Okay out there - all you teenage girls - listen up and don't turn the page. This is specifically for you. You won't believe your parents, you won't pay any attention to your teachers and counsellors, so I'II try. (But I won't hold my breath, you guys seem to have melted your brains with stereo headphones.)

The world is passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine. Apa Reference Website! About 10 or 15 years from external psychology, now, you are going to be working at some menial, low-paying, miserable job and wondering what happened. Allow me to website, tell you what is happening while it's happening and maybe you can do something about it. What In Time! There's a whole great world out here waiting for you, if you have enough sense to prepare for it. Stop taking bubblegum courses and crowd into the nearest mathematics, physics, and chemistry classes and don't get left behind. Because you are being left behind even as you think that math and physics are too tough for apa reference example you to take, and what difference will it make anyway? It could make all the difference in the world to Autism Spectrum About Inclusion Teaching Essay, your future. Yes, you may well be married at 18. You may well meet Mr. Right and have babies and a three-bedroom bungalow in some suburb and cook gourmet meals. But please, for once in your life, listen: you will also work.

If the character whose arm you are plastered to example, after school tries to tell you differently, he's wrong. He may say he will love and Women Things Fall, support you and let you stay at home and bring up babies, but the cold hard statistics call him a liar. These days, having a career is not a choice, it's a necessity. You will work for about 30 years of apa reference, your life and if you think that school is boring, you ain't seen nothing yet. When you graduate from high school, these are the facts you will face. Over 80 per cent of women spend up to 30 years in Autism Disorder and Attitudes Teaching, the work force. On average, women earn 40 per cent less than men.

Half of Canada's families with two wage earners bring home less than $15,000 a year. Most women work in clerical, secretarial or unskilled jobs. The world so far is apa reference website example handing you a life of expectations which will be unrealized. We are in the midst of a technological revolution, and Historical Context of the Barometer, the science courses which are the apa reference foundation for jobs in that revolution are overwhelmingly populated with your boyfriends. Why? Because you think that science and math are too difficult. You have been conned into thinking that. There is Context Barometer Essay no difference between the brains of men and women.

You think they're difficult because a society which tries to example, keep you in your place has led you to believe that. You think that science and math are unfeminine. Psychology! That is unadulterated nonsense. If you buy the unfeminine label you are condemning yourself to that ghetto reserved for women who still believe it's cute to be stupid. There is only one thing less attractive than stupidity, and that's being stuck in a boring job --or being unemployed, on apa reference, welfare and seeking job retraining when you're 30. Within a few years, many of the traditional jobs for validity psychology uneducated women will not exist, as the computer takes over. By dropping science and mathematics, girls eliminate at least half of website, their job opportunities for the future, and if that isn't frightening, consider the langston works economic implications. Money is apa reference website power, therefore women who earn the absolute versus comparative advantage big bucks have more clout than women who don't. Website! As Senator Bud Olson said last weekend at a conference on Women, The Law and The Economy: Opportunities and freedoms flow from economic independence.

Almost in the same breath he said that women are discouraged from entering science and math courses, yet those fields provide one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. It seems unfair to Essay, have to make lifetime decisions when you're only 14 years old and the most important thing is to have a date for the Grade 9 dance. But it's even more unfair to apa reference, condemn yourself to always being treated as a 14-year-old, which is about the level of treatment that uneducated, un- skilled workers are afforded.

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40 Truly Creative Resume Designs for website example Inspiration. What Inventory? We sincerely hope that these designs inspire you to apa reference website, create your own stunning resume, that no potential employer will be able resist! Are you a web designer and need some good tips for creating an effective portfolio page? Why not discover the most important elements every portfolio page needs. 24,500+ Print Templates, Website Templates, CMS Templates, and Landing page Templates are now available for just $29 per month with Envato Elements. By joining Envato Elements you gain access to plenty of Print Templates, as well as many other useful design elements. What Is Just? All of this is website available for a single monthly subscription to Envato Elements. Join today, and gain access to a massive and growing library of what in time, 24,500+ creative assets with unlimited downloads . So, What Are The Most Creative Resume Designs Ever Created? We#8217;re so glad you asked!

Here#8217;s are current list of the best of the best. The designer here has used fruit, and the caption #8220;Full of Vitamin Creativity#8221; to appeal to viewers. A lovely background texture with a spotlight effect creates a beautiful backdrop for this resume. With over 90 million high-quality, photos, vectors, and apa reference website illustrations to choose from, Adobe Stock will help you find the perfect asset for your next project. The paint splash here shows the artist#8217;s creative side. What Is Just Inventory? This resume has been lain out beautifully with lines, and the logo merging well. I#8217;m not sure what#8217;s with the tilting trend, but I love it here, especially with the name centrepiece.

This resume appeals to an employer#8217;s humorous side with a horror film poster theme. Website? A personal favourite, beautiful colours, nothing over the top, and plenty information. Hughes? This resume also takes on the arty poster persona, and it works brilliantly! With bold, attention-grabbing titles, and apa reference website example the use of is just in time inventory, lime green, this is an example, eye catcher. This artist uses the contrast between black and white to in Achebe's Essay, separate the example headings, and in Achebe's Things Fall Essay information which works incredibly well. Apa Reference? Subtle but powerful, this resume puts typography through its paces with an awesome header. An update to a previous resume, this time with less bold headers. But it#8217;s equally powerful. 14. Resume Updated by twolapdesigns. Absolute Versus Comparative Advantage? Clever usage of colour and outlines mixed with a different choice of apa reference website, typeface make this resume stand out, but maybe less readable.

The fact that it#8217;s an artist#8217;s resume is instantly apparent with the media images alongside the person#8217;s skills and education. Getting personal with rabbit/squirrel gives an insight into the personality of this resume#8217;s owner. The avatar here and the bright colors show this person#8217;s love for color, and art. This resume makes use of browns and what inventory greys, and along with the logo, and title font, gives a nice old feel. Apa Reference? Beautiful graphics are used here to langston hughes, get across the information in a pleasant way while showing off the author#8217;s skills. A mix of gradients and splashes here work well alongside a personal picture to sell this person#8217;s resume. Apa Reference Website? 21. Personal Resume 2010 by heeeeman. An absolutely stunning infographic-style resume, which shows Steve Duncan#8217;s life in a sort of time-line. A interesting usage of a train/underground map to show this person#8217;s life paths.

Getting fairly personal with this resume which shows what the Historical user has around them. Making use of a waiter#8217;s notepad to get a job as a waiter? Very clever! This resume gives the feel of apa reference website, old school ink printing for langston works this graphic designer. This black and white CV shows creative things that interest the applicant. Example? Another life infographic here, though I did find it slightly harder to follow. 27.

The Birth of My Resume by NoviceXyooj. The oriental flair of Autism Disorder Inclusion Essay, this resume is perfect, especially in making it look more artsy. The curly brackets, texture, and drop shadow used in this resume allow it to have some depth, making it have an almost scrapbook-style. 29. Creative Resume First Edition by NikonD50. The bright color, shades of purple, and beautiful typography here work. They work incredibly well! 30.

My Old Designer#8217;s Resume by ExtremeJuvenile. Very bright and cartoony. It#8217;s certainly an attention grabber. This is as much a piece of art as it is a resume. Absolutely stunning. A less illustrative, but equally informative info-graphic here. Example? Again, the use of bright colours on the timeline gives an artistic feel. Simple and to Fall Apart Essay, the point, this resume puts the apa reference website information down, and subtly registers the person#8217;s interest in art. I#8217;m unsure how practical this is, but you can#8217;t deny its intricate beauty. Rotation here is used to langston hughes, split up the text, and website create easily definable sections without having to works, create dividers. Apa Reference Example? 37.

My Creative Resume by liagiannjezreel. Very personal, this takes the approach of being cartoony and artistic, but it doesn#8217;t offer much of a professional feel. 38. My curriculum vitae by flaterie. A purely black and white CV that gets across all the info in a clean and precise way. A very creative approach to a resume.

Instead of Disorder Inclusion Teaching Essay, a piece of paper, what about slide out cards? The grungy texture, and flowing icons really top this resume off. Well there you have it: 40 truly inspiring examples of how you can get across more than just your life achievements in your CV / Resume, and show off your creative, and website example illustrative side as well. If you know of further fantastic examples of inspiring resume designs, then as always, get them down in the comments for us all to Context Essay, see! Resumes shown here are created with a wonderful ideas and i believe they will surely rock. I would love have a resume of such kind for myself. They really have a very creative mind and I appreciate their talent. Ok, so what if you have a creative mind but don#8217;t know how to put pen to paper? Do you think a website like this is example a good thing or bad?

I want a creative resume but don#8217;t even know how to draw a stick figure. Sorry, I#8217;m with Tribune Creative and I would toss all of these. They are VERY cliche (all these designs are being done to death), they are mostly unreadable, and they are self-absorbed. If you are branding yourself with a logo, it better be the best logo you#8217;ve ever created. In reality, resumes are simply for background information, and your portfolio or website is what will showcase your work. Keep your resume simple, and get your points across. If you can#8217;t get simple, important points across in a readable fashion, why would I hire you to do real life work? Do NOT put a cat head, a paint splash, or bad font on there. Make it classy and professional, not #8220;hey I just graduated from ITT#8221;, even if you just did.

MAYBE these might work for a specific company, but I can#8217;t think of one. Don#8217;t make one like this and in Achebe's Fall Apart Essay use it as your primary#8230; trust me. I agree! I#8217;m an artist some of apa reference website, these things look totally made up. Lies! What#8217;s with all the weird sideways lines of text? It#8217;s like their on mushrooms! Some look like websites. Most waste so much space because they have nothing to say about their experience because they have none. And who would share great resumes to steal? That#8217;s stealing plagiarism!

Even in high school you get in big trouble for that! That#8217;s a crime! You steal my things I#8217;ll sue you! They suck! My piece of work: Too hard to glean information from. A resume should not be an exercise in your ability to clutter a page, it should be a simple, easy to Women Things Fall Essay, read and website example professional document. I did my super creative resume also, you can see it here.

and you can post it on your site as well. Great look :) Nice idea to use programs#8217; icons. Hey guys! Check out my resume and let me know what you think! Feedback welcome. awesome creation#8230;you have a very bright future#8230;..Good Luck Friend#8230;. Ok, I am a manager and get many many CV#8217;s a week and here is my honest opinion. Absolute Comparative? These CV#8217;s are a great breath of apa reference website example, fresh air, I get hundreds of external validity psychology, CV#8217;s over the Christmas period which are all pretty much exactly the same, black writing on white paper and do they stand out? No.? Do they get the apa reference website example job? Most of them don#8217;t. By making their CV stand out they are already demonstrating to me that they are different from others, determined and creative.

If any one of these CV#8217;s came to me I would interview them. To the rest of you who think these CV#8217;s are rubbish#8230; are obviously part of the majority of boring CV#8217;s who don#8217;t even get to the interview stage let alone get employed. I#8217;m with Tribune Creative, and most of these are rubbish. do you have templates for these very creative and artistic resumes? looking forward to a prompt reply. Garbage. All of them. If i need to tilt my head or rotate a page to is just, read your resume you#8217;re going right into a garbage bin. If i print your resume in black and website white and it is illegible i#8217;m trashing it and if you have gradients in your resume i#8217;m going to do my best to end your bloodline. Says the versus comparative man with a slightly tilted avatar, with over used Photoshop paint splatter brushes. Clearly a creative resume wouldn#8217;t be sent over email, so you don#8217;t need to example, worry yourself about printing gradients.

I love when people like you have no idea what you are talking about, very humorous! If you do not appreciate creativity then you sir are in external psychology, the wrong area. He has a point though. You can be creative, but you need to cater to the possible employer. There#8217;s a very fine line between creative to website example, stand out, and ending up in the trash. Of The Barometer? The tilt is apa reference example a very good point, one of the things you#8217;re taught in what in time, design is to remember where you#8217;re guiding the reader#8217;s attention and if you#8217;re making them tilt your head. With the apa reference example right accompanying graphic/layout, a tilt is ok to some of it, but for example, the comparative gray one with his picture and EVERYTHING was perfectly tilted the website same, it almost made me feel sick trying to look at it, so I didn#8217;t even read it. You want to make your future employer want to read it, not just look at how pretty it is. If it isn#8217;t easy to read, they won#8217;t read it. If they don#8217;t know what to Context of the, look at first, they won#8217;t read it. You DO need to consider how it will look in black and white.

Often times copies are made for either your interviewer, an website example, extra copy to langston hughes works, keep on file, for anyone else who might need to see a copy, and they aren#8217;t going to print everything in color, that costs money. Like I said, there#8217;s a balance to creativity and functionality. Nope, Chuck Testa. Nice Post :) This is apa reference example very useful for website designer. Very creative design and hughes works information. Would you say this type of apa reference example, resume is being generally accepted or laughed at? Well everyone has own taste of creativity and is just design, IMHO they are cool and should be accepted and apa reference website example appreciated. Hey I work for of the Barometer Essay Orange Resume, the only thing I do is create resumes for people. I have to be honest, it depends on your job.

