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roanoke essay by Elizabeth Wambold. (1) Written with the essay, intention of stream of consciousness examples, persuading Elizabeth I to provide financial support for colonization in the New World, Richard Hakluyt the of education, Younger’s A Particuler Discourse Concerninge The Greate Necessitie And Manifolde Commodyties That Are Like To Growe To This Realme Of Englande By The Westerne Discoueries Lately Attempted, Written In The Yere 1584 (known most commonly as Discourse of Western Planting ) is one of the conditioning, most extensive and of education important pieces of propagandistic literature to emerge from late 16th century England – a virtual “tour de force of colonial promotion” (Horning 372). Touching upon a wide range of topics, Hakluyt carefully construes popular English concerns and interests to make a case for the validity of expansion and the overwhelming promise of positive rewards. The ideas and of bastille propositions he outlines deal with a “range of on importance, national problems which he proposed to solve by means of of bastille, a brand of colonial adventure that presented itself as virtually risk-free, at essay on importance least to Pope's Rape Essay, the crown” (Scanlan 31). The relative ease and confidence with which Hakluyt presents his plan is the result not of a naïve, idealistic mind, but rather is the product of a thoughtfully constructed political agenda. Looking at this document through the essay, framework of “justification literature,” that is, having to do with the representation and money sex and power validation of overtaking a land that is already populated with people, Discourse of on importance, Western Planting gives a keen insight into marley the ideology of the Elizabethan mind. Through the on importance, presentation of the material, what is and is not included or acknowledged, and the depth of coverage, this document brings to of the Lock, light issues that were central to English interests. (2) Before immediately jumping into this analysis, though, it is important to set a general frame of context for both the author of the document and the events surrounding its creation. Essay. Richard Hakluyt the watson conditioning, Younger, who would later dedicate his life to the cause of English expansion into the New World, was a Protestant Reverend, educated at Christ Church, Oxford. Son of a member of the Skinner’s Company, Hakluyt supplemented his formal studies by making “regular trips to the principal seaports of London and Bristol to collect notes and records from sailors, offering intelligent insights into their problems and gaining the confidence of captains, merchants, and mariners alike” (Horning 368).
The result of such trips was that Hakluyt developed an understanding of what it took to successfully outfit large voyages, knowledge that would become invaluable to him while writing Discourse . (3) Commissioned in 1583 by on importance of education, Francis Walsingham, Secretary of State to Elizabeth I, Hakluyt goes to France to learn as much as he can about French and watson conditioning Spanish explorations and colonies in the New World. He is to use what he learns to write a piece of promotional literature designed to gain support for a voyage to be undertaken by Christopher Carleill, stepson to Walsingham. While there, Hakluyt reads Las Casas’s The Spanish Colonie (also known as A Brief Account of the on importance, Devastation of the Indies ), which dramatizes Spanish atrocities done to native populations in the New World. When Hakluyt returns to 101 Essay, England in July of 1584, Carleill has already left on another voyage, having shifted his focus to a different realm. In spite of this, Walsingham still urges Hakluyt to write on the subject of colonization, though now with the intent of essay on importance of education, assisting Sir Walter Raleigh, who is himself seeking royal support to colonize what would be called Roanoke. (4) The support, however, would not come as the men hoped for. Examples. Although Queen Elizabeth appreciated what Hakluyt was doing with the piece and even found some of his ideas tempting, she knew the essay of education, realistic limits of her abilities. At the time she felt she had been lucky to avoid open conflict with Spain and knew that the conditioning, most practical use of her investments would be in building up the English military, as the tensions between the England and Spain were sure to climax. In spite of this, the Queen did lend some support to Raleigh in his 1585 Roanoke venture, assisting him with “a ship, ammunition and essay of education power to enroll men for his venture if they were not willing enough to go as his servants” (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting xxx). While the men did not achieve all they had hoped for, a move such as this proved that the stream, Queen did support them ideologically, even if she could not support them financially. (5) The major content of Discourse deals with the economic and nationalistic benefits that England will derive from colonizing the New World.
Throughout the text, Hakluyt outlines several important points that were at the heart of English interest. He plays upon on importance of education economic concerns, suggesting that North America will be the key in developing new outlets for trade and reinvigorating certain important industrial areas, such as the cloth industry, that were at the time lapsing. Colonization in the New World will, he suggests, provide countless new jobs, both there and in the mother country, by providing raw materials that could be developed into goods. Such raw materials will necessitate workers in the New World to harvest the material, as well as workers in England to turn them into finished products. (6) In addition to Chinese, reinvigorating the economy through new jobs, colonization will provide a solution for what many English considered to be an overcrowding of the on importance of education, country.
Sending people to the New World will help to redistribute population growth and prevent people in England from going jobless due to overcrowding. This, in turn, will also cut down on crime in England, since there will be fewer jobless people to commit crimes. Even more, it would be possible to send current petty criminals to the New World where they can work and produce, rather than overcrowding English jails with nonviolent, non-threatening people, all at the expense of the taxpayers. Aside from these economic benefits, a strategically positioned port colony would also provide the English with a foothold from which they could begin to regulate the trade of other countries. Control over heavily traveled areas will allow the English to charge duties to those who pass through, thus making a profit for England and boosting their power and influence on a national level. In addition to this, a strong English foothold will also force a barrier on Spanish expansion, shutting them off from the possibility of spreading their colonization further northward. (7) This desire to 101 Essay, close off or compete with the Spanish is an underlying theme in essay on importance, almost all of what Hakluyt writes. The Spanish are considered by the English as the ultimate enemy, and anything that can be done to Chinese Art Market 101 Essay, injure them is viewed as beneficial to the English. It is primarily through this framework of competition with Spain that Hakluyt deals with the of education, question of the Native Americans.
In regard to England and Spain, the natives become something of a pawn in an international game of chess. Hakluyt constructs the natives as a tool that can be manipulated and used by the English to either benefit them (by helping them pull ahead in the competition with Spain) or, failing to do that, at least hurt the Spanish. His attitude towards the natives is utilitarian, presenting them as something to be constructed as the with, English see necessary, and then utilized to essay on importance of education, their fullest advantage. (8) One of the most extensively developed means of money sex and power, utilizing the natives in this competition comes in the first part of Discourse , which deals with the spreading of the Protestant religion. Hakluyt presents the idea of conversion in a way that appears to on importance, be kind and gentle, suggesting the colonists plant themselves in with the of consciousness examples, natives and “firste learne the language of the people nere adioyninge (the gifte of tongues beinge noew taken awaye) and by little and little aquainte themselues with their manner and on importance of education so with discrecion and myldenes distill into money sex and their purged myndes the swete and lively lignes of the gospell” (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting 8). Of Education. Disturbingly, Hakluyt presents the natives solely as a passive object, one that is to be acted upon by the English. Marley To Begin With. The removal of their agency has the effect of pushing them “into the background as if they were a part of the landscape” (Quinn, The First Colonists iv). Like the fields that can easily be made ready for sowing, the natives can easily be made ready to receive the Christian god. (9) This interest in Christianizing the natives (and the apparent ease with which it is to be accomplished) is motivated by several things.
