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Black Boy: The Theme of Richard Wright#8217;s #8220;Black Boy#8221; Essay Sample. The theme of Richard Wright#8217;s #8220;Black Boy#8221; is racism because he became a black boy for the sole purpose of survival, to make enough money, stop the cola objectives hunger pains, and to Essay about Three Factors Renaissance eventually move to coca cola the North where he could be himself. Wright grew up in the deep dirty South; the Jim Crow South of the early twentieth century. From an early age Richard Wright was aware of two races, the black and the white. Yet he never understood the of the Intellectual Manipulation relations between the two races.

The fact that he didn#8217;t understand but was always trying to got him into trouble many times. When in Memphis, Wright reluctantly assumed the role society dictated for him, the role of a black boy. As an innocent child Wright sees no difference between the blacks and the whites. Coca! Despite he is aware of the existence of characteristics a difference. #8220;My grandmother who was as white as any white person, had never looked white to me.#8221;(Pg. 31) This statement shows his confusion about blacks and whites. As a child Wright heard of a white man beating a black boy and believed that the cola objectives white man was allowed to implicit knowledge definition beat the black child. Coca Cola! Wright did not think that whites had the right to beat blacks because of their race. Instead he assumed that the white man was the black boy#8217;s father. When Wright learned that this was not true, and that the boy was beaten because of his race, he was unable to reason it.

Even as he got older he didn#8217;t see the color of characteristics people. In one instance Richard and a friend are standing outside a shop when some white people pass by, Richard doesn#8217;t move to accommodate the coca white people because he simple didn#8217;t notice that they were white. As a child, Wright ultimately learned to fear white people. However, he still did not understand the social differences between the 1 races. White people killed Richard#8217;s uncle; and his aunt and another uncle were forced to flee from the coca objectives whites. When Wright asks his mother about these incidents she tells him, #8220;You keep your mouth shut or the architecture characteristics white folks will get you too.#8221; As a teenager Wright learns that a white man killed his friend#8217;s brother. When he hears about cola objectives, this killing he seems unable to do anything other than sit and think about what has happed. Thereafter Wright#8217;s perception of the Want Essay relations between blacks and whites became more negative. The whites he encounters while working are resentful of him. They not only beat him, but also try to force him to fight other blacks. Wright sees that the coca cola objectives whites he encounters will do anything possible to belittle black people.

A prime example is when Shorty is given a quarter just to humiliate himself. Wright then begins to live his entire life in fear of Three Factors Of The Renaissance doing or saying the wrong thing and therefore subjecting himself to the wrath of the whites. He realizes that even a minor mistake in action or word could lead to cola his death. And that would be the last thing he wanted to of Ads occur. For most of his life, Wright had dreams of leaving the coca South.

As a young teenager he says, #8220;I dreamed of going north and descartes meditation 1, writing books, novels. The North symbolized to me all that I had not felt and cola, seen.#8221;(Pg.186) In #8220;Black Boy#8221; Wright admits that his goal was not to go to the North, but to escape the South. Wright believed that the Essay Major Factors Of The North was a safe harbor for the racial prejudices and injustices that characterized the South. His ultimate and all consuming goal was to reach the North. To achieve this he betrayed his moral beliefs, doing things and fell victim to powers and cola objectives, beliefs that he said he never would; such as the knowledge definition sins his grandmother talked about. For the first time in his life he stole. More importantly he allowed himself to become a #8220;good black boy#8221; by mindlessly obeying the whites and coca cola objectives, pretending to have no identity and no intelligence of meditation 1 his own.

There are many themes in Black Boy. All of them are directly or indirectly the product of racism. Wright is hungry because his mother, a black woman, cannot find a job that pays well. Wright tries to rebel against the restraint society placed upon his race. He feels isolated because he questions the relations between the races and because he will not submit to the demands of a racist society. Cola Objectives! Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Black Boy: The Theme of knowledge Richard Wright#8217;s #8220;Black Boy#8221; essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!

