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Argumentative Essay: Video games, beneficial or detrimental? Extracts from this document. Osmosis Image. Video Games Beneficial or Hazardous Video games have been a growing phenomenon since the were the alien and sedition passed mid 1980's. With the vast improvements in technology the video gaming industry had evolved from image simple two dimensional games to realist, fast paced, life like experiences. Who Wrote. Along with it's growth there has been an osmosis image ongoing discussion of whether video games are beneficial or hazardous to children and adolescents. Some are of the view that video games are indeed hazardous because they are meaningless times wasters that encourage anti-social behavior, have a negative impact of the health of children, and because they are filled with violent content. However, I do not share these views. And Sedition Acts Passed. In my opinion video games are a wonder pastime which has the potential to osmosis, be very beneficial on many levels. Organizational Essay. Many believe that video games are a useless form of entertainment that is in no way beneficial, therefore it is considered a waste of image, time. However, video games are a real brain workout that invokes abstract and high level thinking. . read more. Video games are goal-driven experiences, which are fundamental to learning. (106) Some people feel that children spend too much time playing games and as a result they become socially isolated, which affects the time spent doing home work, other physical activities and interacting with family and friends.

While playing video games can be time consuming, it does in who wrote the gospels, fact promote social activity and osmosis, teamwork. Video games allow parents and their kids to play together and acts, can be used as a bonding activity. Many games appeal to both kids and adults and could be something they both share in common. Children also build friendships through playing games that both they and their friends enjoy. Also games that involve multiple players encourage children to work cooperatively to achieve a common goal. They learn to listen to the ideas of others, formulate plans and distribute various tasks based on the skills of each other. Online games are played internationally, which can introduce kids to players of osmosis image, different nationalities, and exposed them to many cultures and fosters friendships. . read more. Violent games act as a positive way for children to vent their frustration and anger in the games with computerized characters, which often relieves stress. Video games provide a positive aggression outlet the were the alien and sedition acts passed same way playing football, hockey or any other contact sport would. Osmosis. It should be evident that the views held degrading the use of video games hold little if any merit. The argument that video games consume too much time and are violent hold little weight, because parents can impose a time limit of how long games can be played, and in the same manner parents choose which television shows are suitable, they can choose which video games are appropriate for their children to Organizational, play.

Furthermore, the violence depicted in image, video games is computer generated characters, whereas the violence in television shows are real life people. Contrary to these arguments, video games are indeed beneficial because they develop the minds of children in ways school does not, it can expose them to cultures around the world and Chivalry Essay, it equips them mentally to deal with real life situations. . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Argumentative or Persuasive Essays section. Osmosis. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over dee definition, 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related University Degree Argumentative or Persuasive Essays essays. Critical Essay on whether Briony ever achieves atonement in 'Atonement' by osmosis Ian McEwan.

As a result of Briony's evidence, Robbie is wrongfully convicted. This then is Briony's crime, for which she spends the rest of her life trying to atone. Briony lives in dee definition, a world of fantasy and romance; she is very controlling and secretive. Critically Assess The Argument That Pornography Is Harmful To Women. It is important, therefore to recognise that in society there is a wide range of views on; politics, sexuality and many other issues. It would be dangerous then for those few people in power to image, decide that they know what is best for an Implementation Plan the people. Women in Politics Essay. Power and image, Pornography: Male Supremacy or Antipornography Propaganda? Within everyday life this is reinforced by men choosing weak women to be there wives as they are easier controlled, and the gospels, those often with physical strength are often forced to act weak to fill a feminine role. Dworkin says this comes from the osmosis image idea of feminine in capabilities created by. When the infant reaches the multiple-word stage, the morphological development grows a lot.

As an example, let us look at the past tense: There are several stages of dee definition, a learning process to acquire the correct use of the simple past in English. Major Essay: Obesity Discussion, DavidZinczenko's amp;quot;Don't blame the osmosis image eateramp;quot;. Obesity is correlated with several medical conditions, including heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, and the gospels, certain types of cancer. Obesity and its related diseases are responsible for 400,000 deaths per year in the United States, paralleling the number of image, preventable deaths caused by mary shelly quotes smoking. Furthermore, while grammarians such as Priestley criticise the lack of inflectional endings in English as being the greatest defect in image, our language (Priestley, 1761: 16), Fisher dismisses this contemporary belief and chides such grammarians who use Latin as a basis for prescribing rules to the English language, Such Zealots might. Dependency on Technology - Negative Impact on Human Communication. Human communication is an essential part of human interaction.

The benefits of effective human communication are many and obvious as they enhance all aspects of our personal and social lives. It is also essential for who wrote our development as a part of the society. Investigating the osmosis grammatical features of a child(TM)s language and influences in a three year . In this case, it seems that I have picked up on mary shelly quotes the general meaning of the image non-standard utterance cor, dear, however I cannot quite manage to use it accurately. Mostly in this transcript, my parents use the mary shelly frankenstein quotes words fantastic and brilliant. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the osmosis anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the dee definition PDF for anytime access on osmosis your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for expert help with your Linguistics, Classics and related subjects work?

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Getting src of image · Issue #165 · rchipka/node-osmosis · GitHub

Narendra Modi’s Quest for Becoming Prime Minister Essay Sample. The name Negros Navigation and SuperFerry will soon be just a part of our memory since the two companies which were already merged under ATS Consolidated will now be called 2GO Travel. Negros Navigation has been a big part of inter-island travel not only for Ilonggos and Negrenses but also for most Filipinos. The company has been a vital link in the economy of the Philippines as it made possible a much efficient shipping of passengers and cargo between the osmosis image, islands. Perhaps, most Negrenses will remember the heartbreaking tragedy of the sinking of Don Juan in 1980 which led to the demise of hundreds of Negrenses.

Not even the Essay on Developing Plan, dissolution of the name will make us forget that tragedy. Osmosis Image! Negros Navigation History. It is fortunate that a history of the company is still available from its website. I think there’s a big chance that the website may not be available for long since it is Profiles currently being redirected to the website of 2Go Travel. Just in case the link will not work, below are some important information on the history of the company or you may download it here. Negros Navigation was established in July 26, 1932 with incorporators from Iloilo and Negros who were mostly sugar planters namely: Julio Ledesma, Vicente Lopez, Januario Jison, Cesar Ledesma, Juan Ledesma, Manuel Hechanova, Antonio Lizares, Nicolas Lizares, Carlos Lopez, Placido Mapa, and Aurelio Montinola. Image! Julio Ledesma became the company’s first Chairman of the Board and the gospels President. Eventhough majority of the stockholders were from osmosis image, Jaro, Iloilo City and the company’s main office was in Iloilo, it is said that the quotes, company adopted the name Negros Navigation to avoid confusion since there’s already a company named Iloilo Shipping at that time. Image! It was only in when were the alien passed, January 1957 that the company opened a branch in Bacolod. Negros Navigation’s first ship was Marapara which the owners acquired even before the company’s incorporation. In 1932 the company acquired another ship named Princess of Negros which sailed twice daily from Iloilo to osmosis image Silay.

With the boom of the an Implementation Plan, sugar industry, there’s a need to image have its own wharf in Bacolod thus in 1940, the company started constructing the Banago Wharf. It was inaugurated in 1941 with a big ceremony attended by hundreds of guests. The Princess of Negros was also instrumental in transporting then President Manuel L. Quezon to the Visayas when he escaped from Corregidor during World War II. In the 60?s Negros Navigation was the when were the alien and sedition acts passed, first among the domestic shipping companies to operate brand new, fast and luxurious and air conditioned passenger ships with the likes of Don Juan and Dona Florentina plying the Manila-Bacolod-Iloilo route. In 70’s , the company was the first to construct and operate a modern passenger terminal in image, Manila’s North Harbor. Negros Navigation was also the an Implementation Plan, first to offer special cruises to tourists spots in the Philippines and neighboring Asian countries such as Indonesia and image Singapore with its luxury vessel Dona Monserrat. We would like to express our gratitude to The Principal of SIES College of the gospels Science, Arts and Commerce for giving us the opportunity to do this project and to Prof. Mithun Pillai for the guidance provided during its course. The Prime Minister of India, as addressed to in the Constitution of India, is the chief of government, chief advisor to the President of India, head of the Council of Ministers and the leader of the majority party in image, parliament. The Prime Minister leads the on Developing Plan, executive branch of the Government of India. Narendra Modi.

The Prime Minister is the senior member of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. He selects and can dismiss other members of the cabinet; allocates posts to members within the osmosis image, Government; is the presiding member and dee definition chairman of the cabinet and osmosis is responsible for bringing proposal of legislation. The resignation or death of the Prime Minister dissolves the cabinet. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President to assist the latter in the administration of the Organizational Culture, affairs of the executive. Osmosis Image! The incumbent prime minister is Manmohan Singh, in office since 22 May 2004. The next elections which most regional leaders have an Culture eye on are the 2014 Lok Sabha elections. One of the most promising candidates vying for this post is osmosis Narendra Modi, who is currently serving his 4th term as the Chief Minister of Gujarat.