Protestantism during Elizabeth’s reign is on importance of education, deeply embedded in Alexander Pope's Lock, the English psyche and national identity; “the Church of England was the outward symbol of English nationalism – the phrase ‘God is English,’ first printed in essay of education, 1558, was reiterated several times later in the reign” (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting xxii). Rape Of The Essay. Religion becomes synonymous with national identity, and therefore the spreading of that religion became a form of validation for the English as a people. The necessity of this validation derives in on importance, part from Spain’s critique of the English church, whose “Catholic missionary successes, trumped in print by the Jesuits, in Asia, Africa, and especially in the Americas, enabled Catholic propagandists to sneer at the English church which had converted no heathen or pagan people and so remained purely insular” (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting xxii). The desire to convert becomes a means of competition between the nations, and converting the “heathen or pagan people” of the New World is a form of validation for marley was dead to begin the English. By converting these people to Protestantism, the essay on importance, English felt they would be proving that their religion is as good, powerful, and “holy” as the Spanish Catholics. The natives, through this, function as a tool between the two nations.
(10) Hakluyt’s means of utilizing the natives against the Spanish is not solely through religion, however. Stream Of Consciousness Examples. He uses descriptions of Spanish atrocities committed against the natives, primarily from essay of education Las Casas’s accounts, to fuel the already present hatred between the nations and fall suggest ways in which the Indians can be used against the Spanish. Essay On Importance Of Education. In part eleven of Discourse Hakluyt suggests that the English use these atrocities to their advantage and incite the marley, natives to rebel against the oppressive Spanish, saying “the Spaniardes haue exercised moste outrageous and more then Turkishe cruelties in essay on importance of education, all the west Indies, whereby they are euery where there become moste odious vnto them whoe woulde ioyne with vs or any other moste willinglye to shake of marley was dead to begin, their moste intollerable yoke” (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting 52). While this statement is supposedly about the injustices one people is essay on importance, capable of power, inflicting on another, Hakluyt does not set it up as a plea for essay on importance humanity. Examples. Instead, he plays upon sympathies for on importance of education the natives only to marley was dead with, the degree that it will help the English in their struggle against the Spanish, demonstrating that the essay, English were “not very sympathetic towards the Amerindian, and when the English proponents of American colonization did develop such a sympathy, it was only fall temporary, and more a response to necessity than to philosophic commitment” (Pennington 176). (11) That these sympathies are a response aimed at utilization rather than “philosophic commitment” is evident in the degree to which Hakluyt develops his idea. While he suggests how the English may help the natives to rebel, he fails to of education, take up the question of what will happen to the natives after the English help them break free from marley was dead with their “intolerable yoke.” It would seem more than unlikely that the English would help restore the natives to their own culture and help them rebuild what has been lost. Rather, the most likely solution would be that they would fall under the rule of the English.
Their fate, while it would not be as cruel as Hakluyt portrays it to of education, be in the hands of the Spanish, would still ultimately be one of conquest. (12) By avoiding this question and focusing solely on the Spanish atrocities, Hakluyt carefully manipulates the English mind, painting a picture in which they are ultimately glorified in their actions. His images, therefore, “not only marley was dead to begin serve as propaganda, but also reveal the hope, and even the faith, that the elect will triumph over evil, that England will subdue Spain, that Protestantism will curb the passions of the Catholic whore” (Bess 4). His lack of grounded, practical planning in this section is evidence of a greater, less concrete desire, revealing a national mindset fraught with religious fervor that is an integral part of on importance of education, national identity. Regardless of the true motives behind English action, however, the Alexander of the, reality still remains that the natives are construed as passive recipients, expected to fulfill a role that is imposed upon them. As with the desire to bring them into the Protestant religion, this desire to essay on importance, “save” the natives from the Chinese Art Market 101 Essay, Catholic Spanish is based upon a need to compete with and do injury to Spain, and the natives are expected to fulfill their part in the plan. (13) While English motives for colonization and on importance of education the use of native peoples certainly have a lot to stream of consciousness examples, do with the desire to essay on importance of education, compete with Spain, Hakluyt nevertheless goes to great pains to establish English legitimacy in the New World. He cites the story of Madock, a Welsh seafarer who was a direct ancestor of of consciousness, Elizabeth, as the means by which England has claim in the Americas. Telling the story, he says that Madock.
made twoo voyadges oute of Wales discouered and planted large Contries which he founde in the mayne Ocean southwestwarde of Ireland, in the year of our lorde 1170. […] And this is confirmed by the language of somme of those people that dwell vpon the continent betwene the Bay of Mexico and the granunde Bay of Newfounde lande, whose language is said to agree with the Welshe in diuers wordes. (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting 88) The appearance of such a story, had, at essay least for the English, the result of rendering both the Papal bull Inter caetera (which handed the New World over to Spain in 1493) and the Treaty of Tordesillas (which divided the New World between Spain and Chinese 101 Essay Portugal) as legally unfounded. (14) The way in which the Madock story is presented in essay, Discourse is extremely significant. The story as Hakluyt tells it is a version full of previously inserted editorial interpretations. Cut down to Chinese Art Market 101 Essay, its “historical skeleton,” as Gesa Mackenthun calls it, the story does little to justify English claims in the New World.
According to Mackenthun, without the editorial interpretations the story would read much more along the lines of essay of education, “Owen Gwyneth, Prince of North Wales, died. His relatives fought for succession. Madoc, son of Owen Gwyneth, left the country by ship and sailed west. In the year 1170 Madoc returned, collected ten more ships and more people, and left again” (27). In this form, there is Pope's Rape Lock Essay, no way the tale could stand up as legal justification. Hakluyt’s presentation of it, therefore, is a carefully chosen version, one tailored to fit his agenda. (15) While the tale as reiterated by Hakluyt opens the of education, door to legal opposition between European nations, it also had an marley, interesting side effect in relation to the native populations. Essay Of Education. Through certain ambiguities in the narrative, the story of Madock opens up the question as to the legal and moral grounds of colonization on any level, from any nation. The story, both the way it is told here as well as in Hakluyt’s later publications of it, leaves open “the question of whether the place where Madoc landed was previously settled or not” (Mackenthun 27). Fall. Although validity of the story is in part based upon “the language of somme of those people that dwell vpon the continent,” it is not made clear whether those people were natives who learned the language from the Welsh or were the remnants of a Welsh colony.
(16) The fact that Hakluyt purposely allows this ambiguity has to do with several things. In terms of validity, it is necessary for him to include the reference of language, as this is used as one of the main sources of evidence behind the story. However, he may have resisted explicitly referencing the people as descendent from the Welsh because this could become a point of attack for other nations, as it could become something impossible to prove. In addition to essay on importance, this, even if Hakluyt could provide evidence that the people were Welsh descendents, acceptance of this idea may also prove detrimental to the English, as it could possibly suggest a weakness in English culture, a tendency to “devolve” without other “civilized” nations present, since the culture and practices of peoples in the America were overwhelmingly viewed as inferior. (17) While the exact motive for allowing this crucial story to be presented with this ambiguity is unclear, the implications inherent in it are very apparent. It demonstrates Hakluyt’s desire to suppress the examples, presence of native tribes by refusing to deal with them directly. Here, as well as elsewhere, the Indians are mentioned or alluded to only in passing, and when appropriate to English interests.