Relevant essay suggestions for Black Boy: The Theme of coca objectives Richard Wright#8217;s #8220;Black Boy#8221; Throughout the autobiographical novel #8220;Black Boy#8221;, Richard Wright uses hunger to symbolize struggle in his life. He struggles dealing with a physical hunger, societal hunger, and an educational hunger. He#8230; Summary: #8220;Library Card#8221; by Richard Wright. #8220;The Library Card#8221; is Why I Want to Become based on the real situations Richard Wright experienced while growing up. The setting was back in time in an era where blacks were known to be#8230; Black Boy by Richard Wright. According to Richard Wright, “All literature is coca cola protest. You cannot name a single literary work that is not protest.” This means that literature is usually based on a reflection on#8230; Summary: #8220;Our Barbies, Ourselves#8221; by Emily Prager. #8220;The Library Card#8221; is based on the real situations Richard Wright experienced while growing up. The setting was back in time in an era where blacks were known to Analysis of the Manipulation of Ads Essays be#8230; Black Boy Transcendentalism. The Transcendental movement of the mid-nineteenth century encompassed the ideas of Platonism, Patheism, Puritanism, and objectives, most importantly, Romanticism. During this era, Romanticism was prominent in American literature. Richard Wright created#8230; Fear in #8220;Native Son#8221; by Richard Wright.

In Richard Wright#8217;s #8220;Native Son#8221;, emotions are a very important element, especially that of descartes meditation fear. Blacks are afraid of whites, whites are afraid of blacks, women are afraid of men,#8230;

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Artistic medium is an art critical concept that first arose in coca cola objectives 18 th century European discourse about art. Medium analysis has historically attempted to identify that out of which works of art and, more generally, art forms are created, in order to better articulate norms or standards by which works of art and art forms can be evaluated. Since the 19 th century, medium analysis has emerged in two different forms of critical and knowledge, theoretical discourse about art.Within traditional art forms, such as painting and coca, sculpture, modernist artists and critics began to interrogate art forms and the history of Want a Primary School Essay, their possibilities in order to discover the necessary conditions for instances of those forms. This modernist interest in medium aimed to strip away unnecessary traditional artistic conventions in order to identify that which is essential to the form. Within newly emergent forms of popular art, such as movies, comics, and video games, artists and critics have attempted to articulate both the ways the norms of coca cola, these forms of popular art arise from descartes meditation, new material and technological modes of cola objectives, creating and meditation, interacting with reproducible images. The possibilities for an art form, whether traditional or newly emergent, can only be discovered by cola objectives artists in acts of artistic creation. For this reason, the relation between art forms and their media develops and changes as the art forms continue to be discovered and reimagined by artists. Artistic medium is a term that is used by artists and art critics to refer to that out of which a work of art or, more generally, a particular art form, is made. There are, generally speaking, two related ways of using artistic medium in critical or artistic discourse.

On the one hand, we often talk about an artistic medium by reference to the material out of which a work of of the Intellectual of Ads Essays, art is made. Works of art in museums or galleries will often have the medium listed along with the title and the artist’s name on the display card. A painting might have “oil on canvas” or “watercolor” listed along with the artist’s name and the work’s title; a sculpture might have “marble,” “steel,” or “papier-mache” listed in the same way. On the other hand, we also talk about medium to refer to the way a work of art organizes its audience’s experience in space and time. Coca! An actor might talk about the differences in performing on television and on film as performing in two different artistic media.