Medical professionals will most likely not be taken seriously. I created the waiter one above and I know for a fact, that resume was passed around the restaurant and landed him a job. Most companies see resumes like these as a #8220;nice break#8221; from looking at the plain white sheet over and over. I#8217;m not saying the resumes get you jobs, but they get you noticed. Apa Reference? The rest is up to the individuals experience. Getting noticed is the Autism Spectrum Disorder About Inclusion first step. I#8217;m struggling to apa reference, get that full time job after having kids. I#8217;m going to take pieces of these creative designs and use them to in Achebe's Things Fall Essay, get noticed!

Fabulous! Nice post, but these CV are from website, really nice designers? i look creative a few of them. Maybe, with a little more explain a search you could improve that post. It#8217;s funny, I designed the psychology #8220;waiter#8221; resume that#8217;s on this post. But a lot of these resumes are out of date. Website Example? I see the same ones over Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attitudes Teaching Essay and over on every creative resume site. These resumes are great. Thought I would throw mine out there for praise, bashing or criticism. Apa Reference Website Example? Here is a link to of the Barometer Essay, it :: This is definitely a mix of apa reference website, good and bad resumes.

I see a few that are not only creative, but functional. I especially like the one with the #8220;scale of skill#8221;; it not only Disorder and Attitudes About Inclusion Teaching Essay tells potential hirers what you know, but how well. There are some mediocre websites as well. A lot of apa reference website, them actually. Just because you know a cool graffiti type doesn#8217;t mean you need to use it, and you don#8217;t have to of the Barometer, just arbitrarily use shapes and apa reference images. They need to be there for a reason that is relevant to the project. Legibility is huge in some of these. Just because you scrambled the text like an egg, doesn#8217;t mean much, especially in an instance where you want your information to be conveyed to a potential employer. most of theses are beyond bad design, putting your text on a tilt doesnt make it cool, it makes it harder to read and absolute versus less functional as a CV.

Some are nice designs, but the most important of a resume is: clear and brief information. Nice post to apa reference website, see what to do and what not to do in a resume ;-) I#8217;m sorry but most of these are just absolutely terrible. I mean#8230;#23 uses comic sans. I seriously question the judgment of anyone who would call this list #8220;inspiring.#8221; There are maybe 3 in that list that I wouldn#8217;t throw out right away. Good resumes are judged on Women in Achebe's Things Essay their ability to effectively and efficiently communicate pertinent information about the individual to a potential employer. This is especially important when you are applying for website a design position because it#8217;s a design position. Design is works not art; it has to function.

Your CV should feature subtle typography with clear hierarchy that displays your ability to apa reference, create beautiful, normative layouts. Form follows function: Design 101. Most of Women Fall, these are completely impractical and ridiculous. I mean really, who the hell is going to pick up one of these pieces of shit and spin it around 360 degrees just to read someone#8217;s work experience? If you want your resume to show that you are a professional, choose a clean typeface and website example use proper formatting and grammar.

If you want to come across as a naive, unemployable jackass go ahead and use these examples. Often we don#8217;t. 10-15 seconds per is just resume by a recruiter or large HR shop. That being said, I would love someone with the above talent to work in our communications division, but these are best for a portfolio. These are excellent for small design firms etc. where resumes are actually read. A large firm, or a role in PR/Advertising/Corporate Design and website you are most likely better off using traditional resumes and bringing a nice portfolio to your interview. What In Time? In some countries, a photo is standard on a resume, but your point is apa reference website example well taken.

#17 is a blatant rip off of Disorder Teaching, smashing magazines#8217; resume challenger: These are resumes for design positions, not shitty white collar cubicle jobs. Nancy, your first words give your response zero respect. #8220;If I was an employer#8221;#8230; You might as well stop talking there. Wow, what an amazing collection. I can see a Graphic Artist, a Web Designer, An architect, a Social Media Exective etc., making use of these designs. Apa Reference Example? As jobseekers have to professionally comply with what is universally accepted by Context of the Barometer Essay, most hiring managers or organizations, they have to apa reference, be careful so as not to Context Barometer Essay, ruin their chances. However, to set yourself aside from everyone else, you can take a gamble and use one of the formats. As a creative person myself, if I am hiring, I#8217;ll surely be interested in a candidate with a creative CV. As long as you have the skills, qualifications, experience and website example your list of achievements is on point, how you communicate that to me is secondary. Social Media savvy companies now hire via Social Networking Sites like LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter.

The key is trusting your own judgement. Langston Hughes Works? Some of these are interesting but most are just aesthetic without much substance. Also, it#8217;s #8220;resume#8221;. Apa Reference Website? #8220;Resume#8221; means #8220;to start again.#8221; Typos such as these would be enough for me to pass over their resume and go onto someone else more interested in communicating ideas and less interesting in looking cool. Of The? oops: typos in website, my own post aside, of course! :-/ I can#8217;t take any of that last comment seriously if they aren#8217;t going to of the Barometer Essay, take the time to even use real words. Aside from that, some of these were off to apa reference website, a good start most completely overwhelmed the usable info with convoluted layout and langston hughes works design, which is apa reference website example not what most firms are looking for. I say stick to the old adage #8220;less is more.#8221; If its not necessary and it isn#8217;t adding anything valuable then get rid of it. Some of these are interesting as mailers that might accompany a resume but 9 out of 10 are entirely disposable. Its always good to be inspired. So thanks for making this resume design list. If I was an employer I would not hire someone from the looks of these resume#8217;s. The one with a skull?

Give me a break. None of validity psychology, these look #8220;Professional#8221; they look like #8220;party fliers#8221;. When I graduated from high school I had a party and we made a flier for apa reference example that party that looked like these. About 500 people ended up coming. You could have a great party. I have to agree with you on some of these (the majority actually.) But some were very well thought out and simple designs considering their purpose. I particularly enjoyed the type-driven designs. And please, please, please don#8217;t try to emphasize a word with quotations. That#8217;s what italics are for. I think that a lot of these examples are for junior designers who are attempting to stand out in a sea of job applicants. Absolute Comparative? While they are not all executed in the best way, I think that they serve their purpose.

To show that a new designer has a lot of creativity to offer without a huge portfolio. Website? When I first started as a graphic designer, I used a resume similar to those above, and received a lot of opportunities even with a relatively small portfolio. I was told more than once that it was because my cover letter, resume, portfolio, Twitter, etc. Women Things Fall Essay? were all pieces of the same design family. Agencies felt that they understood my design style and strengths from the moment they saw the cover letter, and that it was reinforced as they continued to learn more about apa reference website, me across all mediums. That said, for a designer with a stronger and more complete portfolio, it is external psychology probably wise to keep your CV clean and simple. Website Example? These are the tools best kept for students and junior designers. Autism Disorder About Teaching? as a designer i can appreciate these for their aesthetic appeal but part of good design is understanding and implementing the best possible way to convey your message. if these were posters or something they#8217;d be great, as resumes though, they fail miserably. While the example designs look really nice, they are impractical for a resume!

I am a Senior Graphic Designer who does all the hiring. Autism About Inclusion Teaching Essay? Please, please, please DO NOT #8220;design#8221; a resume! It needs to be as simple as possible, because resumes are normally gathered/screened by HR#8230; they do NOT want to spend time digging through a design to get to the real info. Website Example? Moreover, DO NOT put your picture on your resume, unless you really don#8217;t want the job! Resumes that are overdone are tossed. Trust me. Is Just In Time Inventory? Save the heavy design work for the portfolio.

The resume should be only type. What#8217;s with all the slanted resumes! It doesn#8217;t make them look any better, quite the opposite actually. They are ugly, and don#8217;t communicate anything. Website Example? If you think that these are good examples of design you are just offending actual designers. I couldn#8217;t agree with you more. They were tacky and ill-constructed.

They lacked clarity and comprehension. A good designer can develop a beautiful and is just in time inventory visually stimulating typographic compositions with OUT painfully literal (and poorly executed) interpretations like notebook paper. UGH SO BAD. You are not a designer because designers are humble. Simply, any girl wants to have sex with you. Yummy! I didn#8217;t know you could write your resume in so many ways.

Hopefully the HR department finds these acceptable! they#8217;re all stunning, however based on apa reference my experience i did something like this before in my resume but doesn#8217;t help at all. ***employer#8217;s would still base on your creativity test NOT on how decorative your resume is#8230; Fail! Spelling mistakes, irrelevant info, photos and bad design. Keep it simple kids and let your portfolio do the Women in Achebe's Things Fall Essay talking. I would have to agree, bad spelling and irrelevance are two very good reasons not to apa reference website, be hired.

One consistent thing I see across all of these resumes is they#8217;re all for entry-level and junior people. To me, all the cuteness and clever design just looks like an comparative, attempt to fill an empty page because they have no work experience and no accomplishments to list #8212; lots of sizzle and not a lot of steak. I#8217;m an example, engineer so I have no idea what#8217;s the standard in Historical Context of the Barometer, the design field, but I can see how having the resume be a sample of your work might be a good idea. I could also see how it could work against you if you#8217;re applying for a design job in apa reference example, corporate world. External Validity? some of apa reference example, these are nice-ish, most are terrible. just because someone uses different #8220;fonts#8221; or graphics on langston their resume doesn#8217;t make it good. Why not just take a sh** on a piece of paper and mail it in?

Lol! What an amazing answer! I had full visual on that one. Website Example? some of these are hard to read. you need to take readablity over pretty. these are out of this world resume,highly creative and attention catching. hardly you can ignore the candidate#8230;#8230;.good job,keep it real. No, no, no, no, and external validity no. Sorry. Terrible layouts, poor typography, overused textures and ideas. Matt mate, you#8217;re doing your job. You made all these ppl open an example, honest conversation about what you put up. So well done. As for Women Things Fall the designs#8230;most employers won#8217;t spend a second digging for info on a prospect#8217;s resume. Not in this job market where there are 10 qualified ppl for every opening.

In fact, I#8217;d say not in any job market. Granted some of these are for designated employers with specific criteria in mind and apa reference example if you can definitively aim an is just inventory, elaborate resume design at a specific employer, go ahead, put pink polka dots all over it if that#8217;s what will float said employer#8217;s boat. Example? But in general, a big part of Women in Achebe's Fall, a designer#8217;s daily grind is spent on apa reference website figuring out how to convey information that is both accessible and langston hughes works easy on the eyes. Most of website example, these fail at that although I think #16 was good except for those damn cyan dates. I found another stunning CV on what in time inventory the net, which is strikingly look-alike the CV of heeeeman (No 21) so I don#8217;t known which is the original and which is the copy. Or maybe both? Compare the apa reference example two: That is another risk of being creative. You may just copied it from external, someone else! These are terrible examples of resumes. Most of them are too busy with terrible choices in typefaces. If I were a hiring manager and received any of these, the person would never be hired.

I actually wouldn#8217;t even read the resume, just trash it. Apa Reference Website Example? Designers sometimes focus too much on standing out not enough on what the item they are designing is being used for. You can see my resume online at Simple, clean easy to Historical of the Barometer, read. Amber! u chk these resources at apa reference website example, ur point of veiw but these are fantastic and really innovative. What In Time? u r doing bechelor but have to apa reference, be creative not immitative. graphics areever creative its ur veiw to Historical Context Essay, look and thnk. Apa Reference? Wow so much anger for a simple #8220;I like these#8221; post. What it demonstrates is that design is subjective one man#8217;s meat etc#8230; As an employer what I look for is enthusiasm! If someone has gone to a lot of absolute versus, effort to #8220;design#8221; their CV (resume) what it says to me is that they are passionate about website example, what they do. Their design skills will be refined as they work in the agency world, what they can#8217;t learn (if they don#8217;t have it) is enthusiasm.

I once received a CV written on a light bulb. It wasn#8217;t very neat but I loved the idea. All you old pro#8217;s out there stop being such design snobs and just appreciate the effort! Remember your design skills when you were fresh from college? Eew, number 23 is using comic sans. Note to self: Don#8217;t hire her. Great design work#8230;#8230; too bad its completely impractical. Context Essay? You got to website, figure your resume is probably going to be printed off a crummy black and white printer, or worse be sent via fax(which really destroys readability). Hughes Works? Color, gradients, transparency, all that stuff is apa reference website just going to ruin your design when the absolute versus comparative advantage employer goes to example, print a copy of your resume, or requests you to of the Essay, fax them a copy. You most likely will not land you that job because they simply can#8217;t read your resume. Save the fancy textures and gradient for your next poster design or website.

Dont forget about functionality, simple black and white design, and clean typography. I think that many people are overlooking the fact that none of this resumes were made by the author of the post, he just thinks that those are good, so all the advices should go to the people doing the resumes; but I surely hope that he will listen when the time comes for him to do his own resume. On the resumes themselves, I didn#8217;t take the time to read all the apa reference website example text, just saw the designs and obviously there are some that are very good and Historical Context of the Essay others not so; the one with the skull made me think of a kid and I wasn#8217;t disappointed, in the text reads that the author of website example, that resume is an 18 year old looking for a part time job in order to save for college. So, to end this comment, a very good post that I liked. The majority of these are completely awful, especially so for designers.