Early Life Social Work. Narendra Modi was born at mary shelly frankenstein quotes, Vadnagar, Mehsana district in osmosis image, North Gujarat on September 17, 1950 in a middle class OBC family. As a boy in the Indo-Pak war of the mid-sixties, he had volunteered to serve the Indian soldiers during transit at railway stations. He also helped people affected by the flood in Gujarat in the gospels, 1967. He was elected as the student leader of Akhil Bhartiya Vidhyarthi Parishad (All India Students’ Council) due to his organizational capability and osmosis image insight into human psychology. Students protesting as part of the Nav Nirman Movement. He has also played prominent roles in various socio-political movements in Gujarat such as the Navnirman Movement. By the end of 1960s and early 1970s, corruption and misgovernance of the when the alien acts passed, Congress government in Gujarat had reached new heights. In 1971, India had defeated Pakistan in war and the Congress government got reelected on osmosis the promise of uplifting the poor.

This promise turned out to be an empty one as ‘Garibi Hatao’ (eradicate poverty) gradually changed into ‘Garib Hatao’ (eradicate the poor). The life of the Culture Essay, poor worsened, and in Gujarat this misery got coupled with a severe famine and steep price rise. Endless queues for basic commodities had become a common sight in the state. There was no respite for the common man. The discontent turned into public anger when in December 1973, a few students of the Morbi Engineering College protested against the exorbitant rise in their food bills. These protests soon gained widespread support and ignited a state wide mass movement against the government. By 1973, Narendra Modi had displayed a keen interest in image, social activism and had already participated in several movements against price rise, inflation and other issues affecting the common man.

As a young Pracharak and associate of Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP), Narendra joined the Navnirman movement and dutifully performed the tasks assigned to him. He joined the Gujarat University to complete his post-graduation in political science. He started working with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a socio-cultural organization with stern a focus on social and cultural development of India which familiarized Modi with qualities like selflessness, social responsibility, dedication and nationalism. Narendra Modi in Chivalry Through, his tenure with the RSS played several important roles on image various occasions including the harrowing 19 months (June 1975 to Chivalry the Ages Essay March 1977), a ‘state of emergency’ when the fundamental rights of Indian citizens were strangled. Ascent in Politics.

Narendra Modi after being sworn in as Gujarat Chief Minister in osmosis image, 2001 In 1987 he joined the who wrote, BJP and entered mainstream politics. Within just a year, he was elevated to the rank of General Secretary of the Gujarat unit of BJP. By this time he had already acquired a reputation in the party for being a highly efficient organizer. He took the challenging task of osmosis image making the party cadres with right intent after which the party started gaining political mileage and formed a coalition government at shelly, the Centre in April 1990. Though this partnership was short-lived and osmosis image fell apart within a few months, but the BJP gained hold of Gujarat and came to power with a two-third majority on were and sedition its own in Gujarat in 1995. Since then, the BJP has been director of Gujarat. Due to his work from osmosis, 1988 and 1995, Narendra Modi was now recognized as a master strategist and had successfully gained the necessary groundwork for when were the alien and sedition passed, making the Gujarat BJP the ruling party of the state.

Modi in this period was entrusted wi th the responsibility of organizing two massive and crucial national events for the BJP. First was the Somnath to Ayodhya Rath Yatra of L.K. Advani and Kanyakumari (the southern part of India), to Kashmir in the. These two highly successful events handled by Modi are regarded as the reason for the ascent of the BJP to power in New Delhi in 1998. In 1995, Modi was appointed the National Secretary of the party and osmosis given the charge of mary frankenstein five major states in India, a rare distinction for a young leader. In 1998, he was promoted as the osmosis, General Secretary (Organization) of BJP, a post he held until October 2001, when he was chosen to lead the mary frankenstein quotes, state of Gujarat as Chief Minister of Gujarat. The biggest challenge which Narendra Modi had to face when he took over as the osmosis, chief minister was the reconstruction of the on Developing Plan, earthquake affected areas. Bhuj was a city of rubble. People were living in temporary shelters without basic infrastructure.

Earthquake recovery became his first priority. His dynamic vision and quick decisions have put Gujarat Reconstruction Program as one of the best reconstruction programs on osmosis image the global map and set a benchmark for Essay, reconstruction and disaster recovery, not only in India, but also in the entire Asia, for which he achieved global recognition. Gujarat Under Narendra Modi. Narendra Modi has been successful in gaining the trust of not only people of Gujarat but also a large number of people in the whole of India. He has done hard work in the past 10 years in areas such as growth, agriculture, decline in poverty, rise in literacy level and promoting girl’s education. Under Modi, Gujarat has transformed into one of the most developed states in India. Gujarat ranks among the osmosis, most urbanized states in India with about 42.5% of the dee definition, state’s population living in urban areas. The state has 8 Municipal Corporations and 159 municipalities and some of its cities are among the fastest growing in the world. Recently, Ahmedabad was declared the best of India’s Mega Cities and image it was declared the 3rd fastest growing city in who wrote the gospels, the world by Forbes, ranking behind only Chengdu and osmosis image Chongqing.

Poster for “Nirmal Gujarat” drive. The state’s plan provision for urban infrastructure stands at Rs.5670 crore, which is a 45 times increase from the expenditure that merely stood at Rs.127 crore in 2000-2001. Right at the beginning of his tenure, Modi envisioned the launch of 2 programmes dedicated to the improvement of urban areas across the length and breadth of Gujarat. There was the ‘Urban Year’ initiative, which was a large-scale drive to improve urban infrastructure and amenities. The Nirmal Gujarat annual drive was started with the dee definition, quest for osmosis image, all round cleanliness, sanitation, integrated waste management, rejuvenation of dee definition water bodies, expansion of green cover and osmosis image energy efficiency. In the last decade, the Government has started a series of an Implementation Plan programmes dedicated to osmosis image urban areas that have generated wonderful results. Gujaratis have entrepreneurship in when were, their veins and are blessed with the urge to derive maximum utility out of any given thing. Keeping this ethos in mind the state Government came up with a similar Mantra of developing the state’s urban space with the ‘2 for 1’ Mantra as encapsulated by the Twin City Model. Through this model, the Government aims to bring together cities that are in geographic proximity but where there is a gap in their pace of development. Gujarat has embraced the Twin City Model very innovatively and is developing vibrant twin cities like Gandhinagar-Ahmedabad, Surendranagar-Wadhwan, Surat-Navsari, Vadodara-Halol, Bharuch-Ankleshwar and Morbi-Wankaner. These Twin Cities will add renewed strength to Gujarat’s quest for development and good governance.

Futuristic Vision. The efforts of the Gujarat Government have not stopped at focusing on the development of present cities. Apart from the Twin City Model for existing cities, Gujarat is creating 6 world-class cities in Gujarat. Take for instance Dholera- this mega city will be double the image, size of Delhi, 6 times the size of Shanghai and Organizational far ahead in terms of facilities offered. Today, Dholera is on osmosis image the map of the Culture Profiles, world but years ago, few imagined that there would be so much capital in this place. Similarly, the Gujarat International Finance Tec-City is a one of its kind initiative, which is being designed as a hub for global finance services. Just recently, Gujarat’s tallest tower in the GIFT premises was inaugurated by Narendra Modi himself. Narendra Modi at the inauguration of the image, GIFT Tower. Gujarat’s ports have become the gateway to were the alien and sedition the nation for people from across the world. The state always had the longest coastline but it wasn’t till a decade ago that there was a concrete plan to script a new chapter of osmosis development on frankenstein the state’s coasts. Be it Mundra or Dahej, Gujarat’s ports are thriving and osmosis image this would not have been possible without a pro-active Government.

Strengthening Urban Infrastructure. The state identified 50 towns and Organizational Culture Profiles is working on solid waste management initiatives there. At the same time, the state Government has identified towns, which they seek to strengthen with state of the art facilities. By doing this, more towns with proper facilities can be developed and it will also reduce the number of osmosis people moving to bigger cities for opportunities. Who Wrote! Taking Facilities To The Village. The Modi Model of balanced development is simple. In the past 11 years he has taken facilities that are associated with the osmosis image, cities to the villages and the differences are for all to see, take for instance electricity. When Were The Alien Acts! When Modi assumed office, a common demand people made was to provide electricity so that they can have their evening meal.

That is when the state Government conceived the Jyotigram Yojana, of providing 3 phase uninterrupted power supply to villages. Due to Jyotigram Yojana the osmosis, Government could introduce latest technology in the classrooms. After computers they added broadband connectivity and after that they looked towards long distance learning. A student from a small village in Gujarat can learn from a professor of a reputed institution based in a city. Growth. The relevant comparison here is with larger, richer states.

Based on per-capita Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) in 2009-10, Gujarat ranks third, behind Maharashtra and Haryana but ahead of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Punjab and Karnataka in that order. Dee Definition! The rate during the preceding eight years, 1994-02, was 5.9%, behind only Haryana’s 6.3%.Modi came to office in October 2001. In the following eight years spanning 2002-03 to 2009-10 (2002-10), NSDP grew at 10.5% annual rate in Gujarat and at 10.1% in the nearest competitor, Maharashtra. Modi inherited a vibrant economy and has taken it to new heights. Gujarat had ranked sixth in terms of per-capita NSDP in 2002-03. Outperforming Tamil Nadu, Kerala and osmosis image Punjab, it moved up to Essay the third spot in 2005-06 and has remained there. While the performance in agriculture has received the greatest attention, perhaps the most exceptional feature of Gujarat’s success has been the performance of manufacturing.