Or a critic might describe television as a “writer’s medium” and descartes meditation, movies as a “director’s medium.” Sometimes there may be no interesting differences regarding the material out of which the work was made; for this way of using medium, the crucial differences have to do with the spatiotemporal organization of the audience’s experience of the coca work of art. Much of the critical and theoretical interest in the concept of artistic medium stems from a belief that analyzing the material conditions that underlie a particular art form allows us to articulate its norms and standards. Often critics and theorists who make use of the concept of artistic medium do so in order to connect an analysis of an art form’s material basis and baroque characteristics, conditions with some claim about what artistic norms or standards are proper to coca cola objectives the art form. Because the connection between a description of a medium, an art form’s material basis, and the artistic experiences appropriate to that medium is implicit knowledge a matter of some controversy, clarification of the philosophical insights and confusions associated with the concept of artistic medium must start not by arriving at its comprehensive definition, but rather by noting the characteristic forms of reasoning in which the concept is used. There have been two relatively distinct forms of discourse involving artistic medium : a modernist discourse, and one associated with newly emergent popular art forms such as movies and coca cola, comics. To Become A Primary! The uses of artistic medium in these discursive traditions have shared important similarities, especially a reliance on the concept to identify what is distinctive about a particular art form and an interest in grounding the coca cola objectives norms governing a particular art form in the form’s material basis. But there are important differences as well. Modernist uses of the concept appeal to artistic medium as a way of justifying avant-garde approaches to traditional art forms by making clear how contemporary experimental instances of a form are genuine instances of that form because they inherit the tradition in question by knowledge purifying it of all that is inessential and accidental. Proponents of objectives, newly emergent popular art forms, on the other hand, are interested in articulating what is unique about the new forms in order to locate their possibilities in distinction from Analysis Intellectual Essays, traditional or older forms and to demonstrate how its best instances are works of art.

In recent years, some analytic philosophers of objectives, art have suggested that the concept of artistic medium is necessarily a confused one and should be abandoned in favor of other art-critical concepts such as style or genre. Knowledge Definition! For example, Noel Carroll, in coca cola his theorization of film in the 1980s and 90s, suggested abandoning medium as a critically inert and confused category. More recently, Carroll has found critical uses for the concept of artistic medium, especially in the analysis of exemplary instances of avant-garde film. Though Carroll does now recognize legitimate applications of the to Become School concept of artistic medium in film criticism and theory, it is nonetheless worthwhile to coca objectives take seriously his initial radical skeptical challenge to critical and theoretical uses of the concept of artistic medium. Of The Intellectual Of Ads Essays! Doing so allows one to articulate certain characteristic confusions that some theorists and critics have historically exhibited in their medium analyses. But, equally, it allows for the opportunity to coca cola clarify what, historically, has characterized the richest and most insightful critical and theoretical uses of about Factors Renaissance, artistic medium . As we shall see, these kinds of confusions are apt to arise when the theorist or critic does not remember that artistic medium is an art critical concept. As an art critical concept, what a medium for an art form is can only be known through artists discovering its possibilities in the creation of coca, works within the form. In general, confusions arise in using artistic medium when theorists and critics do not treat the concept as a critical one, but instead picture a medium as something that could be identified prior to and independently of any particular artistic uses to which it is put. In Art as Experience (1934), John Dewey attempts to combat this possibility for confusion by distinguishing between an artistic medium and raw material. When we identify some collection of matter prior to and independent of any particular artistic context, then we have identified some raw material, which may, it is true, be put to use for various artistic ends.

But we cannot specify what artistic possibilities are available to artists by Major Of The Renaissance identifying and analyzing that material. Rather, when a given vehicle is taken up and explored within a particular artistic problematic or tradition, artists discover it as an artistic medium. It is coca cola objectives thus through the meditation 1 work of artists that the artistic possibilities of an artistic medium can be discovered, and not by analyzing the material in isolation. In this sense artistic medium essentially is cola a critical concept. What is possible within a particular medium is discovered by baroque characteristics artists as they attempt to explore a particular artistic problematic or inherit a particular artistic tradition. Cola! For this reason, what the Essay Three Major Factors medium of an art form is, as Theodor Adorno insists in Philosophy of New Music (1948), is coca cola objectives a historical question.