Sideways text, text blocks that go in all different directions, busy backgrounds, difficult to absolute versus comparative, read graphs#8230; Seriously?? Nobody wants to apa reference example, see this when they#8217;re shuffling through 100#8217;s of resumes, this is the type of shit that gets trashed. Versus Comparative? You need to be able to quickly identify key points while shifting through them. Making the apa reference human resources department squint and of the Barometer turn your paper all sideways just to find out what school you went to doesn#8217;t make their lives any easier. Apa Reference Website? Graphic design is about presenting information in what is just in time, a very quick and easy to understand way, most of these resumes fail at that. Less is more. There are much better ways to stand out with a resume then tilt it 20degrees left. Apa Reference Website Example? ##8217;s 16, 17, and 25 are fantastic, though. nice post good designs. Maybe I#8217;m all old-fashioned now, but tilting the content so that it is not parallel to the page seems counter-productive. Women In Achebe's Things Fall Apart? You don#8217;t tilt your book whilst reading.

Design at points needs to be subtle, but again, perhaps that is just me. Apa Reference? By comparison, this is my resume. Autism And Attitudes Inclusion Essay? and apa reference website I think you#8217;ll notice it#8217;s much more content heavy and much less designed. I hate to break it to you mate but thats a really ugly CV. If I were applying for a design company (which I#8217;m not, I already work for one) I would at absolute versus comparative advantage, least use attractive colours and fonts. what you failed to think about is these are all from GRAPHICS DESIGNERS. Example? You have to think carefully before making lists like this effort is subjective to ability. I would call my own resume amazing even though its not fancy just because i put a lot of external, thought into the design#8230;and im a mathematician. im dissapointed i could learn nothing from any of these! These resumes are pretty horrific to read. Website Example? A lot of background gradient with a thin white text on top. A lot of eye candy but NO sense of design and functionality. It shouldn#8217;t be a chore to read your resume. Seriously, reading an validity, article from an 18-year old kid with no serious training in website, traditional art, should I expect any more?

Is Web design and Development so easy as in reading a couple of tutorials/books and call yourself a web designer? Go to school or read up on the principles of basic design, Matt. It#8217;s just insulting. What#8217;s insulting, Lisa? Your arrogantly judgmental response, or the complete lack of examples of what you consider to be good design? How about linking to a website where you show us how it#8217;s done then? Or how about you share with us what awesome experience and absolute comparative advantage professionalism you have that earns you the right to pass such judgment on the work featured here? As a web developer with 12+ years#8217; experience and 25 years#8217; experience in software engineering, I hold that the designs featured here are original and show good design skills and thinking. Some are easier to read than others; the apa reference website example ones that got my attention most are Maria Rybak#8217;s and Adam Balazi#8217;s. External? Considering not one of the apa reference CV#8217;s that have landed on Autism Spectrum About Teaching my desk have shown half the originality of example, most of these I#8217;d be pleased to psychology, interview all of the applicants above for a design role. @Lisa: I think you#8217;ve missed the point. Example? Very nice collection, some are astounding, some are creative, but crowded and hard to read.

These are great designs for me to versus advantage, help motivate and inspire whilst doing my CV and resume, as ive just graduated university. There are some beautiful infographics and apa reference trypographic artworks in here, some are easy to read quickly and pick out the information needed as well. And it is Women Things Fall those which tick the latter box which are good resumes. Many of these are rather more promo info-graphic art pieces than actual CVs, they are designed to be sent to a few select employers to apa reference website, grab their attention rather than mass usage. Thinking about them as CVs which sometimes are quickly read in versus comparative, a pile of hundreds of similar ones, often printed on standard printers and sometimes sent to example, HR departments before creative directors#8230; The best examples are 18. Context Barometer Essay? bdechantal and 16. Akashrine. Both would print easily, read well and use graphic elements and branding to apa reference website example, create distinctive and Autism Spectrum and Attitudes About Essay powerful layouts whilst still being usable and approachable to all who might receive them.

I do think there is a place for the self promo infographic or artistic CV as well. For me, being able to read the CV quickly is the most important aspect. Beautiful CVs sent to large busy companies or recruitment agencies will often mean they are overlooked in favour of the one where the reader can print it and understand the content in an instant. A balance between design and art needs to apa reference, be struck for these kinds of functional works. Save a few the *might* work, these are all way over-designed and impractical. A resume is a simple resource and the content on validity psychology it is what matters above all else, like a Wikipedia article.

I believe it should be minimal and the design focus should be on apa reference website example legibility, document structure, and typography. I think you are way off base for designers resumes#8230; i mean, think about it#8230; your resume is a 30 second elevator on your competencies and talents, what better way for a designer to translate those important points#8230; Some of these are great, but some of them just show poor design skills and childlike attributes I would not employ half of them. Definitely some of advantage, these are very creative (except the apa reference example typo and the comic sans!) but having been in a position to hire graphic designers this type of validity psychology, content is much better placed in a portfolio. Example? Some employers receive literally 100#8217;s 1000#8217;s of applications and yes, resumes are scanned. And quickly. In Achebe's Essay? I#8217;ve seen this type of resume overlooked because it appeared the applicant had #8216;forgotten#8217; to include a resume and had just sent in a design sample. A designers resume needs to strike a bit more of a balance between design and information presentation. I understand that as designers, it would be understandable for us to apa reference example, make our resumes different because that is what we do.

This is a smart way to show our creativity but some of these crammed in too many elements. I will agree that choosing the comparative right font is extremely important and skulls is definitely not a good choice to go buy unless there is an absolute reason or meaning behind it but even though, I wouldn#8217;t suggest using it either. It#8217;s always a struggling question of whether or not I should submit in a designed resume such as the website example ones above or just the simple typical resumes that people normally submit. Thanks for adding my resume to your list! You might want to let the designers that you#8217;ve showcased know, we tend to be flattered and appreciative. As a response to all the negative commentary (and the same response I gave the of the Barometer Essay last time my resume was showcased like this) is that this isn#8217;t the resume I use all the time to be honest, I rarely use it (it#8217;s out of date now anyway). Resumes have to be tailored to the employer as well as the employee, which means if I were to be applying to apa reference, a law firm my resume would be more conservative. My most recent client, however, is a video game design company they really appreciate energy and abnormality. On a side-note (sorry for dragging on) one of the things I cannot stand in resume design is a piece of lined paper, photoshopped onto a desk (or woodgrain table) with an assortment of cutesy items photoshopped around the edges. That resume is far too common and could only external validity be used to apa reference website, apply to Walmart as back-to-school seasonal. As someone who has spent days looking through hundreds of identical resumes, I would LOVE to receive resumes as eye catching as this.

Yes, they#8217;re outside the what norm but they#8217;re also something that a hiring manager will remember! Love them all! Most of them are impractical and some of them childish. Geez#8230; keep it simple and pro looking ! Thanks for sharing. If you#8217;re going after a career like graphic deign, any one can say they are creative, but with a resume like that they are also demonstrating it. I see how if you apply to a more #8216;casual#8217; or #8216;normal#8217; job a resume like this would be impractical but wen it comes to art related jobs they are brilliant. A lot of the time, the crooked ones just look like they were printed badly. If I were leafing through a pile of resumes I would totally think that this person doesn#8217;t care enough about the job to properly print out his or her resume! Maybe this is just me, but if your design or idea for apa reference website example presenting your resume doesn#8217;t immediately make sense to other people, don#8217;t do it, you will look foolish. In Achebe's Fall? Most of these designs are too busy and over the top.

Hardly any of the designs are attractive; there are so many elements fighting with each other and there is no cohesion. Apa Reference Website? A potential employer needs to Historical Context Essay, easily read the content, not sit there lost in a labyrinth of information. They do not function as practical resumes. Simple and clean design begins with a better understanding of apa reference website, color, typography, and hierarchy, which many of these designs are severely lacking. I think it#8217;s important to remember the context for these resumes.

Most of them are for people in some sort of design field, which makes sense. If you are hiring a designer, you#8217;re not going to hughes, spend 15 seconds looking over apa reference a resume for hughes works a skilled position, because that#8217;s going to be a $55,000+ mistake. Resumes and CVs don#8217;t have to conform to whatever rudimentary highschool knowledge everyone got about finding a job. The design of the resume shows someone who#8217;s looking for a designer some technical and creative skills right up front. It#8217;s very smart. Apa Reference Website Example? I teach drawing and cartooning. You#8217;d better believe there#8217;s a drawing I did on what my resume. It creates visual interest and shows a potential employer that I have the skills I purport to have.

They#8217;re pretty but speaking as an employer, I#8217;d not give them a second look if they were sent to me. I shouldn#8217;t have to hunt for information among a #8220;spiffy design.#8221; It#8217;s easy to apa reference website example, see who is adult and versus who is still a child. Using Comic Sans, having hearts or sculls on the resume and having an email with idiot in website example, it, are all no go#8217;s. Remember, making a resume is all about selling you self and the faster an employer see who you are the better, so make the info fast readable, because an employer might get hundreds resumes to read per job announced. Also, a resume can be more than one page, and often is, especially if you like it readable. Think like a commercial.

You need the costumer to external validity psychology, fast know the product. Most of these resumes, regarding their great designs, are hard to website, read. And what is no 7 all about ? Oh, look at Spectrum Disorder and Attitudes Teaching Essay, all those awards and honors that smarty pants got. Apa Reference Website? What an ego-tripper! Most of them are brilliant, in fact I#8217;d say all of them bar 23 and 37 are worth inclusion. Seriously, comic sans and line paper from a graphic designer? That#8217;s embarrassing. Well, it#8217;s not comic sans, but it still sucks. Also, line height of the text doesn#8217;t match the in Achebe's Things Apart height between lines on the papers.

Eyesore. Apa Reference? they#8217;re all great. i agree with you that what he said is embarrassing, but not because theyre all great, but because they#8217;re nearly all terrible. these reek of #8220;amateur designer#8221;. nearly 100% of the Women in Achebe's Apart Essay above #8220;designers#8221; need to apa reference website example, turn off their computers and open up a design book. over Disorder and Attitudes Essay designed is the perfect way to describe these. they are cluttered and illegible in all the wrong ways. im not trying to be a dick. Website? some of these people might be able to psychology, be successful designers. Website? however they aren#8217;t going to absolute, do it with purple gradients and comic sans. last time i use stumble upon to apa reference website example, look for design sites#8230; I agree with you. And judging from psychology, nr. 37#8217;s deviantart gallery she isn#8217;t quite a professional yet#8230; But that#8217;s okay, you live and learn and I don#8217;t think it#8217;s a bad outcome for a first try. When she#8217;ll get older she#8217;ll know better (even though she#8217;s only a year younger than me#8230;) These are beautiful but some of them are just so impractical. Resumes should be easy to scan designers can showcase their creativity in their portfolio. What? Who scans resumes?

Half the website example time I have to enter the exact same info into every job site, recruiter site, and corporate career site. I#8217;m not sure that anyone actually reads the resume I attach anymore. I agree. Don#8217;t make me have to external validity psychology, learn to read your resume. Apa Reference Website Example? Keep it simple for fast scanning of absolute advantage, pertinent data.

Unless of apa reference website example, course you#8217;re trying to hide behind bells whistles. They do get looked at, especially for the interview. Subscribe to our popular newsletter and get the latest web design news and resources directly in your inbox.

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For a competitive program, you can expect each element to weigh more heavily on what is just in time inventory an admissions decision, but check with the programs for specific details on the admissions process. Other application elements administrators look for are volunteer experience-especially that relates to education, professional attitude, attention to detail in your application and of course your story - why you're interested in example teaching and who you are. For more specific admissions guidelines contact the admissions department of the schools to which you are interested in applying. Good luck on your applications! Below you'll find brief video interviews with students at a number of prominent education schools.

Interview with Ronald Nored, Education Major, Butler University. Interview with Abby Soltis, Science Education Major, Butler University. Licensing Requirements: State by State Guide. You've earned your bachelor's degree and inventory have decided to become a teacher. What's next? Most states/schools will require you to be licensed to apa reference example teach (though some charter schools may not require certification). But, how do you become licensed, and what if you want teach in a new state or have the About option of teaching in multiple states? Or, what if you haven't been through a traditional teaching program, but are still interested in leading a classroom?

The answers to these questions - it depends. Teacher certification can be a confusing process as requirements vary from state to state. We've made the apa reference website information hunt easier - just select the in time state you'd like to teach in and find out more about apa reference example what the Historical Context of the Barometer Essay requirements for apa reference website licensing in that state are and versus comparative advantage where to go to find out more. Applicants must hold a bachelor's degree from a regionally accredited senior institution, with the exception of technical, JROTC, and substitute teacher certificates. Certification is available at example, three levels. For a summary of requirements for the Professional Educator Certificate at a particular grade level, see page 130 of the Alabama Teacher Certification Chapter found at: Applicants must complete the testing requirements set forth by the Alabama Prospective Teacher Testing Program (APTTP) prior to January 1 for fall certification, including a passing score on the stets Basic Skills Test (Reading, Writing, Math) and Historical of the Barometer the Praxis II subject area test for apa reference website certification in a particular subject. The minimum passing score is Level 4 for Mathematics and Reading and Level 3 for langston hughes Writing. Details for the APTTP (including passing scores for the PRAXIS II by subject area as well as 2011 test dates) may be found at Alabama State Department of Education. Acceptable teaching experience includes fulltime educational employment in a state public school, a nonpublic school, a church-related school, a regionally or state-accredited charter school, the State Department of Education, Alabama Department of Education sponsored Initiatives, an educational association, or a post-secondary institution that was regionally accredited when the website example experience was earned.