Unlike the sections dealing with Spanish competition, in which the natives are dealt with more fully so as to develop how they can be used and essay on importance the (obviously unsound) reasons behind why this is to their advantage, sections such as this one, which are more obviously about the fall, justification of colonization, tend to gloss over the native question. Hakluyt’s avoidance of this issue indicates a severe disinterest in and devaluation of essay on importance, native culture and rights, as the “Englishmen were to Alexander Pope's Epic Rape of the, be thrust into essay on importance land that was assumed to be virtually empty and where there was plenty of room for them, without necessarily disturbing the money sex and power, inhabitants unduly, but with no recognition whatever given to their indigenous rights of occupation” (Quinn, Set Fair for Roanoke 211). On Importance Of Education. It points to feelings of presumed cultural superiority so great that it negates any motivation for justifying the taking of the natives’ lands. Justification essentially becomes a non-issue for them, as they see no reason as to why they cannot do as they please. (18) Hakluyt’s Discourse sets the stage for many attitudes that will carry over into the English/native relations of the watson, actual settlements. In particular, a mixing of this feeling of cultural superiority with the view of natives as utilitarian will continually emerge and on importance of education be the root cause of many of the settlements’ problems. The way these issues play out together in Roanoke creates an interesting tension. While the settlers feel themselves to be generally superior to the natives, it is an undeniable fact that they were often dependent upon them for watson conditioning survival; “a basic weakness of the English in Virginia was their reliance upon the Indians for food: corn and essay on importance of education fish, especially. Chinese 101 Essay. This reliance developed as a cause of friction” (Porter 227).
The settlers, unable to self-sufficiently provide for themselves, were often in the position of essay, pressuring the natives to watson conditioning, provide them with food and other forms of material assistance. In this, way, they view the native as a functional tool, there to be used as they see fit. (19) The result of casting the natives in this way has two different but related effects. In terms of the colonies’ survival, the most important result was the natives’ reaction to the English’s use of them. Unlike the docile, obedient, accepting natives that Hakluyt paints, the Roanoke natives were not willing to play the role of provider, instead actively resisting the English demands.
In terms of psychological consequences, the Roanoke colonies’ use of the natives sets up an interesting paradox. While the English believe themselves to be culturally superior, it is the natives that are functionally superior. The English reliance on them proves their own weaknesses and essay of education shows them, at least in one way, as being inferior to the people they consider secondary. (20) While the lack of food was in many ways the main instigator of problems, poor misplaced goals and poor judgment on the part of Chinese Art Market 101 Essay, settlement leaders also heavily contributed to the colonies’ troubles. Essay Of Education. The first colony, which set out in June of examples, 1585, was led by Sir Richard Grenville. Essay On Importance. Shortly after arriving, however, Grenville returned to England for to begin with supplies, leaving Ralph Lane, his second in command, in charge. Although the colony was in on importance, somewhat of a constant struggle for food, Lane led expeditions for precious metals and pearls, often times kidnapping natives and forcing them to act as guides for him.
Many natives felt they were severely mistreated by Lane and resented the colonists for this; “There is little doubt that Lane’s actions inflicted long-term damage to the relations between the watson, colonists and the inhabitants” (Quinn, Set Fair for Roanoke 121). Bad feelings such as these were not to go away with the essay on importance of education, colonists when they abandoned the settlement in June of money sex and, 1586. Instead, they would return to haunt the next group of settlers. (21) The second attempt at settlement began in essay on importance of education, July of 1587 when John White and 12 assistants returned with over 100 settlers to the site of the previous settlement. Alexander Pope's Epic Rape Of The Lock. Shortly after arriving the essay, group attempted to re-establish ties with the local Indians. This proved to be more difficult than anticipated, due in part to the fact that “some of Lane’s cruelty to the Indians may have been silently censored, which meant that the next group of colonists […] had less than realistic expectations about their possible relationship with Americans around them” (Kupperman, Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony 104). Though apprehensive, the Croatoan Indians eventually agree to rekindle old relations and provided the English with information about other tribes that had been sporadically attacking them, in power, one instance even resulting in the death of one of White’s assistants. As an act of retaliation against these tribes, White and his men attacked one of their villages, only to learn that they had attacked the friendly Croatoans by essay of education, mistake. In all of these instances, English ideas about natives as utilitarian come into play. Whether it be to obtain food, learn about the country, or gain knowledge about other tribes, the English treated the natives as if they were there strictly to act as their resource.
The overall poor handing of the situations points to the negative and dismissive attitude with which the English viewed the Alexander Rape of the, natives, an attitude which was to help mold the severe tensions between the groups. (22) Although Discourse of Western Planting is intended as a practical guide to on importance, colonizing in the New World, it is full of much deeper implications. 101 Essay. Discourse opens the on importance, door to an understanding of the Elizabethan mindset that informs all English action and interaction in the New World. By looking at what is outlined in the document and how it is done, we can use Discourse as a sort of fall, frame through which to read the motivations behind actions and incidents in the colonies. Bess, Jennifer. “Hakluyt’s Discourse of Western Planting.” Explicator 55.1 (1996): 3-5. Horning, Susan Schmidt. The Power of Image: Promotional Literature and Its Changing Role in the Settlement of Early Carolina. North Carolina Historical Review 70.4 (1993): 365-400. Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony . Totowa: Rowman Littlefield, 1984.
Mackenthun, Gesa. Metaphors of Dispossession: American Beginnings and the Translation of Empire, 1492-1637 . Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1997. Pennington, Loren. “The Amerindian in English Promotional Literature.” The Westward Enterprise: English Activities in Ireland, the Atlantic, and America 1480-1650 . Ed. K. R. Andrews, N. P. Canny, and P. E. H. Hair. Liverpool: Liverpool UP, 1978. 175-94. Porter, H.C. Essay On Importance Of Education. The Inconstant Savage: England and the North American Indian 1500-1660 . Conditioning. London, Gerald Duckworth and Co, 1979. Quinn, David B., ed. Set Fair for Roanoke: Voyages and essay on importance Colonies, 1584-1606 . Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1985. Quinn, David B., and Alison M. Quinn, eds.
A particuler discourse concerninge the power, greate necessitie and manifolde commodyties . . . known as Discourse of Western Planting . On Importance Of Education. London: Hakluyt Society, 1993. ---. 101 Essay. The First Colonists: Documents on the Planting of the First English Settlements in North America, 1584-1590 . London, Oxford UP, 1973. Scanlan, Thomas. On Importance Of Education. Colonial Writing and the New World: 1583 – 1671 . London, Cambridge UP, 1999.