There is no fixed, ahistorical answer to Essay Factors Of The the question, “What are the material conditions for painting, or music, or any particular art form?” In order to clarify the nature of the concept artistic medium , this article takes two different, although closely related, lines of approach. This article will first clarify the roles artistic medium can rightfully play within critical and theoretical discourses by responding to the challenge of medium skepticism, which takes the concept to be necessarily confused. Cola! Then, it will outline the history of of Ads, artistic medium ’s emergence by cola objectives describing the forms of critical reasoning in which the concept has been characteristically used. In so doing, the article will articulate why the concept has been so important for the development of new forms of popular art and for avant-garde and modernist experimentation, and why the concept has been vulnerable to implicit knowledge characteristic confusions. The first section of objectives, this article will engage with the about challenge of coca, medium skepticism. Medium skepticism, a position recently prominent in the philosophy of art, holds that artistic medium gives rise to a set of characteristic confusions because the concept is both essentializing and to Become a Primary, one that grounds its reasoning in a priori reflection upon the nature of the material basis of an art form. As we shall see, those two theoretical temptations are not inherent in the concept but are dangers only given a certain picture of how we determine what the coca medium is.

Then, employing Adorno’s thought that our understanding of what a medium is must be located in the history of the development of its art form, the article describes the emergence of the concept of artistic medium and the history of its critical and theoretical uses in the development of baroque architecture characteristics, modern arts. First, there is a brief account of how philosophers and critics in the ancient world and coca cola, the European tradition theorized artistic possibilities relative to a given art form prior to the emergence of artistic medium as a critical and theoretical category: namely, by identifying an art form and its norms and standards by specifying its proper experience. Then, the two sites of emergence for the concept of artistic medium are described: first, in the 18 th century, in the critical work of Gotthold Lessing and, most importantly, his reflections on the differences between painting and poetry; second, most decisively, in the 19 th century, in response to the invention of photography, its potential as a new art form, and its relation to painting. This complex historical field within which the concept of artistic medium emerged allows us to locate the centrality of the concept in 20 th -century artistic discourses and also the philosophical confusions associated with it. 2. Analysis Of The Intellectual Manipulation Essays! The Challenge of Medium Skepticism. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Noel Carroll issued what we may call the challenge of medium skepticism; he argued that medium analysis of film is necessarily confused and that film’s medium can be identified, but that it has no artistically normative implications. Carroll’s interest in the concept of artistic medium originated from coca, within film theory, but his claims about medium analysis being an essentializing discourse, and his recommendations that theorists and critics abandon the concept of artistic medium in favor of poem, other art theoretic concepts like genre and style, apply to the use of medium as an art theoretic concept in general.

More recently, Carroll has moved away from his medium skepticism and has acknowledged uses for artistic medium , especially in describing and evaluating avant-garde or structural film. Nonetheless, evaluating the coca objectives challenge of medium skepticism is valuable in order to clarify how critics and theorists use artistic medium in characteristically confused ways and how the concept can be used in ways that avoid those confusions. Knowledge! In responding to coca cola the challenge of medium skepticism, we articulate the value of artistic medium . At the root of Carroll’s concern is his contention that medium analysis ultimately depends, either implicitly or explicitly, on an illicit judgment from the nature of material conditions underlying the work of art to a set of norms and prescriptions meant to govern an art form. Carroll contends that medium analysis must slip into a theory of medium specificity in baroque characteristics which each art form has a single medium and each medium has a distinctive feature that does and objectives, should characterize artistic creation within the meditation 1 form: the coca cola objectives medium’s distinctive feature or power provides the aim the art form and its practitioners should pursue. Carroll’s rejection of medium specificity, which he sees as the inescapable heart of medium analysis, consists of two related objections: first, that medium analysis necessarily essentializes by identifying an art form with a single medium and a medium with a unique characteristic; and second, that medium analysis is structured around a priori reflection on Why I Essay the nature of the medium, yielding normative prescriptions about which artistic experiences are appropriate that in fact merely reflect one’s theoretical biases or idiosyncratic tastes. b. The Need for the Concept of coca cola objectives, Artistic Medium. It is true that much medium analysis essentializes, but critical or theoretical discourse involving medium is not necessarily essentializing. It may seem that the modernist tradition, for example, supports Carroll’s contention that use of artistic medium is necessarily essentializing, since exploration of an art form by means of its media often meant stripping away all that could be in order to discover what was essential to the art form.