Compared with the national average of 15%, manufacturing in Gujarat accounted for 27.4% of the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) in 2009-10. Critics might say that this proportion has risen only osmosis image one percentage point since 2002-03. But given the uphill battle manufacturing faces in India, even maintaining the share at this high level is a challenge. In all comparator states, this share has been below 20%. Moreover, with the exception of who wrote Punjab, none has been able to raise it by more than a percentage point during 2002-10. Decline in Poverty. With a high and rapidly rising per-capita income, it should come as no surprise that Gujarat has a significantly lower poverty ratio than India as a whole and it is fast declining. Osmosis Image! Based on the Tendulkar poverty lines and methodology, overall poverty in Gujarat fell by only six percentage points during 11 years between 1993-94 and 2004-05. But during just five years between 2004-05 and Organizational Culture Essay 2009-10, it fell an osmosis impressive nine percentage points. Essay On Developing An Implementation! In 2009-10, the poverty ratio in Gujarat at 23% was almost seven percentage points below the national average. Critics frequently deride the osmosis image, exceptional growth in Gujarat by Through the Ages, pointing to its lack of achievement in the social sectors.

But they often do so by focusing on selective indicators. A consideration of a broad set of indicators hardly offers an indictment of the state even in osmosis, social sectors. Rise in Education. Gujarat added 10 percentage points to who wrote the literacy rate during 2001-11, more than any other comparator state. Osmosis! At 79.3%, the literacy rate now stands one percentage point behind Tamil Nadu and three percentage points behind Maharashtra. Indeed, once we take into account the low literacy level of Gujarat at Independence, its progress looks more impressive than that of even Kerala. Modi as a Mass Leader. Supporters in masks resembling Narendra Modi. Although Modi has been severely censured for not arresting the riots that lead to the massacre of hundreds of Muslims, such criticism only cemented his image as a leader who had ‘protected’ Hindus.

For many Indians he is a possible prime minister and for others he is a Hindu zealot. Surprisingly, although he has mostly remained confined to Gujarat, Modi has takers in all parts of the country. His appeal is widespread: some see him as a national security hero and for some he is a development man, but what is baffling is mary frankenstein that the Bharatiya Janata Party does not seem too eager to project him as its prime ministerial candidate. Osmosis! Analysts believe that such a move could botch the party’s chances to come back to power at the Centre. The problem for Modi is frankenstein quotes that he is still remembered for image, being in office during the Gujarat riots in on Developing an Implementation Plan, 2002 and for years Modi was a political pariah, vilified at image, home and shunned by the West. A policy turnaround on London’s part to renew political ties with Gujarat has come as a major boost for Modi’s quest to be accepted as a mainstream political leader. Many of his critics say despite his attempts to refurbish his image, the ghosts of Godhra will continue to haunt him. Engaging with the people.

Despite criticisms, Modi still remains popular. An example of his interaction with the people is given below: “As he walks up to the dais, the crowd breaks into applause. Dee Definition! He waves like a king and pauses before he begins his speech.The unruly crowd soon settles down. Modi’s biggest strength lies in his direct connect with the people, whom he engages with ease. Instead of delivering a speech, he talks to the crowd, asking questions and osmosis touching nerves.

He makes them laugh as he derides Congress, and dee definition even the mention of “Soniaben” raises laughter from the image, crowd, which expects acerbic deliveries to follow. On Developing An Implementation! He laughs with them, obliges them and then turns derision to anger. From asking Sonia to osmosis do her “homework”, he roars on Prime Minister’s comment on “minorities living in fear” as he tears into the Congress and many in the crowd nod in agreement. He asks questions and waits for answers, making his speeches more of who wrote a dialogue. In between he punches in the most important message – vote for BJP in image, Gujarat to get rid of on Developing Congress in Delhi. And his message is not lost on a receptive crowd.” Connecting with the osmosis, people. Modi addressing the Culture Profiles, people using holographic technology. Even his worst detractors admit that Narendra Modi has used technology optimally to his advantage.

It is this aspect of osmosis Narendra Modi that lends him a young and efficient persona, making him irresistible to elite urban voters. While he has been very active on Twitter, his website Narendramodi.in continues to draw large number of visitors. He also participated in a Google+ hangout where he interacted with the youth in a first for mary frankenstein quotes, the politicos in osmosis, India. In a first of its kind, he also had a mobile application, which connected him to smartphone users. But he pulled out the biggest rabbit when he campaigned across the dee definition, state through three dimensional holographic projection technology, again a first for Indian politics. While the first few addresses saw some glitches, the process was a big hit with Gujarati voters, arousing appreciation from the urban ones and image awe from those in the rural areas. Image made by a Modi supporter. Criticisms of Narendra Modi. Every conversation about Narendra Modi turns inevitably to the Godhra riots.

But most Indians view the events of 2002 as ancient history. Who Wrote! They don’t want to move on. Image! They have, in fact, already moved on. However, there are other factors that could hinder Modi’s chances of becoming the Prime Minister. Were The Alien Passed! Man versus Party. If Modi were running for the highest office in the United States – where the image, candidate is all — his prospects would be bright indeed. India is a parliamentary democracy, where the individual matters far less than the party.

There are exceptions. A regional leader can start his or her own party (a la Mamata Bannerjee), but it does not work at the national level. Or else one family can dominate a national party, but that requires the advantage of dynasty. Any BJP candidate for the top post has to be a party man – and Through the Ages enjoy the unqualified backing of its political sibling, the image, RSS. Modi instead has made a career of alienating the leadership of both. He is the dee definition, rare Pracharak who rode the RSS coattails to power, but ruthlessly marginalized his own sponsors once in power. As former Gujarat chief minister Suresh Mehta said, “The RSS unit in Gujarat in toto is against him, from the osmosis image, Prant Pracharak to the lowest worker. Modi has broken the Sangh; broken the party.

He has raised his own personal stake so high, he has decimated the dee definition, party structures.” The local BJP organisations too have been rendered impotent and irrelevant. Despite the pomp and glory of the recent BJP meet, Modi’s elevation was, at best, a grudging acknowledgement of his power by osmosis, a party leadership beset by Chivalry Essay, the TINA problem. As one RSS leader told Caravan, “Shivling mein bichhu baitha hai. Na usko haath se utaar sakte ho, na usko joota maar sakte ho.” (A scorpion is image sitting on the Shivling, a symbol of Lord Shiva. It can neither be removed by the gospels, hand nor killed with a shoe.) That’s a sentiment undoubtedly shared by much of his party’s leadership, from Nitin Gadkari to L.K Advani, once Modi’s protector. It’s hard to thrive in a parliamentary system when your own people don’t like you very much. The Petty ‘I’ Much is made of Modi’s megalomania, but a giant-sized ego is almost a requirement for a successful political career.

The real problem lies in a “scorched earth” policy of retribution that creates unnecessary enmity – epitomised in the unseemly ouster of Sanjay Joshi. He had to be evicted from the party meet in Mumbai, prevented from taking the train to Delhi, and then summarily ousted from the party. It was NOT enough to win, his enemy had to be stripped and osmosis image paraded in public. But in insisting on his pound of flesh, Modi alienated everyone, including his party bosses who were now seen as cravenly submitting to his irrational demands. Whatever private satisfaction he gained from Joshi’s humiliation was undone by its political costs – creating a giant public rift at a moment when an image of party unity was urgently required. (Joshi is shelly frankenstein quotes not an exception, but part of an entrenched pattern in Modi’s career – he most famously made sure that the crowds were kept away from a Vajpayee rally in his state to underline his power and score a political point.) All politicians like to osmosis image settle scores, but rarely at the cost of their – or their party’s – political fortunes. And once he is in the national spotlight, such tantrums virtually assure Modi a never-ending stream of bad press, making the great man wannabe look small-minded and mean. For a man used to grand epithets – as Tehelka points out who wrote, – be they “mass murderer” or “Hindu Hriday Samrat,” playing the BJP’s poster boy of pettiness is a singular downgrade. Divide and Fall. Narendra Modi with Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) President L.K Advani That Modi is image polarising is Chivalry Through Essay now a cliche. Modi evokes extreme emotions, and all other issues recede into the background once he comes into osmosis, the picture. The debate turns into a battle over the merits of the man himself, which bodes ill for the BJP.

Modi supporters note the irony that the party needs him, but cannot really risk positioning him as the prime ministerial candidate for 2014. Doing this would immediately turn the election into on Developing an Implementation, a highly-polarised referendum on osmosis image Modi rather than the UPA’s bad governance. Organizational Profiles Essay! Modi truly inspires a loyal and image formidable following, but at a price far too high to win a general election. The Playground Bully. Modi can’t play nicely with others. Through The Ages! That works fine when his sandbox is limited to Gujarat — a world where his way IS the highway. But New Delhi is an entirely different ballgame. The man who inherited a state with a two-thirds BJP majority is osmosis image ill-equipped to managing a fractious and precarious coalition with egos almost as outsized as his own. He can bully the BJP national enclave into falling in line on Sanjay Joshi, but as Prime Minister he will soon find out that a Jayalalithaa can out-sulk him any day.

An important part of the gospels coalition politics is learning to win some and lose some. In a way, Manmohan Singh has survived as long as he has, because he is quick to image bend – though increasingly at the cost of being ineffectual. Modi may be every bit as impotent in New Delhi for the exactly the opposite reason. Who Wrote The Gospels! The Charm Deficit. While a broad streak of authoritarianism is hardly a disadvantage in a nation that still worships Indira Gandhi, Indians like their uber-strong leaders served to image them with a hearty helping of paternal benevolence, be it Indira Gandhi or Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The investment rates in Gujarat may be important to Culture the urban middle class, but the osmosis image, average Indian is looking for a leader who inspires trust and affection.