Employment in increments of less than one semester (4.5 months) or less than twenty hours a week, or as an intern, graduate assistant, student teacher, or in positions such as an aide, clerical worker, or substitute teacher will not be considered. All applicants are required to submit to a thorough criminal background check by the Alabama Bureau of Investigation and hughes the Federal Bureau of Investigation which includes but is not limited to apa reference example fingerprinting conducted by Historical, a state-approved third party contractor. Alabama does not offer reciprocity for example any teacher preparation programs completed outside of Alabama. Alabama certification is only considered reciprocally on the basis of langston hughes, holding a valid professional certificate issued by another state, territory or the Department of apa reference website, Defense Education Activity (DoDEA). The Alabama State Department of Education is in the process of updating their Educational Certification Portal.Please contact Sarah Justiss, Coordinator of in Achebe's Fall Essay, Teacher Certification at (334) 242-9977 or submit the inquiry form at: for more information. Alaska requires a bachelor's degree from a regionally accredited institution and apa reference either completion of a regionally accredited teacher preparation program, current enrollment in langston hughes works a regionally accredited teacher preparation program, or completion of apa reference example, a state-approved teacher preparation program. Alaska requires the Spectrum and Attitudes Inclusion PRAXIS I basic skills test (reading score of at least 175, writing score of website example, 174, mathematics score of versus advantage, 173) and the pre-professional skills test (PPST) for all licenses. Alaska will accept the apa reference website example PRAXIS II subject area test as a route to validity psychology a subject-area endorsement (see: for subject area passing scores). Alaska will also accept passing scores on the CBEST (overall score of 123, 37 or more for each area) and WEST-B tests (score of 240 in each of the three areas) in lieu of the PRAXIS I. Because a traditional license requires either completion of or current enrollment in a teacher preparation program, some form of student teaching will be involved.

All applicants are required to submit to a thorough criminal background check by the Alaska Bureau of apa reference website example, Investigation and what is just in time the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which includes but is not limited to fingerprinting conducted by a state-approved third party contractor. Apa Reference Website! Also, subject area certification requires completion of the PRAXIS II in psychology that subject. Alaska will grant a one-year initial teaching license to individuals holding certification in another state, though requirements for the regular state license must be met. For more information call the apa reference example state certification office at (907) 465-2831 or email The application for initial licensure may be located at For both elementary (K-8) and secondary (9-12) certification, a bachelor's degree from an accredited institution is required. Applicants for the provisional license must complete either an is just in time accredited teacher preparation program, 45 semester hours in education for elementary certification, or 30 semester hours for secondary certification. All applicants for elementary certification must demonstrate general knowledge by receiving a score of 240 or higher on website example the Professional Knowledge Elementary (91) portion of the Arizona Educator Proficiency Assessment (AEPA) or a passing score on a comparable Professional Knowledge Elementary examination from another state or agency.

This requirement may be waived if applicants have three years experience in langston hughes teaching elementary education (k-8), full-time. To demonstrate subject area knowledge, applicants for website example elementary certification must receive a passing score on absolute versus comparative the Subject Knowledge Elementary Education (01) portion of the Arizona Educator Proficiency Assessment (AEPA) or a passing score on a comparable Subject Knowledge Elementary Education examination from another state or agency. Both of these tests are waived if the apa reference website candidate holds a certificate from the Spectrum and Attitudes About Inclusion Teaching National Board for website Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS). For more detailed information, visit the state's Department of Education website. If teaching experience is not completed as part of the versus accredited teacher preparation program, applicants must complete an eight-semester hour teaching practicum as part of their education coursework at the certification grade level OR the apa reference example applicant may have two years of verified teaching experience at the certification grade level, OR they may hold a teaching license from another state. All applicants are required to pass the Arizona Fingerprint Clearance. Is Just! Additionally, verification of three (3) semester hours or forty-five (45) clock hours of apa reference example, state approved Structured English Immersion (SEI) training, and a college course or passing examination score on Things Apart Essay both the Arizona Constitution and apa reference example U.S. Constitution must be completed.

Arizona grants a one-year provisional teaching license to teachers certified in any state in external validity the U.S.; however, applicants must submit to example fingerprinting*, complete the aforementioned level-appropriate state testing requirements, and external validity complete the SEI and apa reference website constitution class requirements. *Arizona has fingerprint reciprocity with 19 other states including Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. For more information regarding certification requirements, email or call 602-542-4367. A bachelor's level degree is required for all teaching licenses. All applicants must pass the Praxis I (reading, writing, math), Praxis II (content test), and Praxis III (Principles of Learning and Teaching). Apart! A summary of requirements for passing scores may be found at: Applicants must either complete a teaching practicum as part of an accredited teacher preparation program, or attain teaching experience through the non-traditional route under the apa reference example guidance of a professional mentor while completing all other requirements for absolute licensure.

All applicants must successfully complete a criminal background check. Website Example! Applicants who meet state licensure requirements will be granted an initial teaching license which is valid for one to three years. Novice teachers holding an initial license will have a mentor assigned to Things Fall Essay support their professional growth. Following the mentoring period, the Praxis III performance assessment will be scheduled. Passing the apa reference website performance assessment results in Historical Context Essay a standard teaching license. Applicants with a current or expired standard teaching license from another state or country or any applicant that has completed an out-of-state or out-of-country teacher preparation program but is not licensed is eligible for Arkansas licensure. Also, applicants with a current or expired standard teaching license from apa reference another state who have not graduated from a regionally accredited institution may apply for Arkansas licensure through the Non-Traditional Teacher Licensure Program. At least a bachelor's degree and a criminal background check are also required. Documentation for required examinations or verification of Barometer, three years of example, teaching experience must accompany the application. Is Just In Time Inventory! Additionally, a three-hour Arkansas History course will be required for Arkansas licensure for Early Childhood, Elementary, Middle School and for Secondary Social Studies. For more information on website certification, contact Ron Tolson, Professional Licensure Coordinator at Spectrum Disorder About, 501-682-4342 or

The application for licensure may be downloaded at To attain the five-year preliminary certificate, applicants must complete a baccalaureate or higher degree from a regionally-accredited college or university. For traditional route certification, applicants must also complete an appropriate level accredited teacher preparation program including successful student teaching, and obtain a formal recommendation for the credential by the California college or university where the program was completed. For preliminary certification, applicants must satisfy California's Basic Skills Requirement by either passing the CBEST, CSET, CSU, or verifying that they have satisfied the basic skills test requirement in another state. Additionally, elementary applicants may verify subject-matter competency by passing all portions of the California Subject Examinations for example Teachers (CSET). Passing exam scores must be used for certification purposes within five years of the passing test date. A passing score of at least 220 is required for each subtest. A summary of testing requirements may be found at

If applicants do not complete an accredited teacher preparation program that includes student teaching, they may satisfy the teaching practicum requirement through the Autism Disorder Inclusion Teaching Essay alternate-route district intern program, university intern program, early completion internship program, private school teaching, or peace corps experience. All candidates must also satisfy the apa reference website Developing English Language Skills by completing a reading instruction course that includes the systematic study of phonemic awareness, phonics, and absolute versus decoding; literature, language and comprehension; and diagnostic and example early intervention techniques. Also, candidates must complete a course on the U.S. Constitution or pass an examination given by a regionally accredited college or university as well as complete a computer technology course that includes skills in the use of computers in educational settings. Applicants who have not earned a teaching credential based on the completion of an Context of the accredited teacher preparation program must pass the Reading Instruction Competence Assessment (RICA). Individuals who complete a professional teacher preparation program and apa reference receive a five-year preliminary credential must earn a clear credential by completing a Commission-approved General Education Induction Program through an approved school district, county office of education, college or university, consortium, or private school. Finally, applicants must be fingerprinted as part of a criminal background check. California participates in absolute advantage the NASDTEC Interstate Agreement. Example! For more information, see National Board for hughes Professional Teaching Standards certified teachers are eligible for California certification by completing the website application, paying the application fee and submitting a photocopy of National Board Certification. For more information, contact the credentialing division toll-free at 888-921-2682 or by email

Applicants must possess a bachelor's or higher degree from Women Fall Apart Essay a regionally accredited college or university, and complete a state approved teacher preparation program. Elementary education teachers must pass the Colorado State Board of Education approved elementary content test. Secondary and K-12 applicants must demonstrate content proficiency by example, either completing 24 semester hours as demonstrated through transcript evaluation or earning a passing score on of the Barometer the required Colorado State Board of Education assessment in the endorsement area. Website Example! Colorado only requires tests for content area knowledge and in time inventory accepts a score of apa reference website example, 220 or above on the PLACE test or a passing score on the PRAXIS II test. Absolute Versus Comparative Advantage! Additional information about testing may be found at Applicants who do not complete the student teaching requirement as part of their accredited teacher preparation program may complete their teaching practicum through an approved alternative teacher program as full-time teachers with 51 percent of their teaching experience in the approved content area. All applicants for licensure must be fingerprinted for website the purpose of a criminal background check through the Colorado Bureau of Investigation and external validity Federal Bureau of Investigation. While Colorado will accept credentials from several states, there is no direct reciprocity available. For more information contact the Educator Licensing Unit at 303-866-6628 or Candidates are expected to website have earned at least a bachelor's degree from a regionally accredited institution and to have completed a state-approved teacher preparation program at an accredited college or university.

All candidates must pass the PRAXIS I Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST). Subject-area endorsements may require successful completion of the PRAXIS II subject knowledge test. Elementary certification also requires candidates to pass the Teaching Connecticut Foundations of Reading Test. Out-of-state candidates may be exempt from the testing requirements if they hold a master's degree in example the subject area of Women Fall Apart, certification sought or if they have successfully taught for three years as a licensed teacher in another state within 10 years of seeking Connecticut certification. Candidates are expected to have completed a teaching practicum as part of their approved teacher preparation program or must have completed 20 school months of full-time employment in a nonpublic school or out-of-state public school as a licensed educator.

Connecticut requires all applicants to submit to a state and national criminal history record check within the first 30 days of employment. Connecticut does not offer reciprocity with any other state. Candidates may be eligible for Connecticut certification if they have completed a state-approved educator preparation program, or if they can verify a minimum of three years of full-time employment experience in the same approved nonpublic school, or out-of-state public school under an appropriate state certificate, and complete Connecticut's specific coursework and assessment requirements. For more information, contact the Connecticut Bureau of Educator Standards and example Certification at 860-713-6969 or Candidates must have earned at least a bachelor's degree from a regionally accredited four-year college or university. All candidates must pass the PRAXIS I Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST). In Time! Subject-area endorsements require successful completion of the apa reference example PRAXIS II subject knowledge test.

More information about passing scores can be found at Applicants must have completed a student teaching program, one year of Women, teaching experience consisting of a minimum of 91 days of long term teaching experience at one assignment, or enrollment in an Alternative Routes to Licensure and Certification program. All candidates must register at DEEDS (Delaware Educator Data System) to begin the website example application process and submit to a criminal background check. Educators who hold a full and works current license/certificate in another US state will receive a comparable Delaware license/certificate. Delaware does not accept Certificates of Eligibility, Intern Certificates, Conditional Certification, Substitute Teacher Licenses, Private School Licenses, or Endorsements as reciprocal. Website Example! Applicants who have held a full-time, K-12 teaching position in a school other than a Delaware public or charter school must submit a Verification of Teaching Experience Form. For more information regarding certification requirements, call 302-735-4000 or email

Applicants must have at least a bachelor's degree from an accredited college or university and must have completed or be completing a teacher preparation program in the area of desired certification. Passing scores for all portions of the Praxis I and Praxis II Content Knowledge exam in the content area of the Historical Context Barometer Essay teaching assignment are required. Specific requirements for apa reference passing scores may be found at Applicants must either have completed student teaching as part of langston, their state-approved teacher preparation program or currently be enrolled in apa reference website example a teacher preparation program while teaching full-time in the area of desired certification. Candidates must complete either an Application for Regular I Licensure if they are currently enrolled in a preparation program and employed by a DC public, private or public charter school. Or, they should complete an Application for in Achebe's Things Apart Essay Regular II Licensure if they have finished a preparation program. If applicable, candidates must submit an apa reference website Out-of-State Approved Program Verification Form and Employment Verification Form, as well as submit to the FBI and Disorder About Essay DCPS Criminal Background check. Reciprocity is website granted to individuals seeking a District of Columbia (DC) teaching credential. Individuals may be granted a waiver of state testing requirements and may be issued a full license by completing a state-approved teacher education program at an institution or organization located outside of the what in time District of website, Columbia in the subject area matching the license being sought, possessing a valid out-of-state Level II license (full credential) in the subject area matching the in Achebe's Things Fall Essay license being sought, AND completing of a minimum of three years of full-time PreK-12 teaching experience outside of the example District of Columbia in the licensure subject area excluding substitute teaching. Candidates who do not meet these prerequisites will be given a transcript analysis of their credentials to of the Barometer determine eligibility.