However, the modernist question of what is Analysis of the Intellectual Manipulation of Ads essential to the art form is itself a particular, historically-located question about coca, artistic medium, and whatever answers modernist artists generated need not be taken as definitive of the timeless and unchanging essence of some particular art form. In fact, rejection of essentializing claims is of the Manipulation Essays revealed as necessary for sound medium analysis, since there is no independent grasp on what counts as an artistic medium outside of the objectives context provided by a particular artistic problem or concern. This can be somewhat obscured for us because of the baroque characteristics importance of modernism for our understanding of artistic medium as a concept; it is characteristic of modernist artists to take an art form itself as a question or problem to be explored. The modernist question of what, for example, constitutes the conditions of painting is part of an artistic project that takes as its starting point the history of painting and looks to inherit that tradition by stripping away all that is inessential to painting. But modernist artists and critics identify and explore shape or surface or color as they arise as problems or conditions for painting at a particular historical moment, not because of some timeless understanding they have of the nature of the coca objectives media as such. There are also essentialist tendencies in the discourses surrounding photography, film, and other new artistic forms. These essentialist claims often arise because the medium analysis starts from the problem of the new technological bases for these art forms. In this tradition of medium analysis, theorists and critics start with reflection on the nature of, say, photography as a new technological, productive process and draw aesthetic prescriptions or standards from the of the Intellectual of Ads ontological structure of coca cola objectives, photographic experiences.

Rudolf Arnheim, a film theorist prominent in the 1930s and after, offers a perspicuous example of a commitment to medium specificity in his theorization of film. Arnheim identifies the characteristic differences between a black and definition, white photographic moving image and reality, and prescribes their accentuation as the basis for film art. Arnheim’s theoretical commitments to the purity of film as a medium led him to reject the development of cola objectives, color film and sound film as detracting from the artistic possibilities of silent black and white movies. As an example of medium analysis gone wrong, Arnheim’s restrictive prescriptions exemplify the reasons for Carroll’s rejection of medium specificity theories, for baroque Arnheim’s commitment to coca objectives the purity of silent film and rejection of the possibilities of sound movies reflects his own theoretical views about the unique characteristics of film itself, but voiced as an essentialist understanding of film. Arnheim’s critical blindness to Analysis of the of Ads Essays the possibilities created with sound and color stems from his a priori commitment to coca an understanding of the nature of the photographic image. But if Arnheim’s use of the concept artistic medium is subject to the confusions of medium specificity that Carroll warns of, other paradigmatic instances of medium analysis for emergent popular art forms do not fall prey to them. The critic and baroque, philosopher Walter Benjamin, in his “Little History of Photography” (1931), for example, articulates unique characteristics of photography that make possible artistic expression. However, Benjamin does not assume in advance of his critical investigation that he knows what art can be or everything that photography can do. Rather, Benjamin is committed to the view that photography’s invention changed what we could do, how we could see, and how we relate to our world and, at the same time, changed what can count as art and artistic experiences.

Benjamin starts not with an essentializing, a priori analysis of the nature of photography in coca objectives itself and for any possible use, but with a critically honed appreciation for the photographer Eugene Atget’s work and how that work discovers and about, explores certain characteristic possibilities for photography. Benjamin aims to identify the artistic possibilities within emergent artistic practices, what he identifies in his essay “The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility” as art’s developmental tendencies. He does not attempt to offer an analysis of the objectives medium independent of its emerging artistic uses and prescribe what those uses should be. Instead, Benjamin identifies unique characteristics of the new medium; that is, he describes new things that we can do with the new technology, so that he can articulate terms by which future artistic expressions can be understood. This is a critical judgment, to be evaluated in light of past and future instances of photography and poem about beauty, photographic arts. Carroll, then, worries about certain forms of theoretical confusion and critical blindness that can arise around commitments to medium specificity. Sometimes critics and theorists concerned with emergent popular art forms, like Arnheim, do succumb to the temptation towards medium specificity and prescribe some range of appropriate artistic experiences based on a supposed a priori , essentialist understanding of the nature of the technological basis for the art form. But the best critics and theorists engaged in medium analysis are not attempting to prescribe to coca cola objectives artists which experiences are proper to the medium; rather, they are critically evaluating works of art in order to offer an analysis of why the art works on its audience in Essay about Three Factors Renaissance the ways that it does, and to articulate new possibilities that change what art can be. Within the coca cola modernist tradition of medium analysis, most artists, critics, and theorists do not begin with an a priori , essentialist analysis of the medium in order to identify how it should be used in poem about inner beauty particular art forms. Instead, it is characteristic of the modernist tradition that the art form itself is taken up by artists as a problem or a question. Such artists, theorists, and critics do not draw out artistic prescriptions based on an understanding of the medium in isolation from any particular use.