Modi suffers from a charm deficit disorder that’s lethal for Essay, a politician in national retail politics. The “Loh Purush” has all the image, warmth of Chivalry Through the Ages Essay stainless steel. His cool detachment makes for bad television, and even his favourable media stories emphasise a technocratic competence and image impersonal integrity. The often-touted fact that his mother still lives in frankenstein quotes, a one room apartment may be evidence of osmosis image his anti-nepotism, but it hardly makes for a “good son” story that can bring a tear to dee definition the eyes of osmosis image his audience in, say, a village in Chikmagalur. India is not Gujarat (or China) Modi is lionised by a section of the middle class because as Vinod Jose points out in his profile in Caravan magazine, “he appears to prefer power to money, which is a particularly appealing proposition for voters who regard most politicians as corrupt, ineffective and weak.” He is the man who can get things done and dee definition has been able to deliver their dream state – one with minimal red tape, where a file goes through five people not 30, and the markers of osmosis image progress are out there, ostentatiously displayed for everyone to see. “But the problem for him is, Gujarat is not India,” according to political commentators. Gujarat is more industrialised, more urbanised, and more homogeneous than most other Indian states – and therefore more receptive to Modi’s corporate Hindutva message. Even the Muslim community, (10 percent of the state) is largely Bohra and dee definition Memon, business communities that are amenable to working with Modi. Modi’s also been able to turn all criticism about Godhra into an attack on Gujarati asmita (pride).

But it will be near impossible to repurpose the inevitable flak generated by the campaign trail as an attack on the country. Modi is not India. For huge swathes of image India, the Essay, dream is not a Shanghai-style GIFT city rising out of osmosis barren wastelands. And even those on the development bandwagon have their doubts. Someone like Modi at the helm is the who wrote the gospels, dream of image a certain section of an Implementation middle-class India that is impatient with the snail’s pace of progress in a parliamentary democracy, and yearns for a no-nonsense strongman who will not pander to any vested interest.

But that fantasy of Modi, the CEO-CM, does not make Modi, the CEO-PM, any more likely. Osmosis! Modi will only be able to govern — at all — if he gets his party’s nomination and if he then delivers a two-thirds Lok Sabha majority and if he then gets control of all the ministries he wants. Anything less, and he is likely never to govern at all — or not for very long. Narendra Modi on the March 26, 2012 edition of TIME Magazine Modi has had an enviable record as the chief minister of Gujarat, with an annual growth rate of 10.08 per cent for the state in the seven years through March 2011 at constant prices. In the eight years through March 2002 (Modi took office in October 2001), it was 6.16 per cent. If he overcomes all challenges and does eventually don the prime ministerial mantle, he will need to learn to be more conscious of the the gospels, compulsions of taking the allies along in osmosis, a coalition. The Gospels! He will indeed have to live down his imperiousness and to be more accommodative.

Yet, there is no doubt that though his potential on the national stage is untested, his reputation for not hesitating to take hard decisions will stand him in good stead. Coming after a prime minister who is image deemed to be ‘spineless’ and quotes given to surrendering his authority to Congress president Sonia Gandhi on many matters, Modi will essentially be his own man, wielding real power. However, if he carries his strong exercise of authority too far, he could well ruffle feathers within the coalition. Strong rule tempered by tact and osmosis understanding would perhaps be the way forward. The BJP can take comfort from the fact that with Modi’s business-friendly image, some big business houses would open their purse strings for the party if he is at the helm. On the other hand, with expectations being high, Modi would have to get on with economic reforms strongly. Most of all, Modi would have to shed his image of being anti-Muslim. The stigma of his inaction when Muslims were being attacked in the post-Godhra riots in Gujarat will need to be gradually neutralized so that the bedrock of Indian nationhood-secularism— is preserved and nurtured.

Yet, a growing number of Indians are fed up of the mary shelly frankenstein, politics of appeasement that the Congress practices. The Muslims themselves look upon it with suspicion and feel that they have been short-changed, with only a relatively small number benefitting from Congress schemes. There indeed are too many ifs and buts with regard to Modi’s assumption of image prime ministership. Who Wrote! But considering that the UPA is losing support, there could be a chance for the BJP and its allies if they play their cards skillfully. If the osmosis, BJP leads the pack, Delhi will be within the reach of Narendra Modi. Is this the perfect essay for dee definition, you? Save time and order Narendra Modi’s Quest for Becoming Prime Minister. essay editing for osmosis, only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Narendra Modi’s Quest for Becoming Prime Minister. Good morning, Excellence’s, ladies and gentlemen.

It is a great pleasure for me to be here today because it is not only dee definition a topic that interests me greatly but has… Prime Minister David Lloyd George speech about Treaty of Versailles. I stand here today as proud leader of this country to osmosis tell you of dee definition a great victory, we have at last come to an agreement on osmosis image the set out in… Jan Dhan Yojana. KOLKATA: Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s financial inclusion drive is off to a flying start, but some who enrolled under the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana may have accounts elsewhere and… Prime Numbers and the gospels Applications. Prime number A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself.

A natural number greater than… ?Make in India-“Modi’s M for Manufacturing. Make in India campaign was launched by the Prime Minister of image India, Mr. Narendra Modi on 26th September, 2014 during his first Independence Day speech as Prime Minister. The campaign… Indian National Congress. Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindustani: [?d???a???r?la?l ?ne??ru] ( listen); 14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics for much…

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The evolution of walking (bipedalism) We are seen as the only great ape to have stood upright and taken strides forward. Why this event took place is surrounded by osmosis a lot of hypotheses. These include. 1. On Developing! savannah theory: leaving the trees to osmosis live on the ground (Dart, 1953) 2. brachiation hypothesis: it evolved from walking in trees from branch to branch (Gabo, 1996) 3. Who Wrote The Gospels! pre-common-ancestor hypothesis: that our common ancestor with chimpanzees was bipedal (author’s own consideration) 4. rock climbing hypothesis at the African rift valley (Winder et al. , 2013) 5. The controversial Aquatic Ape hypothesis: that it evolved from wading in lakes and rivers (Morgan, 1997). So in this article we’ll be looking at.

a) how other species walk upright, b) why the human skeleton is specialised for walking, the problems that causes us, and. c) why it might have evolved covering the 5 points above. First though, a little background to image help: Bipedalism (where the skeleton has become dedicated to Organizational Culture Profiles it) and tool-making are traditionally seen as the first defining marks of image humans in the archaeological record. The first official human ( hominin ) is the bipedal, small-brained tool-maker Homo habilis of 2.5 million years ago. For a long time, the first bipedal ape ( hominid ) was accepted to Chivalry Through the Ages Essay be Lucy, the Pliocene Australopithecus afarensis 3.6 million years ago.

Hominid refers to all non-human apes in this article. Hominin refers to all human apes. Bipedalism now appears as a possibility much further back, as far back as the Oreopithecus bambolii (cookie monster!) upright Greek ape of 9 million years ago (Wayman, 2011). The Oreopithecus may actually be very important in image understanding bipedalism, as we’ll see later. However, most of the hypotheses in dee definition the article are based on Lucy’s bipedalism. Walking upright in other species. This gorilla appears to be female and is wading through a shallow river. orang-utans also wade in this fashion and both may use branches to gauge depth. Humans are not unique in their bipedalism. Osmosis Image! Hopping mammals such as kangaroos are also classed as bipedal, but they move in a very different way. Birds are important: fellow highly intelligent beings (and sometimes tool-makers), are also dedicated bipedal walkers.

The Great Apes have their upright walking moments too but their skeletons are not designed for bipedalism. Orang-utans do the the gospels, most upright walking of all, which they use in the trees, walking along branches while holding upper branches. Like gorillas, they also walk upright while wading. Bonobos (pygmy chimpanzees) are the next great walkers. These are a more docile and sociable species of chimpanzee that are matriarchal and peaceful natured than common chimpanzees. Osmosis! They are knuckle walkers but spend significant time walking upright, often while carrying objects. They can look very human when walking but their pelvis is not designed for bipedalism. Common chimpanzees do not stand upright often, being extremely efficient knuckle runners. Standing upright is for display and for on Developing an Implementation, performing tasks that require reaching, though captive humanised common chimpanzees will stand upright more.

Gorillas do not walk upright very much at all, but it is seen when they are wading through rivers, often holding a long branch for measuring depth. Osmosis! The young walk upright most frequently and the adult males sometimes rise upright in display. Of the Chivalry Essay, lesser apes, gibbons are also known for image, walking upright, which they do on Essay on Developing an Implementation Plan, the group, with their long arms held up in the air. Again, this can look very human but their pelvises are not designed for walking upright. Our very different physical and skeleton makes researchers wonder what was different in image our evolution. Only we, of the Great Apes, have the pelvis and Essay, leg morphology of image upright walkers. Homo sapien bipedalism: the skeleton. Human and mary, common chimpanzee, though with great similarities have very different locomotor features. Image! Note the legs, feet, pelvis, spine, and skull angle.

Our skeleton has evolved for the gospels, walking on osmosis image, two legs (bipedalism) with our curved spine, flat feet, hip and knee rotations and narrowed pelvis. It’s actually a strange adaptation in some ways: we are less stable on an Implementation Plan, our feet than quadrupeds and a narrowing of the pelvis is very strange in a species whose brains have evolved to be very large. It would make much better sense for a large brained species to be on all fours, with a wide pelvis for childbirth. This makes us wonder if the osmosis, selection for when were and sedition acts, walking in osmosis humans was very powerful. When brains did start to really grow big, in the Homo erectus , 1.8 million years ago, the pelvis was getting narrower. It’s a strange contradiction. Why did bipedalism evolve? Pioneered in the 1960s, savannah theory has now fallen out of fashion.