In order to be considered for apa reference licensure, applicants must submit an Application for Regular II Licensure, an what is just inventory Out-of-State Approved Program Verification Form, an Employment Verification Form, and website example complete the FBI and langston hughes DCPS Criminal Background check. For more information, email the Division of Educator Licensure and Accreditation at or call 202-741-5881 to speak to a licensure specialist. Applicants must have at least a bachelor's degree. For the Standard Professional Certificate, applicants must pass the apa reference example Florida General Knowledge Test, the Florida Professional Education Test, and demonstrate subject area mastery by in Achebe's Essay, passing Florida's state subject area test. Apa Reference Website! Tests are pass/fail. In Time Inventory! Minimum passing requirements may be found at example, Applicants must either complete a teaching practicum as part of an external validity psychology accredited teacher preparation program OR seek certification through an alternate route program.

All applicants must pass the criminal background/fingerprint check through the Federal and state bureaus of investigation. Applicants may also earn a temporary, non-renewable, three-year certificate while they complete the website example requirements for what in time the standard certificate. Candidates must complete and submit the CG-10 application form, pay the processing fee for website example each certification area, submit official transcripts showing all degrees and credits, and submit copies of advantage, any currently held, out-of-state teaching certificates, if applicable. Apa Reference Website Example! Also, applicants must complete the validity psychology official statement of status eligibility. Reciprocity is granted for applicants holding a current, standard or Level II certificate issued by another state or US territory at apa reference example, a comparable level/subject to the desired Florida certificate. Reciprocity is advantage also granted for teachers who are certified by website example, the National Board of Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS). All applicants still must complete the Autism Inclusion certification application and pass a criminal background check. For more information, call the Bureau of Educator Certification at 800-445-6739 or fill out an apa reference example online inquiry form at

Applicants must have at least a bachelor's degree. Georgia requires applicants to pass the Georgia Assessments for Context Essay the Certification of Educators (GACEA®) test for both content knowledge and general knowledge. Exemptions may be granted for applicants holding standard, out-of-state licenses or National Board certifies teachers (NBPTS). Applicants must complete their teaching practicum as part of a state-approved teacher preparation baccalaureate program or post-bac program. They may also attain teaching experience through an apa reference website example alternate route teaching program. Applicants must complete a state-approved, college program for the degree and desired certificate and absolute advantage obtain a recommendation from the website college.

While a criminal background check is not required for in Achebe's Things Apart the certification application, employment in apa reference website example Georgia schools requires fingerprinting and is just a background check. Example! Candidates must comply with Georgia's ethical standards of what, conduct policy as well as meet regency of study requirements including the verification of study or experience within 5 years of the application process. Georgia upholds the NASDTEC Interstate Agreement to facilitate the certification process for teachers licensed out-of-state. Applicants must hold an out-of-state professional certificate or have completed a state-approved educator program (with recommendation form) from another state. Fulfillment of specific Georgia certification requirements will be determined based on individual credentials. For more information contact the Certification Section of the Professional Standards Commission at 404-232-2500. Applicants must have at least a bachelor's degree. Applicants for example Hawaii licensure must complete BOTH the PRAXIS I general knowledge tests in reading, writing and mathematics as well as the content area tests in the desired area of external validity psychology, certification. Mastery in certification subject areas that do not have a PRAXIS II test must be demonstrated by the completion of 30 credit hours in the specific field documented on an official transcript. More information about required scores and tests may be found at:

Applicants must complete their teaching practicum as part of a State Approved Teacher Education Program (SATEP) or seek an apa reference website example alternate route to certification. In addition to meeting education and testing requirements, applicants must complete the Provisional Hawaii Teaching License Application and pay the versus licensing fee. No direct reciprocity is website granted though applicants who hold a standard teaching license in another state will be eligible for Historical Context of the Barometer Essay a standard certificate provided the applicant has completed a SATEP and both general knowledge and apa reference website content area tests. If the applicant has not completed a SATEP they must provide evidence of three years of full-time, satisfactory teaching experience within the past seven years as well as complete all required general knowledge and subject area testing requirements. Women In Achebe's Things Fall Apart! Teachers who hold an out-of-state license and a NBPTS endorsement are exempt from testing reciprocity requirements. Hawaii accepts all US DOE sponsored programs for apa reference website alternate route teaching certification. For more information see: Alternative Certification.

For more information contact the Hawaii Teacher Standards Board at inventory, 808-586-2600 or email Applicants must have at least a bachelor's degree. Idaho requires that applicants for licensure pass the PRAXIS II tests for content, pedagogy and apa reference performance. For specific subject/level test requirements, see National Board certified teachers and teachers who meet the requirements for Highly Qualified Status under the No Child Left Behind policy are exempt from the testing requirements. Applicants must complete a teaching practicum through a state-approved teacher preparation program or meet the requirements for teaching experience in a state-approved alternate route program. All applicants must pass the criminal background/fingerprint check through the absolute versus comparative Federal and state bureaus of investigation.

Applicants must also meet Idaho's requirements for comprehensive literacy and apa reference technology assessment. Idaho participates in the National Council for Accreditation of langston hughes, Teacher Education (NCATE) and will issue a three-year Interim Certificate to educators who possess a standard license from website example states that are members of the works National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC) Interstate Agreement. Website! Reciprocity also requires the completion of comprehensive literacy and technology assessment requirements. For more information contact the Professional Standards Commission at 208-332-6882 or email Applicants must have at least a bachelor's degree.

Applicants must register for and pass the Basic Skills test, the appropriate content-area test(s), and the appropriate Assessment of Professional Teaching (APT) test through the Illinois Certification Testing System (ICTS). Advantage! Applicants must pass the tests in no more than 5 attempts. More information on testing requirements and test registration may be found at Applicants must complete a teaching practicum through a state-approved teacher preparation program or meet the requirements for teaching experience in a state-approved alternate route program. All candidates must either complete a state approved certificate preparation program or have a valid and comparable out-of-state certificate, meet all coursework and apa reference example testing requirements, and submit the appropriate application and hughes works fee. No direct reciprocity is offered but out-of-state certified teachers are eligible for a two-year Provisional Certificate while they meet requirements for Illinois certification. Example! Teachers who hold an out-of-state license must pass the Basic Skills test, the appropriate content area test, and the appropriate Assessment of Professional Teaching (APT) test. For more information contact the Educator Certification Division at validity, 217-557-6763. An Initial License (valid for two years) requires a BA from a regionally accredited institution and completed credits for subject area endorsements. K-3 and K-6 endorsement requires EITHER PRAXIS II Elementary Education: Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment (qualifying score of 151) OR Content Knowledge (qualifying score of apa reference, 142). No testing requirements for absolute versus comparative advantage middle or secondary license at this time.

Either completion of teaching practicum requirement within an apa reference example approved university teacher preparation program OR completion of state approved internship is needed. In addition to requirements for specific subject and level endorsements, coursework in the following areas may also be required: human growth and development, classroom management, instructional planning and is just in time inventory strategies for teaching, curriculum organization and development, and/or methods of teaching, all with an emphasis on the subject and grade level of the endorsement desired. Apa Reference Website Example! Student teaching in the subject area and Fall Essay grade level of the endorsement desired will also be necessary. There is NO DIRECT reciprocity agreement with any state, but licensed teachers from apa reference website example other states may apply for Iowa certification by in Achebe's Fall Apart Essay, submitting an out-of-state application for licensure: For more information, call 515-281-3245. Applicants must have at least a bachelor's degree. Applicants must pass both the PRAXIS I and PRAXIS II tests. For more information about testing requirements see: Applicants must complete a teaching practicum as part of their approved program of teacher education. Also, applicants must complete coursework in special education for all educator licenses. Applicants for an initial teaching license must have successfully completed training in CPR that includes a test demonstration on website a mannequin, removing a foreign body causing an obstruction in an airway, the Heimlich Maneuver, and the use of an validity psychology automated external defibrillator (AED).

They must hold valid certification in each of these procedures from either the American Red Cross or the American Heart Association. Example! Additionally, the Indiana Mentoring and Assessment Program (IMAP) is required internship for all educators with Initial Practitioner licenses in order to be eligible for the five-year Proficient Practitioner license. Candidates must also submit the appropriate application and fee. No direct reciprocity is offered but out-of-state certified teachers are eligible for a one-year Reciprocal Permit while they meet the external psychology requirements for apa reference website example Indiana certification. For more information contact the what is just in time Office of Educator Licensing and Development (OELD) at 866-542-3672 or email Applicants must have at least a bachelor's degree.

Kansas requires applicants to pass one of the website four PRAXIS Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) assessments and the appropriate PRAXIS content assessment(s). In Achebe's Things Fall Apart Essay! For specific information on required tests and pass scores visit Applicants must complete a teaching practicum as part of their approved program of teacher education. Additionally, the applicant must have at least eight credit hours or one year of accredited teaching experience completed within the last six years. In addition to meeting education and testing requirements, applicants must submit to a criminal background check, complete an application and pay the licensing fee. Kansas will grant teachers holding an out-of-state license a Kansas teaching license provided they hold a bachelor's degree from a regionally accredited institution, completed a teacher preparation program successfully, hold a current out-of-state teaching license, submit to the fingerprint background clearance, and have had teaching experience and/or credit hours completed within the last six years. They must also fulfill content and website pedagogy testing requirements OR are exempted from these because they have passed comparable out-of-state tests or have verified teaching experience. For more information contact the Teacher Education and versus comparative advantage Licensure Team (TEAL) at 785-291-3678 or email

Applicants must have at least a bachelor's degree. Kentucky requires applicants to receive passing PRAXIS II Specialty Area test scores for EACH area of certification and the Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) test score for apa reference example appropriate grade range. For more information regarding testing requirements, visit: Applicants must complete a teaching practicum as part of their approved program of teacher education. Candidates must submit the TC-1 application form along with all official transcripts for external validity psychology graduate and undergraduate coursework. Then they must attain verification of full-time classroom teaching experience at the appropriate grade level(s) and verification of completion of an apa reference approved teacher preparation program from the preparing college or university. A $50 application fee payment is also required. Barometer Essay! During the first year of employment, the apa reference website example Kentucky Teacher Internship Program (KTIP) must be successfully completed. Out-of-state applicants must have completed a state approved teacher preparation program at a regionally accredited educator preparation institution or a state-approved alternative training program. In addition, candidates must comply with Kentucky state requirements such as GPA, testing and validity psychology internship.

Out-of-state applicants who hold a valid certificate and have completed two years of teaching in the subject area and grade level on their certificate will be exempt from testing requirements. For more information contact the Education Professional Standards Board at website example, 888-598-766 or fill out the Autism Disorder and Attitudes About Inclusion Essay online inquiry form at Applicants must have at least a bachelor's degree. Louisiana requires all applicants to pass all three sections of the PRAXIS I Pre-Professional Skills Test as well as the apa reference specific PRAXIS test in their certification area. For more information regarding required tests and passing scores, visit

Applicants must complete a teaching practicum as part of their approved program of teacher education or complete their practice teaching as part of one of Louisiana's alternative certification routes. Candidates must submit the appropriate application and fees as well as pass a criminal background check. Louisiana offers two possible teaching certificates to applicants holding a standard out-of-state teaching certificate. The Level 1 Professional Certificate is a standard, three-year Louisiana teaching certificate that is issued to individuals who have completed the Louisiana PRAXIS and/or NTE requirements. The Out-of-State Certificate is a standard, three-year, non-renewable Louisiana teaching certificate issued to advantage individuals who have not met Louisiana's PRAXIS and/or NTE requirements. For more information, contact the Office of Certification, Preparation and Recruitment at apa reference website example, 877-453-2721 or email Applicants must have at least a bachelor's degree. Maine requires applicants to Barometer pass the PRAXIS I PLT and PPT tests as well as the appropriate subject/level PRAXIS II tests. Example! More information regarding testing requirements and scores may be found at:

Applicants must fulfill teaching practicum requirements by Autism Spectrum and Attitudes Essay, completing an apa reference website approved teacher preparation program for initial certification or meet teaching experience requirements for alternate route certification. Candidates must submit the appropriate application and fees as well as pass a criminal background check. Applicants holding a current standard teaching certificate from another state who are seeking the same endorsement area in Maine will not be required to take the absolute comparative advantage PPST or Principles of apa reference example, Learning and Teaching examinations but must provide a copy of the what is just certificate with their application package. Applicants from website example out-of-state will be issued the langston works Initial Certification. Specific programs are offered through several Maine universities such as the ETEP Program at the University of apa reference website, Southern Maine.

For more information, contact the Certification Office at 207-624-6603 or email Applicants must have at is just inventory, least a bachelor's degree. All applicants must earn a passing score on either the PRAXIS I, SAT, GRE or ACT test. Website! For more information about qualifying scores, visit: Langston Works! For certification in apa reference example specific subject areas and levels, applicants must pass the PRAXIS II. More information can be found at Applicants must complete a teaching practicum as part of an Context of the Barometer Essay approved program of teacher education or complete their practice teaching as part of one of Maryland's alternative certification routes. In addition to photocopies of test scores, applicants must submit official transcripts for all course work taken. Transcripts must show the degree and date of conferral. Applicants must also submit a cover letter with name, mailing address, date of birth, social security number, daytime telephone number, personal e-mail address, and the desired area of certification.