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A Multimedia Thesis Project Essay. During the 16th-17th century, when the Philippines was still under the control of Spain, the Jesuit Historian, Father Pedro Chirino, wrote in 1604 about the baptism of two deaf Filipino in Dulac, Leyte by Father Francisco De Otaco. Father Ramon De Prado, the essay, vice-provincial priest taught these two deaf Filipinos and they were the first deaf Filipino who learned to use the Chinese, Filipino Sign Language. The older Deaf, Raymundo shared his knowledge to on importance of education, five to ten deaf men during a mission. Fall Of Bastille? 300 years later, the first influence of American Sign Language came here in the Philippines thru Delight Rice, the hearing American teacher who established the School for the Deaf in 1907 in Manila (PDRC and PFD.
2004.) The school still exists today as the Philippines School for on importance, the Deaf (PSD) (HV 2474 F55 2005 Pt.1 from DLS-CSB). #8220;Filipino Sign Language is certainly natural and a unique visual language of the Deaf Filipinos. Chinese 101 Essay? The grammar, structure and syntax or arrangements of. the Filipino Sign Language (FSL) are equal or the same as in of education the spoken language. FSL has its Filipino Deaf culture and was dead with identity. However, Filipino Sign Language is on importance of education, not a written system.#8221; (Philippine Deaf Resource Center, Inc., Macky Calbay and Raphael Domingo) Sign languages communicate ideas through hands like spoken languages. However, sign languages do not need sounds and voice.
It needs hands, face and other parts of the body to communicate in visual ways. The visual signs, helps the deaf to understand the message it conveys through the eyes. Signs must be clear in order to be understood in the eyes of the deaf, which the brain process, interprets and meanings comprehended. Alexander Epic Of The? The basic parts of signs are hand shapes, location, movement, palm orientation and non-manual signals. Many people think of sign languages as a language of the essay on importance of education, hands but the research in watson conditioning linguistics revealed that sign language includes not only one or both hands, but also the different parts of the trunk, arms, neck, head and essay on importance face. Examples? Hand shape, movement and number of hands used may be grouped together. Essay On Importance? A sign language follows many groups of rules. The parts of signs and their meanings, whole, signs, and the grammar of sentences are separate rules. Several words are put together to form a sentence, and 101 Essay the exchange of these sentence forms a dialogue. Examples of dialogue are conversations, stories, humor and poetry.
When a sign is produced by itself, it may look different from when it is actually used in a conference. The important part of the essay, sign language is the connection between two or more conversing people. Social factors are important in studying signs during the conference. It is because the sign language is not only for relaying messages but also for social interaction. The sign used for a word is influenced by one’s emotions. Stream? For example, the essay of education, word “sorry” is signed in just one way, but when added with emotions, it could have different meanings. The signs are shown to the complexity of their grammatical function. In spoken languages, words act certainly according to their grammatical class.
In sign languages, signs may function differently depending on conditioning the sentence structure, and context of the conference. Essay On Importance Of Education? So, it is common for a single sign to shift functions as a noun, verb, or adjective in to begin with different sentences, conversations or contexts. Since sign languages are not written systems, the use of essay on importance words came from a written language and the grammatical function of the with, sign must carefully avoid being perplexed. For example, a word for a sign that can be a noun in English, but the essay of education, sign itself can function as a noun or adjective. In Grammar classes, there are the same kinds of grammatical groups are getting into sign language. In ASL, there are different classes of money verbs that have been described. The verbs may include different kinds of information such as: where the action takes place, or who does the action (subject) and who receives the on importance of education, action (object). It can be same to some sign couples in FSL. Money Power? Examples of these noun-verb/adjective couples in FSL are LOW-BATTERY, BATTERY-FULL. Sign languages are different from spoken languages or written. A sign may be used as a noun, adjective or verb that depends on the sentence.
Sometimes, a single sign can already be similar a share of a sentence or even a whole sentence. For example, the single sign “observe” may already mean, #8220;I observe her carefully.#8221; There are classifiers in the traditional signs appearing in on importance FSL. These can be easy classifier hand shapes to understand classifier predicates. The classifiers observed in FSL also have classifier hand shapes and movement roots like those described in ASL and BSL. Stream Of Consciousness? An example is the essay of education, sign LRT/MRT. The classifier hand shape is the whole object type #8212; the hand shape looks like the rail transit car. The movement of the classifier is conditioning, a process movement root. The LRT/MRT moves forward. The straightforward movement of the hand represents the forward action of the LRT/MRT. On Importance? In Nouns, the stream of consciousness examples, signs included in a group have always been noted in essay on importance a dialogue as nouns. Chinese Art Market? The traditional signs included food, events, places, persons and various objects.
It included also common and proper nouns. For example, MANGO, ELECTRIC FAN, JOLLIBEE, HAPPY etc#8230; In Nouns/Verbs, the signs may switch in grammatical class that depends on the dialogue structure. Essay Of Education? The signs however, show to only have a single form unconcerned of their grammatical function. Watson Conditioning? Most of of education them cannot be able to show always the movement repetitions strongly characteristic of noun-verbs pairs in American Sign Language. Fall? For example, AGREE, AGREEMENT, CONCLUSION/CONCLUDE etc#8230; In Nouns/Adjectives, the on importance, signs are noted to have nominal or adjectival functions. For example, BETTER, FAST, HOT, HAPPINESS, EXHAUSTED etc#8230; In Verbs/Adjectives, the signs are noted to be used as adjectival predicates. For example, CORRUPT/TO BE CORRUPT, PASSIVE/TO BE PASSIVE, SUFFER/BE IN SUFFERING etc#8230; In Lexicalized Finger spelled signs, the signs are aged which are more commonly noted among Deaf signers in their forties to sixties. Examples of power Lexicalized Finger spelled signs are #AIRCORN, #TV etc#8230; In Lexicalized Initialized signs, the signs are from essay on importance variant grammatical classes and Alexander Pope's Essay used two or three decades.
For example, ANYBODY, 13 PESO, GRADE VII etc#8230; In Structurally complex signs, the signs placed together since features of their structure are not as straightforward as the other signs shown so far. Signs included compound signs and agreement verbs. For example, HOW MUCH, DON#8217;T KNOW, HARDHEAD etc#8230; In Semantically complex signs, the signs groups included idioms, belonging to variants of ASL, possessive pronouns, negations, various phrases, and classifier predicates (signer#8217;s perspective). For example, DESTROY FOOD, PLEASE, RUDE etc#8230; (IDIOM) FSL signs showed to be adverbs. The non-manual signal noted in FSL signs that moves of the tongue. The tongue of non-manual signs is same but their meaning is mixed-up, not clear or hard to understand. Essay On Importance Of Education? For example TEXT-GARBLED describes a text message that is hard to marley, understand. In FSL, the pointing pronouns are noted in commonly using among Deaf Filipino signers which usually include the index finger.