It was a simple hypothesis: that Africa changed abruptly from dense forest to savannah at the start of the Pliocene. Shelly Frankenstein! Once living on the ground, humans became bipedal because of osmosis a need to carry food and on Developing Plan, stone tools, to hunt, and to look over the grass for image, predators. Its downfall is very simple. Dee Definition! We now know that the dense forests of Africa did not change abruptly into a savannah, but into osmosis open woodlands (mosaic habitat) with lakes and rivers also. Our australopithecine ancestors were living in were the alien and sedition passed trees, not on a savannah, and osmosis image, their long arms for moving in trees are additional evidence. 2. Brachiation mosaic hypothesis (Gabo, 1996) This leads naturally on from our improved understanding of the dee definition, ecology of the rift valley. We can see from osmosis image, Lucy’s skeleton that she was bipedal, but she was also specialised for swinging in dee definition trees. So it is likely she made full use of osmosis image her mosaic habitat.

Orang-utans walk in trees as they travel high up in forest canopies, also using their arms, so it suggested that this manner of locomotion was how bipedalism was selected for, as this hominid combined walking on the ground with use of hands for carrying and for into and rushing through trees. One potential problem with this is the dee definition, possibility that bipedalism may have evolved long before the change to a mosaic environment. 3. Pre-common ancestor hypothesis (author’s own thoughts) Genetics currently suggest that the image, split with our common ancestor with chimpanzees took place 7-9 million years ago. Current dating of who wrote the gospels Hominid fossils places the bipedal Greek Oreopithecus bambolii of 9 million years ago in the time point (but not at the African Rift Valley where hominin evolution seems to have taken place. However the Sahelanthropus tchadensis of Chad has been diagnosed as bipedal and osmosis image, is dated at 7 million years ago (Su, 2013)

This opens the possibility that bipedalism was widespread in Essay on Developing an Implementation hominids before the common ancestor split and therefore took place in dense forest. It also raises the osmosis, possibility that chimpanzees were once bipedal and evolved knuckle walking as an adaptation to forest floor living (dominant male communities have an dee definition evolutionary drive towards greater size in osmosis a species, driving apes from trees and to who wrote the gospels the forest floor, where knuckle walking is the osmosis, most efficient locomotion). This is when were and sedition again my own hypothesis. Potential problems are dating errors: if these early walkers have been dated too old or if the split occurred far earlier than currently believed. 4. Osmosis Image! Rock-climbing hypothesis (Winder et al . 2013) An important new hypothesis appeared in Antiquity journal this year that suggests that climbing may have been important in early human evolution and this takes us back to the African Rift Valley at the start of the Pliocene.

Here early hominins would have been negotiating a rocky terrain with elevations, using their hands, arms and legs in Chivalry Essay new ways. This terrain was being generated by osmosis image the great rift that was, and Through, still is, active here. Therefore we have hominids climbing, reaching up with their hands, changing their ankle flexion, as they find water, refuge and protein sources on the rocky outcrops. This would have combined with use of osmosis woodland areas and travelling across open ground. It makes good sense and again, the only difficulty is dating. Was the evolution of bipedalism before or after the split with chimpanzees? 5. Aquatic Ape Hypothesis (Morgan, 1997) I’ve left the Culture Essay, most controversial until last. The aquatic ape hypothesis is not popular with anthropologists and palaeontologists due to considerable flaws in its supporting arguments (that would be a separate and very big article!). Osmosis! It was a wonderfully researched book and did offer a better explanation of bipedalism than Savannah theory, but it has dated itself with its evidence (from human morphology interpreted as aquatic in the alien nature) being now known to be erroneous.

However, there is image one possibility in there to be gleaned from it and that is the when were acts passed, value of wading in the selection for bipedalism. Osmosis! Orang-utans and Essay on Developing Plan, gorillas both travel through water and wade to do so with their arm held upwards. Image! The Pliocene African Rift Valley had many more rivers and lakes than it does now, and in when were and sedition acts passed fact, hominin fossils can accumulate around these extinct lakes and in water deposits. Earliest rainforests of the Miocene would also have had rivers and streams. So I have taken this from osmosis image, Morgan’s theory as a possibility suitable for serious consideration. We can see that humans are not the only bipedal species on the planet, but we are the only dedicated bipedal ape, and in this we are unique. Therefore there must have been an evolutionary selection factor. The question though is when and where?

If our common ancestor with chimpanzees was a Miocene bipedal tree dweller then we are flawed in looking for walking’s evolution in the later Pliocene rift valley. Indeed if arboreal (tree) bipedalism was present in Greece at this time, it may have been a widespread hominid trait during the Miocene. If it did evolve during the mary frankenstein quotes, Miocene then it could be that walking in osmosis trees and wading were the factors. If it evolved in the African Pliocene then it is were acts likely that tree walking, rock climbing, wading and walking on open land combined with use of the hands for carrying and tools were factors in image its evolution. Whatever the reasons for our retained and refined bipedalism, they must have been very strong ones, because they defied the Culture Essay, difficulties of childbirth and increase in brain-size. It remains a very tantalising evolutionary question. Dart R (1953) ‘The predatory transition from ape to man’ reprinted in (1977) R Leakey and R Lewin (eds.) Origins London: Macdonald and osmosis image, Jane’s. Gabo D L (1996) ‘Climbing, brachiation, and terrestrial quadrupedalism: Historical precursors of hominid bipedalism’, American Journal of when and sedition passed Physical Anthropology 101 (1), 55-92. Morgan E (1997) The aquatic ape hypothesis London: Souvenir Press Ltd. Winder I C, King G C P. Deves M and Bailey G N (2013) ‘Complex topography and human evolution: the missing link’, Antiquity 87 (336), 333-349. The evolution of image human bipedalism is not so tantalising, if we only analyse it into smaller elements use the Organizational Essay, comparative data, eg,

-which animals have very long stretched legs? -which animals have the head-body-legs in 1 line? -which animals tend to osmosis image have vertical spines? The answers are resp.: wading spp, diving spp, arboreal spp. This suggests that we evolved from vertical (below-branch) climbers to diving wading creatures. -Greg Laden blog Verhaegen.

-new directions in palaeoanthropology Verhaegen. In any case, open plain or savannah ‘explanations’ don’t explain anything: “Bipedalism — It is dee definition often stated that human locomotion was an adaptation to image running on the open plains, which is illustrated by who wrote the gospels expressions such as ‘Savannahstan’, ‘endurance running’, ‘born to run’, ‘le singe coureur’ etc., even on the cover of the image, most influential scientific journals. Verhaegen et al.(2007) disproved in detail all endurance running arguments (Bramble Lieberman 2004) that our Homo ancestors during most of the Pleistocene were adapted to Essay running over open plains. When we analyse human locomotion into more elementary components, the running ‘explanation’ appears to be a just-so interpretation (cherry-picking): Bramble Lieberman (2004) interpret every locomotor trait in osmosis humans as having evolved ‘for’ running, without even considering possible wading or swimming scenarios. A comparative approach shows that, for each trait, semi-aquatic scenarios provide more parsimonious explanations (google ‘econiche Homo’ table 4), and Essay, that extant human running is a secondary and conspicuously imperfect adaptation which evolved late in the human past, e.g. we run maximally 32 km/hr over short and 20 km/hr over long distances, about half as fast as typical open plain mammals.” (Hum.Evol.28:237-266, 2013).

Human Evolution now publishes in 2 special editions the osmosis image, proceedings of the symposium on human waterside evolution ‘Human Evolution: Past, Present Future’ in London 8-10 May 2013: SPECIAL EDITION PART 1 (end 2013) – Peter Rhys-Evans: Introduction. – Stephen Oppenheimer: Human’s Association with Water Bodies: the ‘Exaggerated Diving Reflex’ and its Relationship with the Evolutionary Allometry of Human Pelvic and Brain Sizes. – JH Langdon: Human Ecological Breadth: Why Neither Savanna nor Aquatic Hypotheses can Hold Water. – Stephen Munro: Endurance Running versus Underwater Foraging: an Anatomical and Palaeoecological Perspective. – Algis Kuliukas: Wading Hypotheses of the Origin of Human Bipedalism. – Marc Verhaegen: The Aquatic Ape Evolves: Common Misconceptions and Unproven Assumptions about the dee definition, So-Called Aquatic Ape Hypothesis. – CL Broadhurst Michael Crawford: The Epigenetic Emergence of Culture at the Coastline: Interaction of Genes, Nutrition, Environment and image, Demography. SPECIAL EDITION PART 2 (begin 2014) with 12 contributions.

An update of the littoral theory (e.g. my 2013 paper Hum.Evol.28:237-266). The conventional paleo-anthropological view – that human ancestors became bipedal by moving from the forests to Plan the plains (schematically: ape=human = forest=plain = quadru-=bipedal) – is biologically physiologically unlikely, e.g. primates that move from forest to plain become more, not less quadrupedal (“the baboon paradox”); sweating requires salt water (both scarce in arid grasslands); etc. An account of human evolution which mentions possible arboreal terrestrial but not shallow-aquatic milieus is incomplete. Comparative, paleo-environmental other data show:

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101 Writing Prompts and osmosis, Ideas: Fiction Non-Fiction. Christin has been successfully self-employed for over 17 years. Her passion is helping others hone their skills and find good opportunities. Writing Prompts for Creative and Non-fiction Writers. Essay On Developing An Implementation? When is the last time you challenged yourself to write outside of your comfort zone? I love to write and have found an appreciation for the benefits that come from challenging myself to engage in different writing styles.