Only two initial evaluations may be requested per year. Applicants holding out-of-state certification are eligible for a Maryland initial teaching license provided they meet Maryland's testing requirements. Applicants with two or more years of verified teaching experience are exempt from the testing requirements. For more information, contact the Certification Assistance Line at 866-772-8922. Applicants may also use Maryland's interactive certification website at Applicants must have at least a bachelor's degree. All applicants must earn a passing score on the Massachusetts Tests for Educator Licensure (MTEL). More information about apa reference example this test may be found at Applicants must either complete a teaching practicum as part of an accredited teacher preparation program, have verifiable experience as an out-of-state educator, or meet practicum requirements through the alternate route program for a preliminary license. Applicants may apply for a five-year initial license provided they have earned a bachelor's degree, passed the hughes works MTEL, and completed an educator preparation program.

Experienced, licensed teachers from out-of-state may apply for a temporary one-year license provided they have three years experience teaching under a valid out-of-state license, possess a valid educator license/certificate from another state/jurisdiction that is comparable to at least an initial license in Massachusetts and meet the terms of Massachusetts' interstate agreements. Also, educator preparation programs approved by apa reference website, the National Council for Accreditation of Women in Achebe's Fall Apart Essay, Teacher Education (NCATE) or the apa reference website National Association for State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC) are acceptable in Massachusetts. Applicants must submit a verification form completed, signed and officially stamped by in time inventory, the institution as their endorsement. For more information, contact the apa reference website example Office of Educator Licensure at 781-338-6600 or fill out the interactive licensure form at Applicants must have at least a bachelor's degree. Candidates are required to pass the Michigan Test For Certification (the Basic Skills test and one or more subject-area tests related to the specific content you are interested in Women Things Fall Apart Essay teaching. Applicants must complete their teaching practicum as part of example, a Michigan approved teacher preparation program or seek an langston hughes alternate route to apa reference website example certification. Applicants may apply for Provisional Certificate valid for up to six years, provided they complete an approved Michigan teacher preparation program.

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All applicants for the initial teaching license must pass the Virginia Communication and Literacy Assessment-VCLA and the appropriate PRAXIS II assessment in their certification area. For more information regarding testing visit Applicants must complete a teaching practicum as part of an approved program of teacher education or satisfy this requirement through an alternate route to certification. In addition to completing an approved educator preparation program, applicants must submit transcripts, application and fees, education verification, and proof of training in technology and in recognizing child abuse. Applicants who hold a current, valid license from another state with no deficiencies and with comparable endorsement(s) may be eligible for an initial Virginia teaching license, provided they submit the example application and fees, complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention, meet the technology standards for Spectrum About Teaching Essay instructional personnel, submit transcripts, attach photocopies of license(s), provide employment verification, and include required test scores (if applicant has fewer than three years of teaching experience). For more information, contact the Educator Career Center at 888-832-2481 or fill out the inquiry form at Washington requires at apa reference, least of comparative, a bachelor's degree from a state approved teacher preparation program. Applicants must pass the Washington assessment requirements for admission to teacher preparation programs, the Washington Educator Skills Tests-Basic (WEST-B) as well as the apa reference website example Washington Educator Skills Tests-Endorsements (WEST-E) for in Achebe's Things Fall Apart designated content endorsements. Applicants must complete a teaching practicum as part of a state-approved teacher preparation program or fulfill this requirement through a state-approved alternative pathway for example teacher preparation.

In addition to degree and testing requirements, applicants must complete a criminal background check by submitting a completed fingerprint card kit. They must also fill out the full application along with the character and fitness supplement. While Washington is a member of the National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC), Washington state certification is still required to teach in the state. Washington recognizes state approved educator preparation programs and absolute degrees from regionally accredited institutions for basic requirements for certification, though out-of-state licensed teachers still must complete the Washington application and website fulfill degree, teaching experience, and testing requirements (unless requirements for exemption are met). For more information, contact the Certification Office at 360-725-6400 or email West Virginia requires a least of Autism Spectrum Disorder Teaching, a bachelor's degree earned through a regionally accredited institution of higher education. Applicants must pass the PRAXIS I PPST, PRAXIS PLT and PRAXIS II Subject Area Tests for their certification areas.

Exemptions for the PPST may be granted for apa reference website individuals holding a master's degree in external psychology their selected area of teaching. More information regarding PRAXIS requirements may be found by visiting Applicants must complete a teaching practicum as part of a state-approved teacher preparation program or fulfill this requirement through a state-approved alternative pathway. In addition to degree, practicum and testing requirements, applicants must provide a recommendation from example a designated official at the school where their teacher preparation program was completed. They must also submit a completed application, pay fees, and undergo a criminal history investigation completed by both the West Virginia State Police and external validity Federal Bureau of Investigation. West Virginia recognizes out-of-state certification, provided candidates fill out the appropriate application, submit the fee, complete the fingerprint card and fulfill the apa reference example character recommendation. Application and supporting forms may be downloaded at:

For more information call a Certification Coordinator at Women Things Fall Essay, 800-982-2378 or fill out the online information request form at Wisconsin requires at least a bachelor's degree from a regionally accredited, four-year institution. Applicants must pass the apa reference example PRAXIS I PPST series as well as the PRAXIS II test in their certification area. Applicants must complete a teaching practicum as part of a state-approved teacher preparation program or fulfill this requirement through a state-approved alternative pathway teacher preparation program. In addition to absolute comparative degree, practicum, and testing requirements, applicants must complete the educator license application forms, pay the application fees, and complete the criminal background check.

Wisconsin will consider out-of-state educators for apa reference licensure, provided they have completed a regionally accredited baccalaureate program, hold a license in a relevant field, are qualified for regular licensure in the state in which their teacher preparation program was located, and absolute have completed any additional Wisconsin testing requirements. For more information, call 608-266-1027 or email Wyoming requires that applicants earn a baccalaureate degree. Wyoming requires passing PRAXIS scores only in apa reference website example the areas of external validity psychology, Elementary Education and Social Studies Composite. For more information regarding test registration and website example passing requirements, visit Applicants must complete a teaching practicum as part of a state-approved teacher preparation program or fulfill this requirement through a state-approved alternative pathway. In addition to completing an approved teacher preparation program, degree requirements, and testing requirements, applicants must attain an institutional recommendation for licensure, submit official college transcripts, undergo fingerprinting, complete a background check, demonstrate knowledge of both the US and Wyoming Constitution, and submit a complete application packet and fee.

Out-of-state applicants must submit verification of full-time teaching experience, signed by the respective school administrators (student teaching is not accepted as experience for full licensure). They must also provide a copy of a current, valid teaching license, relevant test scores from PRAXIS II or equivalent exams, the application packet, fingerprint cards, and and Attitudes Inclusion Teaching evidence of having fulfilled the US and Wyoming Constitution knowledge requirements. For more information contact the Professional Teaching Standards Board at 800-675-6893 or fill out the online inquiry form at apa reference website, How to Make Your Application for a Teaching Job Stand Out. Author: Alisha Hipwell is a Pittsburgh-based freelance writer with over a decade of journalism experience. A former English and Reading teacher, she specializes in education-related writing. When Lupita Hinojosa, assistant superintendent in the office of langston works, school choice for the Houston Independent School District, recently posted an open teaching position, she received over 120 resumes. Hinojosa said such large numbers of applicants aren't unusual in her urban school district aˆ the website example largest in the state of Texas. As a principal you are bombarded, says Hinojosa, It's ungodly how many applications you get. Given such stiff competition, new teachers may be tempted to despair of ever getting a foot in the door.

But school district administrators say there are a few things new teachers can do to Things Fall Apart make sure their resumes don't end up in the discard pile. Read on for tips on how to make your resume stand out from the crowd. Because a sloppy resume implies sloppy work habits, signs of carelessness such as typos, misspellings and poor formatting are the website example number one reason administrators will discard applicants' resumes. It's very important to go through your resume, and make sure it's just perfect, says Cynthia Wilson, superintendent of Orangeburg Consolidated School District 5, a rural district in Orangeburg, South Carolina. In addition to perfect grammar and spelling, Wilson and other administrators say that they look for action verbs and psychology succinct phrasing. Include your references' names and contact information in the body of your resume. In the interest of brevity, many candidates put references available upon request on their resumes.

But, according to Hinojosa, that's a mistake. When screening resumes, I don't want to take the time to apa reference example call you for your references. If you don't have them listed, your resume will probably go to the bottom of the pile, she says. New teachers lacking professional experience sometimes sell themselves short with overly brief resumes said several administrators. Don't be afraid to go over a page if it's relevant information to your experience and Spectrum skills, says Hinojosa. What's relevant?

Anything that speaks to your ability to teach or that makes it easier for school districts to use you in flexible ways. So if you volunteered as a church youth group leader, coached a youth sport, or worked as a camp counselor, make sure you highlight those responsibilities as well as the teaching and leadership skills you honed in those positions. If you speak a foreign language, make sure you say so aˆ even if you're applying for apa reference example a math position. The diversity you bring to the classroom may give you an edge over an otherwise similarly qualified candidate. Likewise, if you have multiple licenses, make sure you highlight them no matter what position you are applying for. You might not get the science job, but the district may keep your resume on file for a future opening in the math department. I look for things that make applicants stand out as participants in life, things that say, aˆ?I'm more than just the average person,' says Wilson.

Be creative aˆ but keep it relevant. No one wants to see a picture of your dog or catch a whiff of your favorite perfume wafting off the resume paper. Of The Barometer! But administrators do want to see evidence of a creative and engaging approach to apa reference website education. For instance, Gay Welker, principal of Faircrest Memorial Middle School, a suburban school in Context of the Barometer Essay Canton, Ohio recently hired a new teacher who caught his attention by printing quotations from famous educators along the apa reference website example left margin of her resume. It caught my attention and, ultimately, it worked because those quotes became talking points in the face to face interview, says Welker. Administrators said the Inclusion Teaching Essay requirements listed in apa reference job postings represent their ideal candidate for what in time inventory any given position. Does that mean you shouldn't apply if you don't have the asked-for years of professional experience? Absolutely not, say several administrators. It never hurts to throw your hat in the ring, says Welker. And Hinojoso adds that being eager, motivated and website willing sometimes wins out over experience.

Wilson advises new teachers with little or no professional experience to apply a lot of absolute advantage, places and website example be willing and Women in Achebe's Things Essay open to going almost anywhere to get that initial experience. Apply for out-of-state jobs and seek out rural or less desirable districts that may not get as many applicants. In Wilson's rural school district, for apa reference website example example, she may only receive 10 resumes for a posted position aˆ a situation that represents far better odds for a new teacher than he or she would find in many urban and Things Fall Apart Essay suburban districts. Follow these experts' advice and you will increase your chances of making it through the apa reference example initial round of Women Fall Essay, resume screening all the way to a face-to-face interview. Planning an effective demo lesson. Mastering the example Demo Lesson to Win a Teaching Job. Author: Professor MacGregor Kniseley, Ed.D. began his 35-year career in education as a teacher employed in versus comparative non-school environmental education programs. Apa Reference Example! He taught for 10 years in Historical Context Essay elementary and middle schools and since 1990, has been a professor of elementary education at Rhode Island College. He is the author of apa reference example, The Guide to Winning a Teaching Position in absolute Any Job Market, based on apa reference website the workshop he leads of the same name. Teacher candidates learn about the absolute versus job search and hiring process along with how to website example develop cover letters, resumes, hiring portfolios and their interview skills. For more information, view Professor Kniseley's blog at absolute versus,

Schools and districts use demonstration lessons (demo lessons) to judge a job applicant's knowledge of effective teaching, classroom management, and professional behavior. Website! In fact, you can win (or lose) a job based on your performance during a demonstration lesson, so careful preparation is key. Below, I take you through how to plan and teach a successful demo lesson. What is a demonstration lesson? A demonstration lesson is Context of the simply a planned lesson taught to apa reference website example the interview committee or a group of students. Autism Spectrum And Attitudes Inclusion Essay! You may be directed to teach specific knowledge or a particular skill, or you may be able to teach a lesson entirely of your own choosing. Apa Reference! Job applicants could be asked to teach a 15-minute lesson to the interview committee or to teach a 45 to 60 minute lesson to what is just inventory a class of students.

Sometimes, the website interview committee may provide time after the langston lesson to reflect with you on how it went as well. What do employers evaluate during a demonstration lesson? Employers judge qualities related to effective teaching. Example! They often use professional teaching standards such as National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) and versus advantage state certification standards to define their expectations. Here are five important criteria and apa reference website example the indicators that employers are likely to use to evaluate your demo lesson. 1. Organizes and delivers a purposeful lesson. Today's teachers face high demands for accountability and external validity psychology raising achievement of all learners. There never seems to be enough time in the school day to cover everything. Apa Reference Example! Effective teachers need to Women in Achebe's Apart Essay be well-prepared, well-organized, and purposeful in their instruction. Provides a copy of a formal lesson plan for all committee members.

Conveys a strong sense of website example, purpose and knows the lesson well. Has a clear beginning, middle, and end to the lesson. Works! Aligns learning outcomes with standards for learning. Website Example! Assesses students informally during the lesson. Sequences planned learning experiences with a timetable. Differentiates instruction to help all learners achieve learning outcomes. Effective teachers recognize the wide range of external validity, needs of diverse learners in the classroom.

They use knowledge of how their students learn along with their students' individual interests, strengths, challenges, language, cultural backgrounds and developmental needs to apa reference website mold their lessons. What Is Just! In addition, effective teachers collaborate with other school personnel in teaching students with special needs. Begins the website example lesson by getting to know the learners, building rapport, and pre-assessing. Uses interactive teaching strategies such as cooperative learning to engage all learners simultaneously. Checks for understanding periodically. Uses effective question and response methods to develop student thinking and interaction. Women Things Fall! Causes students to think in different ways (e.g., includes lower and website higher level questions).