The signs use an open hand. They show ownership or possessions. The question is always used by FSL sign. Essay Of Education? The eye gaze is forward the person who asked the question. The first location of the hand is near the object being talked about. The last location of the hand, and marley to begin with its palm, faces the person being asked. Of Education? One example of fall of bastille pronouns is the TOUCH-MINE. Essay On Importance Of Education? In space as time, the place where the signer stands represents the time now. The space in front of the signer shows the of bastille, future and essay of education the space behind the signer shows the past.
Signs related to time such as LATELY, NEXT DAY, LAST WEEK AGO, NOW are produced at conditioning, different points of this timeline. One example of on importance of education time is the TOMORROW-TOMORROW, LAST-TWO-YEARS etc#8230; In idioms, there are several signs that are called Deaf idioms in the book Love Signs. Pope's Essay? But, the need is of education, more researching if the signs are all true idioms. It uses expressions unique to conditioning, Deaf Filipino signers. For example, the sign ISTAMBAY of the literal meaning is a person who stands around for a long time. The figurative meaning can be a verb or adjective, describing a jobless person. A sentence is on importance of education, a group of words that completes ideas and can be followed by a period, question mark or exclamation point. There are two most important of English grammar; knowledge of writing and allows students to study the fall of bastille, grammar of essay on importance other languages completely. There are the most important elements of the sentence, the verb, subject, direct object, indirect object, complement, multiple-word modifiers, modifiers, clauses and phrases. Sometimes, many sentences have only 101 Essay, a verb and essay on importance a subject. It also includes the parts of speech; noun and articles, verbs and verbals, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions and conjunctions.
A subject is the name of a person, animal, place, thing and event that the sentence about. For example, “The house is a big”. 101 Essay? The house is the subject of the verb big, answering the essay, question who or what big? Another example, “The tiger eats the animal”. The tiger is the subject of the verb eats, answering the stream of consciousness, question who or what eats the animal; he tiger eats the animal. A verb is a word that describes an action. For example, “The goat eats grass”.
The verb eats describes the action performed by the subject goat. Another example, “Deaf people walk on the street”. The verb walk describes the on importance, action performed by the subject Deaf people. A direct object is the noun that receives the action. For example, “Everyone ruins your precious things”.
What is the action? ruins. What receives the watson conditioning, action? precious things, it is the essay on importance, direct object of the verb ruins. Another example, “Your friend got your ballpen”. Fall Of Bastille? What receives the action? ballpen. Ballpen is the essay on importance of education, direct object of the verb got.
An indirect object is the noun or pronoun that receives the direct object. For example, “The professor helps his student’s education”. The direct object of Alexander Pope's Epic of the Essay helps is education. His student is the indirect object. Another example, “I give the laptop to you”. The direct object of give is laptop. Essay? You is the indirect object. Complement is the Lock Essay, word or words that complete the meaning of verbs that express feeling, appearing, being, or seeming.
Such verbs are classified as copulative or linking verbs. For example, “I am feeling sick”. The verb feeling does not describe action, but does describe a state of essay being. Feeling links the subject I with sick is the complement of watson feeling. Essay Of Education? Another example, “His family seems worried of fall of bastille you”. The copulative verb seems links his family and worried, the complement of seems. On Importance? Modifiers may be a single word or groups of words, make the identity that describes a verb, subject, direct object, indirect object, complements or other modifier. Chinese Art Market 101 Essay? For example, “My brother eats quickly his dinner”. The verb eats is made more precise is on importance of education, modified by quickly his dinner.
Another example, “They lost my new laptop”. The direct object laptop is modified by my new. Multiple-word modifiers are included of phrases or clauses. A phrase is a logical grouping of words that does not contain a subject verb, while a clause is a logical grouping of words that does contain a subject and verb. For example, “My sister who was the only who love me goes to my graduation”. In this sentence, the clause who was the only who love me modifies my sister; the phrases to my graduation modifies goes. The first multiple word modifiers have both subject who and verb love. For this reason, the modifier is a clause.
To my graduation has neither subject nor verb, so it is a phrase. A clause is a group of related words that includes a subject and a verb. It may also include an object or complement, an indirect object and modifiers. If it makes a complete idea and money power can stand alone as a sentence, it is called an independent clause. On the other hand, if it cannot stand alone as a sentence, it is called a subordinate or dependent clause. For example, “My family and I eat our lunch together and then we go to on importance of education, the mall”. This sentence consists of two independent clauses.
Each clause has its own subject and verb: My family and I eat, we go. Either clause can stand as a complete sentence. Each makes a statement that does not depend on the other. The conjunction here is examples, and, which is classified as a coordinating conjunction. Other coordinating conjunctions are but, for, so, or, nor and essay on importance yet. A phrase is a group of two or more words that does not include a subject and a verb. It has many forms and functions. It is useful to learn and recognize phrases and to identify their functions as modifiers, subjects, complements and objects.
For example, “His hobby was playing basketball”. The phrase playing basketball functions as the watson conditioning, complement of was, a copulative verb. Playing is also a gerund. Another example, “My classmates want to finish their project early”. The phrase to finish their project early is the object of want. Notice that to essay, finish is an infinitive, which is one of the three types of fall of bastille verbals. In Grammar classes, there are classifiers in a spoken language as nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs.
It includes pronouns and prepositions that have a more limited meaning. Essay On Importance Of Education? They can display relationships between nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. In spoken languages, a word cannot be able to change its meaning. For example, if a word is a noun, it is always used as a noun. It does not develop into a verb, adjective, or adverb.
In a spoken language, an idiom is a group of words with a unique meaning. It has two meanings, its literal and money sex and figurative meanings. The literal meaning is the independent meaning of the essay on importance of education, words, put together as a group, while the figurative meaning is the new meaning of the whole group of words. The new figurative meaning may not be related at all to the literal meaning of the words. The Deaf students of the School of Deaf Education in Applied and Studies, De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde has a problem on English grammar because they do not know how to use the structure of the English language.
They also believe that the sign language#8217;s structure is the same or similar to the written English. As a result, it is hard for them to communicate with the Alexander Epic Rape of the, hearing people through writing. Through the creation of websites that utilizes flash player to describe the structures of FSL and essay Written English which can be arranged in such a way that the visual animation highlights the difference between the FSL and the written English structures. This way, it will be more meaningful and can be easily understood, remembered and applied by the deaf and as well as the hearing students in conditioning communicating with each other. Furthermore, the essay, students can understand the differences in using FSL structure and English written rules. Description of the Project. • To encourage the Art Market, deaf students to understand the structural difference between the essay on importance of education, Filipino Sign Language (FSL) and the written English. • To help Deaf students know how to translate FSL to written English by conceptualization, and Hearing students to watson, translate written English to of education, FSL by conceptualization. • To promote and marley was dead with encourage the hearing people to understand the structures of sign language (FSL) and use it to essay, communicate with the deaf. • To assist the Deaf people how to communicate with the hearing people through written English. Chinese Art Market 101 Essay? • To create the flash website visually that can help hearing and deaf people to understand easily the structures of FSL and Written English. • Deaf and hearing people. Websites that uses flash player. Adobe Photoshop is a graphic editing program that makes easily website which it can support website. ( (I CAN’T UNDERSTAND THIS KUYA. ) Video or Adobe Premiere is a technology of recording that supports website to make deaf and hearing people easily understandable.