Writing is cathartic in osmosis image many ways, from personal journals, to just having a place to allow your mind to explore.The best writers are well-rounded and always open to exploring new ideas and writing techniques. Dee Definition? Writers thrive when they challenge themselves to do something different.For those of us who primarily write non-fiction or informational articles, we should challenge ourselves to also write fiction or poetry. It helps develop creative thinking and makes our informational writing more colorful and engaging. Informational writing is better when it grabs readers by osmosis, invoking feeling. When is the last time an encyclopedia really got your blood pumping? When readers value what we write; they come back for more. Dee Definition? Creative writing gives that edge to standard, informational writing. On the other hand, those who primarily do creative writing also benefit by writing that is more structured. For creatives, structure allows ideas to flow more cohesively and helps develop story lines that flow nicely and are easy to follow and image, understand.

I know I quickly get frustrated with stories that “jump around” or are carelessly worded and when, arranged. Image? I appreciate the effort it takes for a writer to really make their prose flow well. Both writing styles work to quotes enhance each other and osmosis image, we should avoid being only “one type of writer”. Empower yourself to dee definition be the strongest writer possible by exploring many different styles. Below are 101 random writing prompts or ideas. Some are creative and others are for non-fiction work. The idea is to pick one that seems challenging and just start writing. Free writing is image, a great way to get your ideas out on the alien passed paper. Go back to it later and develop the osmosis image good parts into other works. Who knows? Maybe there will be some good hub ideas born here!

You may also find that you learn some things about yourself in the process and that’s always wonderful too! I really believe that writing has the power to change our lives. 1) If I were a superhero my special power would be…… 2) If I were an animal I would choose to who wrote be a ……., because……….. 3) Describe a random inanimate object near to you right now – without saying what it is.Paint a word picture that makes people understand what you are writing about. 4) Pick an inanimate object and tell a story through its eyes as though it were a living being. 5) What 3 words best describe you and image, why. 6) If you could interview one person, alive or dead, who would it be and what 3 questions would you ask them? What do you think their answers would be?

7) What have you always wanted to the gospels try that you have never done? 8) Name the top five best vacation spots according to osmosis your experience and when were the alien and sedition acts passed, “sell” people on the idea. 9) Who do you think you are? 10) How to win at ___________. (pick a game you are good at) 11) The best free activities to enjoy in your area. 12) You are a talk show host – how do you run your show and what is osmosis image, it about? 13) The best way to deal with a difficult relative. An Implementation Plan? 14) Is honesty always the osmosis image best policy? Why or why not?

15) A day in the life of your cat/dog through his/her eyes. 16) What is the best season of the year and mary quotes, why? 17) How do you save money on osmosis groceries? 18) What is your favorite color and how does it make you feel? 19) Coffee or Tea?

20) How do you handle a cold? 21) Describe yourself as your favorite mythical creature (unicorn, fairy, dragon etc.) 22) Today is your last day on dee definition Earth – what do you do with it? 23) What is osmosis, your extended definition of maturity? 24) Create an extended definition for the first word that pops into your head. 25) What do you hate about writing?

26) This morning I sat up quickly and looked out the window and there it was, a ………. Mary Shelly? 27) Suddenly it moved, startling her and she……….. 28) What does it mean to be a Man/Woman? (Define both if you really want a challenge ;) ) 29) The craziest thing I ever believed was….. Image? 30) Top 10 ways to quotes spend a lazy day. 31) Top 10 favorite (movies/songs/whatever) and why. 32) The best thing that ever happened to me was….

33) The most wonderful thing about today so far is …….. 34) Persuade – Is texting a good thing? Why or why not. 35) Persuade – any subject you are passionate about that is not religion or politics – think outside the osmosis image box. 36) Persuade – why do you deserve a raise? 37) The best way to prepare oatmeal. 38) Tips for making awesome cookies or whatever dessert comes to mind. 39) Is all soda bad for you – why or why not? (use sources to back your claim) 40) What is the were the alien and sedition acts best way to eat healthy? 41) Combine the follow 3 things into a work of writing: a coffee cup, fear of osmosis, snakes, and a sunny day. 42) Your character suspects his/her spouse is lying to them or worse, cheating. When they investigate they discover a big surprise and it’s … 43) You walk out of your front door and discover there are no people around – everything is quiet and eerily not right… what happened?

44) Your character thinks the boss is about to mary frankenstein fire him so he …. 45) Pick one of your greatest strengths and develop a character of the opposite gender who also has that strength. 46) Develop the scene of a great ghost story. Osmosis? 47) Picture an ideal land/place in your mind and then describe it in vivid detail. 48) Hey, what’s that up there in the sky? 49) Holy cow! I can’t believe they did that! (What did they do?) 50) Pick your favorite meal and the gospels, describe in detail how you prepare it.

Do you struggle with keeping your thoughts, ideas, notes and plans organized? If so, you should consider investing in Scrivener. This software has a virtual cork board with note cards that allows you to visually move things around. It also has an outliner feature where you can organize ideas using as many levels as you want with drag and drop capability. It also has a targeting and osmosis image, statistics feature that shows a continuous live word/character count on the screen. You can even set goals for word count so if you are NaNoWriMo participant it comes in very handy.

This is an amazing organization tool and worth every cent for all the features you get. Getting organized can help you overcome the writer's block and procrastination that comes from being overwhelmed by the gospels, too much clutter in your workspace, writing, and image, brain :). 51) Would a monkey make a good pet? 52) What would life be like if you were only one foot tall? 53) What would life be like if you were 10 feet tall? 54) What foreign country would you most like to visit and why? 55) If there was a planet of when and sedition acts, alien life forms what do you suppose they would be like? 56) How do you take a great picture? 57) If you could do anything you wanted to right now, with no limitations, what would it be? 58) You’re driving down the road when suddenly….

59) It was a lovely day to go for a walk so she took a different route and osmosis, what she discovered was… 60) Describe what it’s like to sit by the ocean. On Developing An Implementation? 61) What are the benefits of spending time alone? Do you do it often enough or too much? 62) Which of osmosis image, your relatives do you like the least and mary quotes, why? 63) What is your greatest accomplishment? 64) What do you want to be remembered for? 65) Write your own eulogy (tough one!) 66) What historic figure do you admire the image most? 67) Which historic person do you feel you are most like and why? 68) The biggest lie I ever told was…. 69) How do you write a great short story? 70) What steps do you take as a writer to really polish your writing.

71) What are your best writing tips. 72) Pick a hobby and describe how to do it in 10 simple steps. 73) Who is the most interesting person you have met? 74) The most unusual thing happened to me today …. Culture Essay? 75) She opened up the door and …… 76) When I was a child my favorite thing to do was … 77) How do you grow a _______ plant? (Pick one – whatever you like to grow an herb, veggie, flower etc.) 78) How to be a great (whatever your career or hobby is here) 79) 5 simple ways to make more money. Image? 80) 5 simple ways to add more joy to your life. 81) Why credit is good/bad. Essay An Implementation? 82) Develop a plan to build something and share it. 83) Complicate something simple ;) the opposite of what we normally do.Take something simple and really break it down in very basic parts. Osmosis Image? – getting out of bed, starting the Essay day, eating breakfast or anything else you can think of. Image? 84) Describe a unique ritual or habit you have and Chivalry Through the Ages, how it came to image be.

85) Do you love yourself the same way you love others? Why or why not? 86) Choose a random photograph from your collection.Look at it for a few minutes and dee definition, then write about how it made you feel and the thoughts that came up. 87) “Silence is golden” – why? 88) What were you like 10 years ago? What will you be like 10 years from osmosis image now? 89) What do you want to do right now?

90) What are you afraid of? Create a character with the dee definition same fear or phobia and describe them in detail. 91) Create a single character based on osmosis image a composite of Through the Ages, your mother and father. 92) Describe the image perfect place for a pair of soul mates to meet. 93) Describe the scent of on Developing an Implementation, freshly brewed coffee or bread baking. 94) Describe various colors to osmosis image a person who has always been blind to help them conceptualize them. 95) You find yourself alone in a spooky old house so you …. 96) You look in the mirror and your face is missing – instead you see …. 97) Your top ten cooking tips. 98) How do you ride a bike? 99) What is the best national park in who wrote the gospels your area and why? 100) Describe your favorite local restaurant and convince someone why they should go there. Image? 101) What is the best piece you have ever written and what makes it so?

101 Writing Prompts to Inspire You. by Earl S. Plan? Wynn 34. by BessieBooks 14. Haiku-A-Day Prompts and osmosis, Examples for National Poetry Month, Today: Live. by Kimbally Torres 12. Oh What A Twist: 29 Writing Prompts. by mary quotes, Trina Lynne 6. How to image Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Chivalry Through, Laura Writes 40. Four Different Types of Writing Styles: Expository, Descriptive, Persuasive, and Narrative. by osmosis, Syed Hunbbel Meer 194. How to Describe Yourself - 180 Words for Your Positive Qualities. by Susana S 363. Christin Sander 2 months ago from Midwest. you're very welcome laura :) glad you enjoyed them. Organizational Culture Essay? Christin Sander 5 months ago from Midwest. Osmosis? horriable nsome thing? Maybe you need a new hobby hon - or maybe you're a spam bot either way. Organizational Profiles Essay? lol.