Differentiates instruction to engage all learners using hands-on, multi-sensory learning. Uses instructional technology if the IT adds value to student learning. Brings the lesson to external psychology a close by allowing students to apa reference website self-assess and/or summarize their learning. 3. Manages individual learners and the whole class. Effective teachers create the conditions for a safe, productive learning environment.

They have a plan for a well-managed classroom, based on a learning community, structures, routines, and clear expectations and instructions. Quickly sets several ground rules for versus advantage successful learning (e.g. respect, safety, responsibility). Provides clear instructions and expectations. Apa Reference! Makes smooth transitions from the whole class to small groups. Paces the delivery of the versus advantage lesson appropriately. Apa Reference! Uses specific positive feedback to absolute versus comparative motivate students and set a positive tone for learning. 4. Reflects and makes adjustments in the moment of teaching. Effective teachers work from a well-conceived plan of action.

However, during instruction they should monitor their students' learning and make changes to their lesson plans as needed. Uses results of formative assessment to website example make instructional decisions. Is flexible, yet maintains a focus on the purpose of learning. Advantage! Changes directions if students aren't achieving learning outcomes. Apa Reference Website Example! Re-teaches if it's clear students are confused or need more information. 5. Self-assesses and thinks critically. Effective teachers are reflective practitioners.

They think critically by self-assessing and monitoring their own progress. They relate standards, theory and research of Essay, teaching to their teaching. They problem solve and analyze situations to deliver the best possible lessons. Explains two or three things that worked well to website help students achieve the learning outcome. Identifies one or two challenges and explains how to improve student learning. Focuses on Spectrum Disorder and Attitudes individual student learning more than the procedures of teaching. Uses assessment information to website improve instruction.

Refers to results of hughes, informal assessments. Requests feedback from the committee and listens to it carefully. Relates self-assessment and feedback to goals for future professional learning. 5 ways to get started in teaching. Author: Calvin Hennick, a former middle-school teacher, has written about education for apa reference example Teacher magazine, Scholastic Instructor, and the Boston Globe. Have the desire to lead a classroom full of langston works, kids toward new discoveries, but lack the credentials?

Maybe you've got a college degree, but it's not in education? Or perhaps you have a teaching degree already but are looking for ways to stand out in the job market? Either way, here are five jobs that will put you on the path toward a rewarding (and chalk-stained) career in teaching. Teaching your native tongue to others not only allows you to see the world; it gives you a chance to website start off your teaching career with a subject you're already an expert in. Historical Of The Barometer Essay! The Japan Exchange and Teaching (JET) program is apa reference example one of the Context of the Barometer Essay best-known opportunities for teaching overseas, but there's also demand for English teachers in apa reference website China, Thailand, Chile, Argentina, and a host of other countries. Necessary qualifications: Requirements vary from program to program, but in general, you'll have better luck landing a gig if you've got a college degree and Autism Disorder About Teaching Essay can speak some of the website example language of the external psychology country where you're seeking work.

How it will help you later: You'll get in-classroom experience aˆ plus, if you eventually want to teach a foreign language in the States, you'll have an edge over applicants who haven't lived abroad. Did you ace the SAT, or were you a whiz at American history? Share your knowledge. Some universities employ students to apa reference example tutor their struggling peers, and companies like Kaplan hire people to work with their clients. Or, if you're enterprising, you can start your own service. Necessary qualifications: Anyone can put out an ad saying they're a tutor, but you'll command a higher wage and get word-of-mouth referrals only Women Things Essay, if you know your stuff. Colleges may have grade-point-average minimums for student tutors, and test-prep services typically require a stellar score on the test you'll be tutoring for. How it helps you later: When a hiring principal asks you about individualized instruction, you'll be able to start your answer with, Here are some things I learned in apa reference my tutoring days. Substitute teachers are famous targets for spitballs, but if you're willing to dodge them, answer your phone at 5 am and Context of the Barometer rush to fill in for the flu-ridden geometry teacher aˆ subbing can be a good way to get your foot in the door. Necessary qualifications: In some states, substitute teachers need only a high-school diploma or GED, while other states require full teacher certification.

How it helps you later: You may get offered a full-time job when a slot opens up at a school where you've subbed. This is about as close as you can get to a K-12 teaching job, other than the website example real thing. You're teaching kids all day aˆ just younger ones! Necessary qualifications: As with substituting, this varies by versus advantage, state. How it helps you later: Nothing hones your classroom management skills like trying to corral a crowd of apa reference, toddlers. Women In Achebe's Things Fall Essay! Plus, preschool and daycare work shows future employers that you're passionate about apa reference working with children. Programs like Teach for America have their own training programs that allow people to go straight into external validity psychology the classroom, without first obtaining a teaching degree. Website! Teach For America places teachers in 43 regions across the country, and some cities have their own alternative-certification teaching fellows programs. Necessary qualifications: Admission to what is just inventory these programs is typically competitive, and website example all require a four-year degree. How it helps you later: You'll start your teaching career with a built-in network of Women in Achebe's Fall Essay, colleagues who may later be able to example help you connect with advancement opportunities.

Also, many programs help you pursue a master's degree in education and permanent teaching certification. The 5 Education News Stories Every Aspiring Teacher Should Follow. Author: Calvin Hennick, a former middle-school teacher, has written about education for Teacher magazine, Scholastic Instructor, and the Boston Globe. Lately, the news has been filled with stories about education, from Spectrum Disorder Teaching Essay cheating scandals to union protests, charter schools, teacher assessments and more. In fact, there's so much going on example in education these days, that for an aspiring educator, it might be difficult to sift through all the debates and Disorder and Attitudes About Inclusion Teaching Essay understand just what these current events mean for the future of the education field. Read on website to find out more about the five most important news stories in education for any teacher just starting out.

Thanks in part to the No Child Left Behind legislation passed a decade ago, there's never been a greater emphasis on students filling in ovals with No. 2 pencils. Versus Advantage! There are some good reasons for apa reference website example that aˆ for what example, the US lags behind other industrialized countries in math and apa reference example science, and absolute advantage students of color and low-income students tend to receive lower scores than their peers in this country do. But some education advocates argue that real teaching and learning has taken a back seat to test prep. How it affects you: You're not going into teaching because you love giving out multiple choice tests, so make sure that's only a small part of your job. In interviews, ask principals how they measure success at their schools. Make sure they're looking for teachers whose students will score well because they've been taught well, not because they've been drilled. Charter schools receive public money but aren't subject to all the same regulations as traditional public schools. In exchange for this freedom, charters are held to example high standards and may be closed down if they fail to meet them.

Typically, teachers at charter schools aren't unionized, and these jobs may pay differently aˆ sometimes more, sometimes less aˆ than equivalent positions in absolute advantage public schools. How it affects you: Many charter schools will hire uncertified teachers, so if you don't meet certification requirements in your district aˆ for example, you lack an education degree aˆ these schools may still be an option for you. Charters often have distinctive school cultures, so if you're applying for jobs, you'll want to do some research and make sure you're a good fit. If you do a better job than your coworkers, should you get paid more? In most fields, that's a no-brainer, but in education, merit pay is a hot-button issue. Opponents argue that it's impossible to accurately determine how much impact a teacher has on students, and website example that paying teachers for high test scores encourages cheating. How it affects you: It probably won't, at Women in Achebe's Things Apart Essay, least right away aˆ but it's worth keeping an eye on.

There has been a large political push toward merit pay in recent years, but most school districts still pay teachers according to their credentials and years of service. Apa Reference! Some charter schools, though, do offer financial bonuses based on performance. As the costs for benefits such as health insurance have skyrocketed, states facing budget crunches have looked for Things Fall ways to website example save money aˆ and sometimes, that means stepping on the toes of the teachers union. Historical Of The Barometer! Wisconsin made national headlines when teachers protested legislation that limits employees' ability to collectively bargain, and Massachusetts recently limited the website example ability of teachers unions to block changes to absolute comparative their health benefits. How it affects you: Health insurance and pension benefits should be taken into apa reference website account, along with salary, when evaluating a job offer. Knowing the absolute political landscape of the state and district where you want to example work will help you determine whether those benefits are likely to face significant cuts in absolute the near future. More than five decades after schools in website the U.S. were officially integrated, children still largely attend school with kids from their own socioeconomic class. Urban schools tend to have higher dropout rates, and students in wealthier districts tend to go to college more often and Women in Achebe's Things Apart perform better on apa reference example standardized tests. How it affects you: Working in a poor urban district offers different challenges aˆ and rewards aˆ from those working in a wealthy suburb. Urban schools aren't being ignored like they once were. Disorder Teaching! Over the last two decades, there's been a movement, involving charter schools, big-city mayors, and example programs like Teach for America to improve education for external validity psychology inner-city students.

If you want to try to affect change in this arena, there's ample opportunity. Interview with Patrick Larkin, Principal of Burlington High School, on Education Best Practices. spoke with Patrick Larkin, the principal of Burlington High School in example Massachusetts. Patrick has been an administrator for Barometer about 15 years, and writes the popular Burlington High School Principal Blog, In the video, he discuss education today as well as teaching best practices. Top tech practices for new teachers. Author: Caleb Clark is the website director of the Marlboro College Graduate School EdTech program, where he also teaches and helps with academic technology support.

He has been a Web geek since 1994 and an educational technologist since 1999. His interests include: personal online portfolios, basic video/photo production skills, education management, and humanizing technology. Caleb is on the board of Neighborhood School House, a PreK-6, local progressive school and is a technology integration consultant for hughes Putney Central Elementary School. I'm the director of an educational technology master's program. About half of my students work in k-12 schools (the other half are interested in higher-ed and business instructional design).

I also spend a few hours each week as a technology integration specialist at two local middle schools. Basically, this means I'm helping educators figure out how to fit and use technology in their classrooms. I'm often fielding questions like, How do I use iMovie? or What does it take to example make a Wiki for absolute comparative my students? Over the years I've noticed certain patterns in apa reference the kinds of concerns that teachers are raising. Below is my advice on how to deal with these concerns from figuring out works, which tools to use for your lessons to helping students become self-motivated about using technology for their work. 1. Tools: When it comes to figuring out apa reference website example, which technology tools to use in your lesson plans, let go of needing specific software knowledge, and focus on student learning.

Many teachers stress about which software to Context of the choose for projects and then stress about website example how to use that software. Unless you're teaching technology, let go and Autism Spectrum and Attitudes About Inclusion focus more on apa reference website example your subject than software. In this digital age, there are more tools than ever. You don't have to get caught up learning all of them. Instead assign your students a project - like asking them to make a movie or a slideshow - and is just inventory they'll be bound to find 10 tools to complete the assignment that you weren't even thinking about. Different kids will use different tools and will likely teach themselves and other kids how to use them. Your job is to example focus on the content - review the movies and make sure that your students understood the assignment, and what you were trying to in time teach. Help them rework the content if needed.

2. Constants: It's easy to get overwhelmed with rapidly changing technology, but remember that even though the tools may change, the rules of website example, good content don't. Some things are constants: the external validity Library of Congress has always been an excellent source for photos, the rule of thirds has always improved artistic compositions, copyright was a necessary consideration long before the Web, and literacy still means the same thing whether or not media is in front of it. Your students will often be very adept at using and consuming technology, but that doesn't mean they know how to find a good source, apply a concept, or steer clear of violating copyright. Your job is to guide students in apa reference example applying timeless constants to new media. Is Just Inventory! Just because they can snap photos on their phones, doesn't mean they know how to example create well-composed images. 3. Cameras: And, on the subject of cameras - use them! We live in a digital world now. If your student makes a brilliant cup in pottery class or creates a standout project, document it, or better yet, show the student how to document it him or herself. People almost expect this, and it can give both you and the student a chance for reflection on the project.

You can document more than you think with a camera. Instead of scanning a student's poem or drawing, take an up-close photo with a camera. If students are working on team projects, have them document their collaboration. Ask students to use a digital camera to record short videos about what they learned from assignments. Another benefit - having a camera around lets you document your own work, so you can give parents an inside look into classes and lesson plans during parent-teacher night. For more information, I've created an absolute advantage online tutorial for teachers on how to website use any camera. 4. Personal Learning Networks (PLNs): You might be able to versus comparative advantage keep up with some technologies alone, but there is almost always more power in numbers. We are living in an age of incredibly fast-changing technology. Apa Reference Example! Just imagine the first two decades after the works printing press came into widespread use - at the time, teachers' entire lives must have been upended.

They had to start selecting books for teaching, then textbooks, then copies of maps, and so on. The education world has shifted again in a big way. Your best hope to keep up is to rely on your peers. Familiarize yourself with a particular technology and join a small group of educators who are keeping up with other technologies. You'll be able to keep up-to-date on more tools and share different ideas for apa reference website implementing them. More on PLNS.

5. What Inventory! Web-based Portfolios: Web-based portfolios (efolios) are the single easiest way to bind together learning, technology and media. The concept is simple - guide a student to create his or her own website to display his or her finished work via text, graphics and media. Google Sites and PBWorks are good free tools. This seemingly simple task will allow students to engage in self-reflection, increase media literacy, and hone their technology skills all at once. Students are faced with questions such as: Who am I online?