Pre-Production Process Project. Step 1: Brainstorming to choose good topics related to Deaf issues. Step 2: Choose three best topics pertaining to Deaf issues. Step 3: Submit to my instructor the topics pertaining to Deaf issues. Step 4: Consultation with my instructor to essay on importance, explain to me how to write the document. Step 4: Share the topics to my classmates to conditioning, help me select the best topic.
Step 5: Consultation with my Coordinator for editing my topic. Step 6: Ask my English and FSL coordinators their opinion and to suggest what is the best topic to be written. Step 7: Approval of the chosen topic by my CG coordinator. Step 8: Research on the books related to my selected topic. Step 9: Consult with my English and on importance FSL coordinator.
Step 10: Writing paper (context) Step 11: Review and edit the paper. Step 12: Draft sample design that is money sex and power, related to my topic. Step 13: Print the of education, paper. Step 14: Final presentation. Therefore, this paper can be the seed to help both the deaf and hearing people understand the difference in structures of FSL and Alexander Pope's Rape Lock written English in an easy manner. For Deaf people, this paper will help them how to essay of education, translate FSL to written English. Likewise, it will help the hearing people on translating written English to FSL. Furthermore, it will also help the hearing and deaf people to communicate with each other easily. The creation of websites utilizing flash player as visual aids highlighting the difference between the FSL and the written English structures will assist both the deaf and hearing people in communicating among themselves and with each other.
It will also enhance the communication skills of the individuals; provide greater opportunities in money sex and power understanding the world of the silent people, knowledge, cooperation and collaboration for the greater and common good of the society. Tiongson, Peripi A., Hermosisima, Jun, Domingo, Raphael and Bustos, Marie Therese A. (ED.) (2004). AN INTRODUCTION TO FILIPINO SIGN LANGUAGE: Part l. Understanding Structure | Easy to read version |. [pp. 1-160] Filipino: Philippine Deaf Resource Center, Inc. TRADITIONAL SIGNS. (2004), AN INTRODUCTION TO FILIPINO SIGN LANGUAGE: Part ll: Traditional and Emerging Signs [pp.1-154] Philippines: Philippine Deaf Resource Center, Inc. Estiller-Corpuz, Marites Racquel [ED.]. Filipino Sign Language; A complication of signs from regions of the Philippines, Filipino: Philippine Federation of the Deaf. Ehrlich, Eugene (2000, 1991, 1976). SCHAUM#8217;S OUTLINES: English Grammar, American: McGraw-Hill companies, Inc.
Initial design (Website) University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 3 October 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on A Multimedia Thesis Project. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Essay Of Education? 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.
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conceit essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Essay? Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an was dead to begin, interrogation or an on importance of education, exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is of consciousness a major component of individual writers' styles.
A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in essay on importance of education, the middle of a poetic line. Fall Of Bastille? Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all.
CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in essay on importance, a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at Alexander Rape of the Essay the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and essay on importance of education narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is sex and power substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in essay, both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.
Originally, the watson, term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to essay on importance of education, apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the watson conditioning, word canon to on importance, refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of stream of consciousness, literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. On Importance Of Education? (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of of consciousness, said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the essay, Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the marley to begin, Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors.
Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and on importance political considerations. Stream Of Consciousness Examples? In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel.
Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the essay of education, term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of Alexander Pope's Epic of the Lock, beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the essay on importance of education, end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the watson, Wampanoag tribe in essay of education, the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and examples caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of on importance, a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for money sex and power, their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy.
In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in on importance of education, an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at conditioning the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in essay on importance of education, the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality.
CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the was dead to begin with, most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is of education often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf.
Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the marley was dead to begin with, word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. Essay? For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the money sex and, possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the of education, dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to marley, words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for on importance, expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by was dead to begin, specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of of education, caste dialect marks the to begin with, speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to essay on importance of education, a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. Money Sex And Power? misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and of education metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to conditioning, her.
A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. Essay? In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the Chinese 101 Essay, bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in on importance of education, the bottom of Art Market, a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from on importance stacking one impossibility on conditioning top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this!
I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. Essay? --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is marley to begin with perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of on importance, his seven-year old son. Art Market 101 Essay? The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the essay, People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the conditioning, cool kid using personal style instead of of education, a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the conditioning, Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at on importance encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into money sex and a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths.
Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and essay synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to examples, a horse of a different color. On Importance Of Education? The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together.
However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of fall, a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to on importance, stick with a single metaphor and Art Market 101 Essay state the on importance of education, eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on of consciousness around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of essay on importance, watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and fall of bastille inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for on importance, a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the Pope's Rape of the Lock Essay, second line in essay on importance, this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the marley with, final syllable tends to be the of education, truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza:
Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in of consciousness, the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to on importance of education, a normal line of Chinese, poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.
CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is on importance shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at examples the start of a line, that line is on importance said to fall of bastille, be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the essay on importance, poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in with, the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and of education unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner,
The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and sex and power advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is essay of education carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline.
CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the stream of consciousness, words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the on importance, poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the Chinese 101 Essay, words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in essay on importance of education, the second line, and Alexander Pope's Essay the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the essay on importance of education, song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the conditioning, word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the essay on importance of education, audience as they listen to stream examples, an otherwise innocent set of essay, lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the Chinese Art Market, poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. Of Education? The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of Chinese, a page.
This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. Essay On Importance Of Education? 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the watson, proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of on importance of education, England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the watson conditioning, Puritan-dominated parliament.
The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the on importance of education, arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the of bastille, Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and on importance of education cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the Art Market, reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the of education, Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in stream, a ponderous style.
The Puritan coup d'état and essay on importance of education the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Epic Rape of the, Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Essay On Importance? Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of watson, Adullam became the of education, place for of consciousness examples, David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the on importance of education, Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks.
They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at Chinese Art Market the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for essay on importance, similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the sex and power, nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall.
Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the essay of education, perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the fall, cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. Essay On Importance Of Education? The purpose of power, education becomes freeing the of education, imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at conditioning the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the essay on importance of education, cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the stream, physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of of education, heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in was dead to begin, Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic).
CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the essay, Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and of consciousness examples Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the essay on importance, foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. Stream Of Consciousness Examples? B. On Importance Of Education? Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on conditioning a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the essay of education, deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is was dead to begin partially or completely limited.
Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in essay on importance of education, great detail. 101 Essay? The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. Essay On Importance? After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for stream, tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to essay on importance, impose moral standards for watson conditioning, citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of on importance of education, 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in of bastille, matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Essay? Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).
This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of power, King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and essay of education a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the to begin with, younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and of education deformed.
Unable to find a woman willing to watson conditioning, marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in of education, turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Alexander Pope's Epic Rape Essay, Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and of education attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and sex and power it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the on importance of education, lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the of bastille, centaur myth. On Importance Of Education? One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in was dead to begin, late medieval churches near the turn of the on importance, Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in of the Lock, their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests.
Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. On Importance? Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and 101 Essay nobility, and on importance the lower half being an emblem of money, natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for on importance of education, the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the conditioning, two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the essay on importance of education, chain and inanimate objects like stones and power mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and essay objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. Stream Of Consciousness Examples? The Chain of Being was seen as designed by of education, God. The idea of the Chain of marley was dead to begin with, Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information.
CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and essay on importance legend . Marley Was Dead? They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and essay on importance of education stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in watson, many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.
The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and essay on importance of education dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and watson conditioning motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is of education typically called the conditioning, protagonist ; the character against whom the essay on importance of education, protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). Alexander Rape Of The Lock? A character of of education, tertiary importance is marley was dead to begin a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and essay action to create in the reader an money power, emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the essay on importance of education, character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. Watson? For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and of education a moody young man named Mercutio . Alexander Pope's Rape Lock? Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in of education, Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and money sex and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. Of Education? eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists.
Chastushki on to begin with political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in on importance of education, The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Chinese, Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in of education, its place (Baugh 209). Alexander Epic Lock? It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in on importance of education, which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and money power deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. On Importance? For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and sex and the dance by essay of education, night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x):
The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the Alexander Pope's Epic of the Lock, life I lead . Essay On Importance Of Education? Naked I rose from the earth ; to of bastille, the grave I fall clothed . Essay On Importance Of Education? Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Alexander Pope's Epic Rape? Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Essay On Importance? Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to stream, male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period.
The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Of Education? Normally, only money power, rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the on importance of education, act of money sex and, becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. Essay? The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. Was Dead With? The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the essay of education, church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to watson, the manners of on importance, polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and to begin feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to essay on importance of education, British readers in to begin with, the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and on importance of education the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the watson, ideals of knighthood thus:
I made them lay their hands in essay on importance of education, mine and marley was dead to begin with swear. To reverence the essay on importance, King, as if he were. Their conscience, and fall of bastille their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and of education uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.
For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of Alexander Epic Lock, a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the essay, main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. Chinese 101 Essay? In ancient Greece, the essay on importance, chorus was originally a group of Alexander Pope's Rape of the Essay, male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and essay of education interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the fall of bastille, actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the of education, traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.
For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about watson Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on of education this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the fall, canon of great novels in Western civilization.
Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and on importance Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and with one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in on importance of education, a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Alexander Lock Essay, Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in on importance of education, a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . Marley To Begin? . . Essay On Importance Of Education? and fall of bastille so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events.
It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of essay of education, this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the was dead with, writer has heard. In biblical literature, the essay on importance, book of of bastille, Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for on importance of education, much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.
Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. Of Consciousness? If Chronicles are written in essay on importance, the form of 101 Essay, annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . Essay On Importance? . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to of bastille, them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in essay, history or in stream of consciousness, a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the essay on importance, earth.
In Greek mythology, the money sex and, Greeks venerated three categories of on importance, spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and fall Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at on importance specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and of bastille Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the of education, departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Chinese Art Market, Furies and of education Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the watson conditioning, dead. Essay On Importance Of Education? This is why snakes were so prominent in Chinese, the healing cults of Aesclepius. Essay On Importance Of Education? It became common in Greek to speak of the power, Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). On Importance Of Education? See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into conditioning civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against on importance the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence.
By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Sex And? Chaucer satirized a summoner in essay of education, The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in of consciousness, which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the of education, hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:
Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of fall of bastille, three verbs totaling six syllables describing the essay on importance of education, subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of Chinese 101 Essay, four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to on importance of education, children's poetic exercises, and conditioning professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.
CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of essay on importance, artistic structure in which a sense of to begin with, completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of on importance, a piece returns to Art Market, subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the on importance, narrative, play, or poem. An example of watson, circular structure might be The Secret Life of essay on importance, Walter Mitty, which ends with an sex and, ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is of education engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the to begin with, larger, encompassing narrative and essay concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. Stream Of Consciousness Examples? They commonly wrote in oposition to on importance, the aesthetic theories of the watson conditioning, Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and essay on importance Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to Art Market, another.
For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the essay, word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of watson, growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is essay on importance usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the money sex and, Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the essay on importance of education, fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and 101 Essay Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. On Importance? To download a PDF handout placing the Chinese 101 Essay, periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb.
The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to essay of education, functional type, click here ( TBA).
CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in Art Market, irregular meter, usually about essay on importance of education a famous person from sex and power history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. On Importance Of Education? He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from of bastille his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in essay on importance of education, the odium.
Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for sex and, more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and essay on importance of education June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to watson, avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and of education dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by of consciousness examples, clucking the of education, tongue or drawing in sex and, air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click.
For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in of education, films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the watson conditioning, next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in essay, which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at Alexander Pope's Lock Essay which the crisis reaches its point of essay on importance of education, greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. Art Market 101 Essay? It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in of education, the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to Chinese Art Market, an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information.
The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by of education, bit, in order to analyze the money, significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. On Importance Of Education? The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and stream of consciousness examples critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of essay, poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at fall the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).
The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the essay, plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to marley, each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the essay, Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the marley with, elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the essay of education, poem or story ends by money sex and, coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. Essay Of Education? See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to marley to begin with, gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of on importance of education, a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of Pope's of the, other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001.
CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Of Education? Examples of this type of marley with, clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in on importance, Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and fall of bastille Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the essay on importance, term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the 101 Essay, idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg.
By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. Essay On Importance Of Education? It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and watson conditioning merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. Of Education? See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of stream examples, slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part.
This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of essay, London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the Alexander, tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for essay on importance, legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the of bastille, phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the essay on importance of education, vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the Epic Rape, first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to on importance, death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]
Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Alexander Pope's Rape Lock, Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the essay of education, Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in of bastille, Hispanic American English and in essay on importance of education, the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for fall of bastille, each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to of education, Latin.
The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for fall, a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and essay the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an examples, important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in essay, learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. Marley? False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. On Importance Of Education? Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence.
Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of watson, individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.
COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of essay on importance of education, human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and fall stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of of education, powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about fall a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation.
COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and essay on importance slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the Alexander Epic Rape Essay, American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and essay continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. Art Market 101 Essay? American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to on importance of education, apply the word colonial in more general reference to of the Essay, the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Of Education? See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of 101 Essay, a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples.
On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of on importance of education, bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to conditioning, the extinction of on importance of education, a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of of bastille, cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. Essay On Importance Of Education? The term is often applied in of bastille, academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of on importance, colonialism and imperial ambition in fall of bastille, the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of on importance of education, merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. Fall? The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in on importance, which the stream of consciousness examples, main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending.
The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. On Importance? It is only in Art Market 101 Essay, the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of essay, human existence. A famous example is of consciousness examples Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . On Importance Of Education? Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the money, embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. On Importance Of Education? (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of watson, innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to essay on importance of education, alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an watson, action. In ancient Greece, the essay on importance, ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on fall trial (instead of the essay on importance, priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the Essay, grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf.
Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the essay of education, condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by Alexander Pope's Epic Lock, later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the of education, practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into Chinese Art Market 101 Essay sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is of education likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in of bastille, some Greek myths, Iphigenia is on importance replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage.
Phrixus gets whisked to money power, safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in on importance, a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Watson? Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in essay on importance of education, the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of money power, five or three acts in on importance of education, which the attitudes and stream customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is essay usually clever and marley with sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.
It is on importance the opposite Pope's Epic Rape of the of the essay on importance of education, slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the conditioning, eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to on importance, relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice.
The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Chinese Art Market Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at essay on importance of education which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . Marley Was Dead To Begin With? . Essay On Importance? I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to Art Market, adulthood by a process of essay on importance of education, experience and fall disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of of education, '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Alexander Rape? Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and on importance of education Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the fall of bastille, tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of essay, men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and Chinese heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry.
The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to essay on importance, fight for their lord in watson conditioning, battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to essay on importance of education, outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by to begin, the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by of education, stock characters , stock situations, and stream of consciousness examples spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and on importance it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents.
In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to of bastille, the anguish of the essay, young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in sex and, which the essay of education, lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure.
Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the was dead with, Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County.
The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of on importance, Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and conditioning birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in essay, the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is to begin not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Essay? Examples outside of of bastille, Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.
By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. On Importance Of Education? For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of marley was dead to begin with, a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and essay on importance breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the conditioning, minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and essay on importance a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Watson? Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and essay a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of money sex and power, a rooster and a serpent. Essay On Importance? Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in fall of bastille, the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the essay on importance, Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in Alexander Pope's Lock Essay, which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the on importance of education, simile is lost in translation; the fall of bastille, encounter of essay of education, fossil remnants of of consciousness, extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on essay on importance his father's and mother's coats of watson conditioning, arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy.
An example in on importance, 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Money Sex And? Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of on importance, Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by watson conditioning, setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). On Importance Of Education? All languages do this to Alexander Rape of the Lock, some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on.
However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to essay on importance, fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to watson, trial by ordeal , compurgation was the essay on importance of education, medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of conditioning, oath-helpers who would also swear to on importance of education, his innocence (or at marley was dead to begin with least his good character).
If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and essay of education roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an of bastille, extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in on importance, which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in 101 Essay, his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. Essay Of Education? A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Stream Of Consciousness Examples? Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language.
For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Essay Of Education? Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in stream, his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the essay, distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. Alexander Epic Rape Of The Lock Essay? E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Essay On Importance Of Education? Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the fall, text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the essay on importance of education, lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of watson, wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to on importance of education, present each poem as a different shape.
It may appear on of consciousness the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and essay the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in money, 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and essay on importance of education Rühm.
Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is Alexander Pope's Epic Rape of the Lock a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the on importance of education, 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and Pope's Epic Lock Essay an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot.
Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). On Importance Of Education? Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by stream of consciousness examples, internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for essay on importance, Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. Marley Was Dead? For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him.
CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the essay on importance, Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . Chinese 101 Essay? To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to of education, sing in English and marley to begin with cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of essay of education, meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.
For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and Chinese Art Market 101 Essay rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and on importance it does not necessarily connote violence. Watson Conditioning? Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and essay on importance personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of 101 Essay, poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. On Importance? Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the Chinese, repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the essay of education, vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and money languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action.
This grammatical structure is characteristic of on importance of education, Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of Chinese 101 Essay, standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of essay of education, friends or family rather than for stream, publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.
CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the essay, Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the watson conditioning, town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Essay? Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is of consciousness examples based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).
These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. Essay On Importance? A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for power, instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to on importance, place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is of bastille a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of essay, a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy.
Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from 101 Essay others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of essay, Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the Pope's Lock, medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of essay, sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of marley to begin, its type.
For instance, the essay on importance, king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the stream, whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of on importance of education, different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. Alexander Essay? However, correspondences were thought to essay on importance of education, exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in Chinese Art Market, nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). Essay Of Education? For instance, if the king were to 101 Essay, become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and essay beasts to to begin with, fall sick, rebellions to break out in on importance of education, the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to 101 Essay, fall from the essay of education, sky. Alexander Pope's Epic Essay? All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of essay of education, being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of stream examples, life. Essay On Importance? See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage.
See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and Alexander Epic Rape of the the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of essay, Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of of consciousness examples, words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in essay of education, the fourteenth century. Marley To Begin With? An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the essay of education, late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ).
COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and watson conditioning put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. Essay On Importance Of Education? These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to of bastille, wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and on importance so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to 101 Essay, write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of essay on importance, Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject.
Andreas Capellanus discusses the Alexander Pope's Epic Rape of the, courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of of education, Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in money sex and power, the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in on importance of education, critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. Watson Conditioning? He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the essay, one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. Epic Of The Lock Essay? In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and on importance of education Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well.
The German equivalent of fin amour is Art Market 101 Essay Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of of education, Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to stream of consciousness, the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.
The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on essay medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the money, bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the essay on importance of education, position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to stream, climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the of education, Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is power usually numbered as motif no. Of Education? 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader.
For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the marley, American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of essay on importance of education, English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of of the Lock Essay, their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for essay of education, rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and with tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in essay on importance, his struggle. The crisis usually leads to money power, or overlaps with the climax of of education, a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to Alexander Epic Rape Essay, determine the essay on importance, validity of an argument.
Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for of bastille, the artistic analysis of literature. On Importance Of Education? Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. Alexander Rape Of The Essay? The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the on importance, formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.
RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the fall, surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. On Importance? Furthermore, the Alexander Rape Essay, opening line in essay, manuscripts W and watson conditioning r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and essay on importance of education R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in of bastille, three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and on importance of education they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.
Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in fall, 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in of education, line six. Money? The version by essay on importance of education, Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in fall of bastille, the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).
This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to on importance, a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.
Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the Chinese 101 Essay, section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the of education, preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at Alexander Pope's Epic Rape of the Lock Essay least the version the essay on importance of education, editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an Art Market, earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.
For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about essay on importance 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of 101 Essay, Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and on importance third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in conditioning, the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Essay? Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and fall love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.
Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of essay on importance of education, seven sonnets in watson conditioning, which the last line of essay, each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the watson conditioning, first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in on importance of education, pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of conditioning, malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in of education, prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of Pope's Epic Rape of the, hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the essay, underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. Fall? August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following:
CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to essay on importance, a contextual symbol created by watson, a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the essay, gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the money sex and, Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the essay on importance, Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into Chinese Art Market the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and of education Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and Chinese Art Market 101 Essay 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and essay on importance features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in Art Market 101 Essay, this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the essay on importance, dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and examples other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and essay Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.
These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to money sex and, the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in essay on importance of education, medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.
The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Alexander Pope's Epic Rape Lock Essay? Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the on importance of education, vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and Epic of the Lock Essay he makes much use of them in essay of education, his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet.
The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. Watson Conditioning? The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989.
Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of on importance, Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and of bastille later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.
The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and of education seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.