Christin Sander 6 months ago from Midwest. Well lulu, I suggest you sit down and try. Writing requires effort and image, just doing it. Prompts are just that - prompts, you have to shelly quotes do the work. Christin Sander 7 months ago from Midwest. You're welcome Lilly! :) Christin Sander 8 months ago from Midwest. You're welcome Lili. Osmosis Image? I like this thanks. Christin Sander 8 months ago from Midwest. Cool page.Love it! Christin Sander 8 months ago from dee definition Midwest.

You're very welcome Isabella, so glad you found them helpful :) This is a amazing page, Ive started doing texts in a book and used this page for osmosis when I was stuck for topics. Christin Sander 10 months ago from Midwest. Oh that's awesome szaretsky :) So glad it helped you win and dee definition, congratulations! This helped me win an osmosis image, essay contest at school. jay crypto 23 months ago from Organizational USA. thanks for sharing the osmosis info. Organizational Culture Profiles Essay? many ideas to help me, so yes, some more useful than others because I see more attractive fiction. Image? Christin Sander 2 years ago from Midwest. Who Wrote? hi, you're welcome :) Christin Sander 2 years ago from Midwest.

Thanks Kristen glad you enjoyed the hub. Hope it helps you get your muse going :) Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Great writing prompts, Christin. I've been pulling a blank for image the past couple of months, before I tackle my next novel this year. Christin Sander 3 years ago from Midwest. Thanks Seasons. It is indeed a good challenge and then going through them all makes it even better. Essay On Developing? :) Laura Brown 3 years ago from Ontario, Canada. Image? I wrote a 101 writing prompts post once. It was a good challenge in itself. :) Christin Sander 4 years ago from Chivalry Through Midwest. Thanks everyone for osmosis the votes and who wrote the gospels, sharing.

Glad you enjoyed the prompts Paul :) hope some great hubs come from one or two of them. Paul Richard Kuehn 4 years ago from Udorn City, Thailand. You have listed a lot of image, very interesting and useful writing prompts. If I could think more out the gospels of the box like you, I think it would be easier for image me to write. Organizational? Voted up and image, sharing.

Michelle Liew 4 years ago from Singapore. Coming in to share this again! Christin Sander 4 years ago from Midwest. thanks so much for reading and sharing :) much appreciated. Michelle Liew 4 years ago from Singapore. Christin, I have put this in my reading list. Thanks for the writing prompts and I will use them.

Sharing! Christin Sander 5 years ago from Midwest. B Leekley - Thanks so much for dee definition the comment and the votes and shares! - much appreciated :D. Brian Leekley 5 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Osmosis? Good advice and good prompts. Up, Useful, Interesting, shared, and bookmarked. Christin Sander 6 years ago from Midwest. Hi ktrapp I love writing exercises. I never really gave them a shot until one of my college writing classes and they really opened me up to some new techniques and ideas. :) Glad you enjoyed the hub. Kristin Trapp 6 years ago from Illinois. Very useful.

Thanks for the writing-prompt ideas. The Gospels? We used to do this first thing in the beginning of my 8 a.m. freshman composition class in college. It was actually one of osmosis image, my favorite parts of the who wrote school day! Christin Sander 6 years ago from image Midwest. Thank you John I appreciate the compliment :) Glad you enjoyed the dee definition hub. John Yeoman 6 years ago from Story writing land in the centre of osmosis image, England. Essay On Developing? Great tips!

And I speak as a PhD in creative writing. Christin Sander 6 years ago from Midwest. Thank you for the comment - glad you found some useful prompts. I agree sometimes just getting started is the hard part. Free writing helps me with that because I know no matter what in the end I'll have something useful. Cheers :) RandomThoughts. Osmosis Image? 6 years ago from frankenstein Washington.

Thanks for the motivating direction tips. sometimes it is hard to just get started. Danette Watt 6 years ago from Illinois. Hi Christin, lots of great prompts here. I agree with what you said regarding those who write primarily non-fiction, informational stuff (such as myself) need to practice at osmosis image, creative writing and vice versa. Voted up and useful, thanks for sharing. attemptedhumour 6 years ago from Australia. Hi Christine, i certainly agree with about being different. We can be who we want to be, go where we want and scoot off on tangents if we so desire. I find it harder to write in a formal manner and have difficulty writing non-rhyming poetry. Your list is a good idea and will no doubt help to avoid that dreaded writer's block. cheers. Christin Sander 6 years ago from Midwest.

You're welcome Adrianne, I'm glad you found them useful and encouraging. Dee Definition? thanks for commenting. Image? Thank you Christin for sharing these wonderful writing prompts. I definitely feel more encourage to Essay on Developing deep my creative writing! Christin Sander 6 years ago from Midwest. Thanks Lenore - so glad you found some of them useful.

I hope they lead you to a great piece of osmosis image, writing :) Lenore Robinson 6 years ago from Delaware. Thumbs up and useful! Many thought provoking ideas, thanks for Chivalry the Ages sharing! NicholasA 6 years ago from image Midwest. These are all awesome writing ideas. To only have a day that we could sit down and when and sedition passed, go through them all and write them out. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of osmosis image, HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and Essay on Developing, Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and osmosis image, respective owners.

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federalist 39 essay Publius (James Madison) The Conformity Of The Plan To Republican Principles. January 16, 1788. THE last paper having concluded the image observations which were meant to introduce a candid survey of the plan of government reported by the convention, we now proceed to the execution of that part of our undertaking. The first question that offers itself is whether the general form and aspect of the government be strictly republican. It is Essay on Developing an Implementation Plan, evident that no other form would be reconcilable with the genius of the people of America; with the fundamental principles of the Revolution; or with that honorable determination which animates every votary of freedom to rest all our political experiments on osmosis image the capacity of mankind for self-government. If the plan of the convention, therefore, be found to depart from the republican character, its advocates must abandon it as no longer defensible.

What, then, are the distinctive characters of the republican form? Were an answer to this question to the gospels be sought, not by recurring to principles but in osmosis, the application of the Essay on Developing Plan term by political writers to osmosis image the constitutions of different States, no satisfactory one would ever be found. Holland, in which no particle of the supreme authority is derived from the people, has passed almost universally under the denomination of a republic. The same title has been bestowed on Venice, where absolute power over the great body of the people is exercised in the most absolute manner by a small body of hereditary nobles. Poland, which is a mixture of aristocracy and of monarchy in their worst forms, has been dignified with the same appellation. The government of England, which has one republican branch only, combined with an hereditary aristocracy and monarchy, has with equal impropriety been frequently placed on the list of republics. These examples, which are nearly as dissimilar to each other as to a genuine republic, show the extreme inaccuracy with which the term has been used in political disquisitions. If we resort for a criterion to the different principles on which different forms of government are established, we may define a republic to be, or at dee definition least may bestow that name on, a government which derives all its powers directly or indirectly from the great body of the people, and is administered by persons holding their offices during pleasure for a limited period, or during good behavior. It is essential to such a government that it be derived from the great body of the society, not from an inconsiderable proportion or a favored class of it; otherwise a handful of tyrannical nobles, exercising their oppressions by osmosis image a delegation of their powers, might aspire to the rank of Chivalry Essay republicans and claim for their government the honorable title of republic. It is sufficient for osmosis image such a government that the persons administering it be appointed, either directly or indirectly, by the people; and that they hold their appointments by either of the tenures just specified; otherwise every government in the United States, as well as every other popular government that has been or can be well organized or well executed, would be degraded from the republican character. According to the constitution of every State in the Union, some or other of the officers of government are appointed indirectly only by the people.

According to most of them, the chief magistrate himself is so appointed. And according to one, this mode of appointment is extended to one of the co-ordinate branches of the legislature. According to dee definition all the constitutions, also, the tenure of the highest offices is extended to osmosis a definite period, and in many instances, both within the legislative and executive departments, to a period of years. According to the provisions of dee definition most of the constitutions, again, as well as according to the most respectable and received opinions on the subject, the members of the judiciary department are to retain their offices by the firm tenure of good behavior. On comparing the Constitution planned by the convention with the standard here fixed, we perceive at image once that it is, in the Ages, the most rigid sense, conformable to it. The House of Representatives, like that of one branch at least of all the osmosis image State legislatures, is elected immediately by the great body of the people. The Senate, like the present Congress and the Senate of Maryland, derives its appointment indirectly from the people. The President is indirectly derived from the choice of the people, according to Profiles the example in most of the States.

Even the judges, with all other officers of the Union, will, as in the several States, be the choice, though a remote choice, of the people themselves. The duration of the appointments is equally conformable to the republican standard and to the model of State constitutions. The House of Representatives is periodically elective, as in all the States; and for the period of two years, as in the State of South Carolina. Osmosis Image! The Senate is elective for the period of six years, which is dee definition, but one year more than the osmosis period of the Senate of Essay an Implementation Plan Maryland, and but two more than that of the Senates of New York and image Virginia. The President is to continue in office for the period of Essay an Implementation Plan four years; as in New York and Delaware the chief magistrate is elected for three years, and in South Carolina for two years. In the other States the election is annual. In several of the States, however, no explicit provision is made for the impeachment of the chief magistrate. And in Delaware and Virginia he is not impeachable till out of office. The President of the United States is osmosis, impeachable at any time during his continuance in Essay an Implementation Plan, office. The tenure by which the judges are to hold their places is, as it unquestionably ought to be, that of good behavior.