What kind of website, job do I want? What's my best work? What did I learn? What do I believe in? How do colors, text and media combine to influence people's perceptions of me? And, building an Autism About Essay efolio is intrinsically motivating to most students since it is apa reference example personal, social and creative.

Furthermore employers are increasingly asking prospective employees to provide a simple link to their resume, bio and work samples, so figuring out how to build an efolio is highly relevant for both you and your students. More info and downloads of efolio templates are at the Technology Integration Lab's efolio page. Interview with EduRealms's Lucas Gillispie - Video Games in Classrooms. spoke with Lucas Gillispie, Instructional Technology Coordinator for Pender County Schools in North Carolina, about integrating video games into classroom learning. Lucas, a former science teacher, explains how Angry Birds, World of Warcraft and more can be incorporated into lesson plans - from physics to language arts. Find out more about his success launching an Historical of the afterschool/elective program based on World of Warcraft at apa reference website example, polled current teachers to find out what they really think about the versus comparative education field.

Was teaching what they expected? What do they like about it? What would they change? What do they wish they had known about the field when they were in school? If you want to apa reference website example become a teacher, check out their answers below and Women in Achebe's Things Essay see what current teachers have to say about website example everything from the number of students in their classes to what it's like to work with school administrators and other teachers. If you are a teacher and would like to contribute your experiences to this survey, go to

We'll update the results periodically. A. Bachelor's degree in education. Langston Hughes! B. Master's degree in apa reference example education. C. Versus! Educational Specialist degree. D. Doctorate in education. 2. I came into teaching through: A. A traditional teacher education program. B. Alternative certification/other.

3. I've been a teacher or school administrator: 5. My first teaching position was: A. What I had expected. B. Mostly what I had expected. Website Example! C. Only somewhat like what I had expected. D. Nothing like what I had expected. 6. The thing I enjoyed most about my first teaching job was (open ended question - representative answers below):

The students, the hughes other teachers and the experiences involved in teaching. 7. The most unexpected thing about my first teaching job was (open ended question - representative answers below): The amount of work required in apa reference the given timeframe as well as the difficulty involved in dealing with some students, parents and other teachers. 8. The thing I disliked most about my first teaching job was (open ended question - representative answers below): The general lack of Autism Spectrum and Attitudes About, support and negativity from other teachers and/or administrators. 9. My teacher training (whether a traditional education program or alternative certification) prepared me well for the challenges of the classroom. 10. If I could change one thing about my teacher training, it would be (open ended question - representative answers below): To have more time in the classroom, learning how to teach in real-world scenarios.

11. At first, working as a teacher was: A. A difficult adjustment B. Challenging, but it improved. C. A mixture of good and bad days. D. A natural adjustment from my teacher training program. 12. Apa Reference! My coworkers and administrators at my first teaching job: A. Served as mentors and were extremely helpful B. Were mostly helpful. C. Weren't particularly helpful.

D. Were unhelpful. 13. External Validity Psychology! I chose my first teaching job based on: A. The school location. B. The age group I would be teaching C. The support network and sense of apa reference website example, community at the school. D. The first position that was offered to in time inventory me. 14. The most challenging element of teaching is: A. Handling the workload. B. Interacting with/teaching the students.

C. Planning lessons. Website! D. Working with other teachers and administrators. 15. Most of my time as a teacher is spent: A. In the classroom with my students. B. Completing grading/paperwork. C. Planning lessons.

D. In meetings with coworkers and administrators. 16. Most of the time, I am able to leave work at work. 17. The number of students I have in a classroom is: 18. My students are (open ended question - representative answers below): Great in general.

19. My day-to-day workload: A. Is appropriate and matches my training. B. Does not match my training. C. Is overwhelming sometimes but mostly manageable. D. Versus Advantage! Is completely overwhelming. 20. In general, I work: A. 40 or fewer hours per week. B. 50 or fewer hours per week. C. 60 or fewer hours per week.

D. Apa Reference Website! More than 60 hours per week. 21. I find the other staff members and administrators at validity, my school mostly helpful and website supportive. 22. The one thing I wish I could change about teaching is (open ended question - representative answers below): The perception of the of the field and the lack of respect for the profession from administrators and legislators.

23. I use technology as part of website example, my job: 24. I have opportunities for growth and can see a future for myself in teaching. 25. For my position, advanced degrees are: 26. Overall, teaching is Women in Achebe's Apart Essay (open ended question - representative answers below):

A wonderful and rewarding profession. Interview with Katy Farber, Author of Why Great Teachers Quit: And How We Might Stop the Exodus. spoke with public school teacher and author, Katy Farber. Katy is the author of website example, Why Great Teachers Quit: And How We Might Stop the Exodus. Below she discusses what she's learned about teacher attrition, and how new teachers can avoid burning out. Are You Suffering From Teacher Burnout? Author: Fran Bozarth is a former middle school teacher and current education consultant. Spectrum Disorder And Attitudes About Essay! She runs the Institute for apa reference Educator Wellness, a website and blog specializing in validity psychology the topics of teacher well-being and attrition. In the education field, a startling statistic says that 50 percent of website, teachers quit within five years.

The pressures of teaching can be tough to handle from time to time, but by comparative, monitoring your well-being and keeping an eye on apa reference example the risk factors involved in burning out, you'll be able to make teaching your long-term career. Take our teacher burnout assessment, and see if you're at risk for burning out, and Autism Spectrum and Attitudes Essay what you can do if you are. Neutral risk of burnout. It's rare that teachers have NO outside, work-related activities. Website Example! If you are a new teacher, the classroom is Women in Achebe's Apart enough to manage. If not, you may want to apa reference add a little something in order to langston hughes works build positive relationships with your fellow teachers. Burnout unlikely.

One or two additional activities usually allows teachers to grow and contribute while remaining effective in the classroom. A sign of burnout. Teachers who have too many outside assignments report higher incidences of burnout. If this is apa reference you, prioritize and learn to say, no. On the road to burnout. It's important for you to of the Barometer have more to your identity than, being a teacher. Broaden your social circle. Burnout unlikely. This is a nice healthy balance!

Having a life outside of apa reference example, school keeps you resilient. A sign of and Attitudes About Inclusion, burnout. Apa Reference Example! Isolation is one of the most cited factors for burnout. Connections are important! Develop at least one positive personal relationship at hughes works, school. Burnout unlikely. Excellent choice! You are taking care of your own needs after taking care of everyone else's all day! This will keep you resilient. Neutral risk of burnout. Quiet time is an important part of staying balanced - just be sure not to example isolate yourself too much.

A sign of burnout. Substance abuse is absolute versus comparative a contributing factor in teacher burnout. An occasional drink is one thing, but if you are doing this more than two times per week, you need to find a healthier way to decompress after the school day. On the road to burnout. It's impossible to totally avoid doing some school work at home, but be sure to apa reference example limit it. Psychology! A life outside of your job keeps you vital and helps you maintain perspective. A sign of burnout. A negative environment affects everyone in it, even bystanders. Apa Reference! Find other ways to get to versus advantage know your co-workers, or just drop by the lunch room once in website awhile.

Nobody is impervious to negativity. Neutral risk of burnout. After the chaos of the classroom, it's important to Apart Essay take some quiet time for apa reference yourself. If your life outside of validity, school is busy, then use that lunch break for me time. On the road to burnout. Spending all of your time with students can really isolate you from your peers. Once in awhile it's fun to connect with students on a more informal basis - like lunch - but don't make a habit of it. Burnout unlikely. This is an excellent way to make a positive connection in your workplace. If there is another person not eating in apa reference example the lunch room, odds are that they don't care for the negativity either.

Burnout unlikely. This is a sure sign of resilience. You are in good shape! Mind your self-care, and keep yourself in this good space. Neutral risk of burnout. You might be getting a little bit run down. If this is a recurring thought, then you need to Autism Spectrum Inclusion Teaching think about taking steps to apa reference website prevent burning out altogether.

On the road to burnout. Comparative! Emotional exhaustion and frequent physical illness are signs of apa reference, prolonged stress and an indicator that you are on Fall the road to burnout. Make yourself a greater priority. A sign of burnout. Teaching is not a job you can just do for the paycheck. Seek help from a career coach, counselor or other professional. Apa Reference! It's time to Autism Spectrum and Attitudes About Essay reassess your current situation. Burnout is a process. Nobody ends one day perfectly happy at example, work, and then wakes up the next day burned out.

It happens over time. The Burnout Process: 1. What In Time! Physical, mental and emotional exhaustion 2. Example! Shame, self-doubt, loss of confidence 3. Cynicism and what inventory callousness 4. Crisis (this is the apa reference website part where you quit your job or take some other drastic action) Remember to self-assess from time to time. Being attentive to problems early on can help you avoid burnout and keep your passion for teaching alive for a very long time. Please email us (info at educationdegree dot com) with any comments or suggestions. Thanks for visiting! How to Become a Teacher. Hughes! No Matter Where You Are Starting From. The most common path to becoming a teacher typically includes earning a Bachelor's degree in education.

If you go this route, you can find ways to design a teaching degree program that matches the direction you want to take. Whether you want to apa reference example work with preschool, elementary, middle school or older students, most states offer accredited teaching degrees for students across the spectrum of education. If you are passionate about becoming a teacher, we recommend comparing colleges that offer teaching degrees as your next step. Even though you may have many options for becoming a teacher; majors, concentrations and specializations with your Bachelor's program can be diverse, so it's good to Barometer start simple. Expect your curriculum to cover the website example following core components: Psychology, classroom management, leadership, learning styles, teaching methods, and lesson planning. There are many facets to the teaching profession, in addition to validity classroom responsibilities. When figuring out apa reference, how to langston hughes be a teacher, be sure you find a curriculum that covers working with administrators and parents, legislative updates to education and apa reference website education standards in your state. Alternative Teacher Certification.

If you already have a degree, but are thinking about absolute versus comparative becoming a teacher, alternative teacher certification is the way to go. All kinds of professionals, from law enforcement officers to social workers and marketers, decide at some point that they want to go back to school to be a teacher. Sometimes it offers people a change of pace or more structured schedule. Older professionals might be ready to retire slowly by transitioning into the classroom. Regardless of why … if you are looking to example find out how to Disorder and Attitudes be a teacher, we can help. Like any path to a teaching career, state license requirements will need to be addressed. Apa Reference Example! You should also compare as many options for versus comparative advantage earning your alternative certification as possible when looking at colleges that offer teaching degrees. Although teaching degree programs can be very similar, you may notice stark differences in apa reference website critical areas, such as cost, duration or curriculum topics. Absolute Advantage! It also shows why you need to speak with advisors at each of your top options before making a decision.

What Do You Major In To Become A Teacher? All you have to do is scan the specialty options on the left to see how wide open the world of education really is. Website Example! Teachers who already have their Bachelor's teaching degree can pursue graduate level degrees and certificates, as well as specialist options. There are programs that cover all age levels, as well as a broad range of Women in Achebe's, subjects, such as math, music, and history. Your major depends mainly upon where you want to take your teaching career. Not only can you train to be at apa reference example, the head of the Women in Achebe's Fall Apart classroom, but also you can put your interest in psychology to work in a counselor role. If you are bilingual, you may want to teach students who are learning English as a second language. When choosing the kind of teaching degree that is right for you, go with a path that reflects your personality and interests.

For example, if younger students tend to stress you out, you'll want to focus on middle and apa reference high school learners. Teaching is a career that requires dedication and passion. Versus Advantage! That's why you need to carefully consider your many options. If you are ready to enter the world of website example, education, contact the schools for teaching degrees listed on our site. Graduate level programs can lead your career in external psychology a myriad of directions as well. Masters programs can position you as a leader in your school district. With an education specialist program, you can administer training to example adult professionals in the world of business and Autism Spectrum About Inclusion Teaching other industries. There are multiple majors you can use to expand your teaching skillset, limited only by apa reference website, your own passion for the profession. Once you review the types of teacher majors that interest you, use our list of schools and specialties to examine your options.

That will really help you answer the question: What do you major in to become a teacher? Guidelines For Colleges That Offer Teaching Degrees. Let's take a look at the top factors that should weigh in your decision when choosing where to get your teaching degree… State requirements. We will go ahead and include accreditation in this one as well, since the two concepts go hand-in-hand. At the very least, your program needs to help you meet state teaching license requirements. That's why this is the baseline, and first thing to ask when you talk to schools. Degree options.

If you want to be an art teacher, you may choose a completely different track than you would if you wanted to become a school administrator or work with special needs students. It is easy to get distracted by the big-ticket items, such as cost and financial aid. What In Time! But don't let your aspirations get lost in the nuts and bolts of choosing a teaching degree program. Student teaching opportunities. Do you have a specific school or student teaching experience in mind already? If you already have specific ideas or expectations about the internship experience you want, be sure to bring this up when comparing colleges that offer teaching degrees.

The extras. Additionally, make sure whatever teaching degree program you choose fits your lifestyle. For instance, you might want a curriculum that blends online and campus classes. Apa Reference Website! Or, you might want to take a completely online teaching program, and then pursue an internship towards the end. These differences can greatly affect your ability to successfully complete the teaching program you choose.

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