The tenure of the ministerial offices generally will be a subject of legal regulation, conformably to the reason of the case and the example of the State constitutions. Could any further proof be required of the republican complexion of this system, the most decisive one might be found in its absolute prohibition of titles of nobility, both under the federal and the State governments; and in its express guaranty of the osmosis image republican form to each of the latter. “But it was not sufficient,” say the adversaries of the Chivalry Through the Ages proposed Constitution, “for the convention to image adhere to the republican form. They ought with equal care to have preserved the federal form, which regards the Union as a Confederacy of sovereign states; instead of which they have framed a national government, which regards the Union as a consolidation of the States.” And it is Culture Profiles Essay, asked by what authority this bold and radical innovation was undertaken? The handle which has been made of this objection requires that it should be examined with some precision.

Without inquiring into the accuracy of the distinction on which the objection is founded, it will be necessary to a just estimate of osmosis its force, first, to the gospels ascertain the real character of the government in question; secondly, to inquire how far the convention were authorized to osmosis propose such a government; and thirdly, how far the duty they owed to their country could supply any defect of regular authority. First. — In order to Chivalry the Ages ascertain the real character of the government, it may be considered in relation to the foundation on which it is to be established; to the sources from which its ordinary powers are to be drawn; to osmosis image the operation of those powers; to the extent of them; and to shelly frankenstein quotes the authority by image which future changes in the government are to be introduced. On examining the first relation, it appears, on Essay on Developing an Implementation one hand, that the image Constitution is to shelly quotes be founded on the assent and ratification of the image people of America, given by deputies elected for the special purpose; but, on the other, that this assent and ratification is to be given by the people, not as individuals composing one entire nation, but as composing the distinct and independent States to which they respectively belong. It is to Essay on Developing Plan be the assent and osmosis ratification of the several States, derived from the supreme authority in each State-the authority of the people themselves. The act, therefore, establishing the Constitution will not be a national but a federal act. That it will be a federal and not a national act, as these terms are understood by the objectors — the the alien act of the people, as forming so many independent States, not as forming one aggregate nation – is obvious from this single consideration: that it is to result neither from the decision of a majority of the people of the Union, nor from that of a majority of the States. Image! It must result from the unanimous assent of the several States that are parties to it, differing no otherwise from their ordinary assent than in its being expressed, not by the legislative authority, but by dee definition that of the people themselves.

Were the people regarded in this transaction as forming one nation, the osmosis will of the majority of the whole people of the United States would bind the minority, in the same manner as the majority in each State must bind the minority; and the will of the majority must be determined either by a comparison of the individual votes, or by considering the will of the majority of the States as evidence of the will of shelly frankenstein a majority of the people of the United States. Neither of these rules have been adopted. Each State, in ratifying the Constitution, is considered as a sovereign body independent of all others, and only to be bound by its own voluntary act. Image! In this relation, then, the new Constitution will, if established, be a federal and not a national constitution. The next relation is to the sources from which the ordinary powers of government are to be derived. The House of mary shelly Representatives will derive its powers from the people of osmosis image America; and the people will be represented in the same proportion and on the same principle as they are in the legislature of quotes a particular State. So far the government is national , not federal . The Senate, on image the other hand, will derive its powers from the States as political and coequal societies; and these will be represented on the principle of equality in the Senate, as they now are in the existing Congress. So far the government is mary, federal , not national . The executive power will be derived from image, a very compound source. The immediate election of the President is to be made by the States in shelly frankenstein quotes, their political characters. The votes allotted to them are in osmosis, a compound ratio, which considers them partly as distinct and coequal societies, partly as unequal members of the same society. The eventual election, again, is to be made by that branch of the legislature which consists of the Chivalry national representatives; but in this particular act they are to be thrown into the form of individual delegations from osmosis image, so many distinct and coequal bodies politic.

From this aspect of the government it appears to Organizational be of a mixed character, presenting at least as many federal as national features. The difference between a federal and national government, as it relates to osmosis the operation of the government is by the adversaries of the plan of the Profiles convention is supposed to consist in this, that in the former the powers operate on image the political bodies composing the Confederacy in their political capacities; in the latter, on the individual citizens composing the nation in Essay, their individual capacities. On trying the Constitution by image this criterion, it falls under the national not the federal character; though perhaps not so completely as has been understood. In several cases, and dee definition particularly in the trial of controversies to which States may be parties, they must be viewed and proceeded against in their collective and political capacities only. But the operation of the government on the people in their individual capacities, in osmosis image, its ordinary and most essential proceedings, will, in the sense of its opponents, on the whole, designate it, in this relation, a national government. But if the government be national with regard to the operation of its powers, it changes its aspect again when we contemplate it in relation to the extent of its powers. The idea of a national government involves in it not only an authority over the individual citizens, but an indefinite supremacy over all persons and Plan things, so far as they are objects of lawful government. Among a people consolidated into image, one nation, this supremacy is completely vested in the national legislature. Among communities united for particular purposes, it is dee definition, vested partly in the general and image partly in dee definition, the municipal legislatures. In the former case, all local authorities are subordinate to the supreme; and may be controlled, directed, or abolished by it at pleasure. In the latter, the local or municipal authorities form distinct and independent portions of the supremacy, no more subject, within their respective spheres, to the general authority than the general authority is subject to them, within its own sphere.

In this relation, then, the proposed government cannot be deemed a national one; since its jurisdiction extends to certain enumerated objects only, and osmosis image leaves to the several States a residuary and inviolable sovereignty over all other objects. It is true that in shelly frankenstein quotes, controversies relating to the boundary between the two jurisdictions, the tribunal which is ultimately to decide is to be established under the general government. But this does not change the osmosis image principle of the case. The decision is to be impartially made, according to the rules of the Constitution; and all the usual and most effectual precautions are taken to secure this impartiality. Some such tribunal is clearly essential to prevent an appeal to Essay on Developing an Implementation the sword and a dissolution of the compact; and that it ought to image be established under the general rather than under the local governments, or, to speak more properly, that it could be safely established under the first alone, is a position not likely to be combated. If we try the Constitution by its last relation to the authority by which amendments are to be made, we find it neither wholly national nor wholly federal . Were it wholly national, the supreme and ultimate authority would reside in the majority of the people of the Union; and mary quotes this authority would be competent at all times, like that of a majority of every national society to alter or abolish its established government. Were it wholly federal, on the other hand, the concurrence of each State in image, the Union would be essential to every alteration that would be binding on all. Frankenstein! The mode provided by the plan of the convention is not founded on either of these principles. In requiring more than a majority, and particularly in computing the proportion by States , not by citizens , it departs from the national and advances towards the federal character; in rendering the concurrence of less than the whole number of osmosis image States sufficient, it loses again the federal and partakes of the national character.

The proposed Constitution, therefore, even when tested by the rules laid down by its antagoists, is, in strictness, neither a national nor a federal Constitution, but a composition of both. In its foundation it is federal, not national; in the sources from which the ordinary powers of the government are drawn, it is partly federal and partly national; in the operation of the gospels these powers, it is national, not federal; in the extent of them, again, it is federal, not national; and, finally in the authoritative mode of introducing amendments, it is neither wholly federal nor wholly national. Source: The Federalist: The Gideon Edition, eds. Osmosis Image! George W. Carey and James McClellan (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2001), 193-199. Madison addresses two questions: does the Constitution pass 1) the republicanism test and 2) the federalism test? The answer depends on how we define republicanism and federalism. These are the “great difficulties” of mary definition. 1) The “genius of the people of America,” and “the fundamental principles of the Revolution,” demand that we “rest all our political experiments on osmosis image the capacity of mankind for self government.” If the Constitution departs from the the alien acts passed “strictly republican” standard, or “character,” it must be rejected. What, then, is the image definition of a republic? It is “a government which derives all its powers directly or indirectly from the great body of the dee definition people, and image is administered by persons holding office during good behavior.” We learn that a) “it is essential to such a government that it be derived from the great body of the society, not from an inconsiderable proportion or a favored class of Through it,” and b) it is sufficient for such a government that the persons administering it be appointed, either directly or indirectly, by the people; and that they hold their appointments by either of the tenures just specified.” Madison announces that the Constitution passes the test.

2) There are three tests to osmosis measure the shelly federalism of the Constitution, the first of which—a) “the real character of the government”—is covered in the remainder of the essay. There are five “considerations” to image ponder when dealing with the “real character” standard. I) “The foundation on which it is to Chivalry the Ages Essay be established.” Who ratifies the Constitution, the states or the people? II) “The sources from which its ordinary powers are to be drawn.” Are the people or the states represented in the Congress? III) “The operation of those powers.” Does the government “operate” directly on the people in their “individual capacities” or on the states in “their collective and political capacities?” IV) “The extent of ‘… the powers.” Does the general government have “an indefinite supremacy over all persons and things,” or does its jurisdiction extend “to certain enumerated objects only?” V) “The authority by which future changes in the government are to osmosis be introduced.” Are amendments secured by a majority of the people or by the unanimity of the States? Madison concludes that it is “in strictness, neither a national nor a federal Constitution, but a composition of dee definition both. In its foundation it is osmosis image, federal, not national; in the sources from which the ordinary powers of government are drawn, it is partly federal and partly national; in the operation of these powers, it is national, not federal; in the extent of them, again, it is federal, not national; and, finally in the authoritative mode of introducing amendments, it is neither wholly federal nor wholly national.”

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