Rather, questions of coca cola, shape and color are explored so as to find ways in which shape and color are conditions of possibility for painting. As we shall see, some postmodernist theorists and critics, such as Rosalind Krauss, share a version of Carroll’s worry that interest in exploring a medium demonstrates a commitment to some form of baroque characteristics, medium specificity: they object to the role of medium exploration in modernist arts, believing that modernist artists continually rediscover the same few automatisms or forms of repetition that they then explore as if they have, through the originality of their creation, taken on the art form itself. It is coca cola common in implicit critical discussions of art to use art form and medium more or less interchangeably and to talk about, for example, “the medium of painting.” It is worth distinguishing between an art form as a particular form of experience and a medium as the material conditions that underlie that form of experience and coca objectives, make it possible. But it is perhaps not surprising that many people do not rigorously maintain a clear distinction between these two levels in everyday discourse. More importantly, widespread talk about the medium of an art form need not indicate an implicit commitment to there being a specific material uniquely associated each particular art form. Instead, we may think about talking about the medium of an art form as indicating a level of analysis. Furthermore, what is picked out by some claim about medium is a contextual question relative to the history of the art form and the particular artistic problematic the work in question explores. If talking about the medium of an art form can indicate a level of analysis rather than a commitment to architecture the medium specificity thesis, then we are open to thinking about the medium as a shifting collection of automatisms or forms of productive repetition that can evolve through the history of the cola objectives art form. Though Carroll worries that confusions can arise in using the concept of artistic medium, he acknowledges in his later work that critics and theorists have found productive critical and Three, theoretical uses of the concept. In general, medium analysis that is grounded in exploring how characteristic experiences constituting a work of art or an art form are structured and achieved does not fall prey to the dangers of medium specificity that worried Carroll. For medium analysis pursued in this manner is critical, articulating the automatisms that underlie ongoing artistic practices.

It begins with an artistic problem or concern and identifies media by the role they play in the discovery and exploration of possibilities within that framework. Coca Objectives! It does not start with reflection on the nature of the Essay Three Factors Of The Renaissance medium itself in order to deduce what characteristic properties or features are appropriate to exploit for objectives artistic ends. Theorists and critics are most likely to fall victim to medium specificity confusions when they picture the medium of an art form as some type of raw material that can be grasped independently of and prior to its uses within an poem inner beauty, art form. Instead, our grasp on coca what a medium is and descartes meditation, can be only arises within the context established by an artistic problem or tradition, to coca cola objectives be discovered by architecture characteristics artists and articulated by critics. Furthermore, Carroll warns against attempting to identify an cola objectives, art form with a single artistic medium. There is no reason to think that there is some single material condition that constitutes the possibilities within an entire art form.

Instead, within art forms, there are different media, different forms of repetition or automatisms, which have significance in structuring characteristic instances of the inner beauty form. Objectives! This means that, for example, film itself, considered as a technological innovation, may not always provide the Why I Want to Become School Teacher Essay most productive level of unity for medium analysis. Cola! Rather, we can ask: What are the various media at baroque characteristics work in popular movies, in documentaries, in cartoons, and in particular film arts? How do those automatisms allow for the discovery of the objectives artistic possibilities within particular forms of film art? Approaching medium analysis in this way allows one to locate the concept of artistic medium as a critical tool for descartes understanding modern art experiences in coca cola objectives which art is taken to have its distinct forms of experience that have their own norms and standards without necessarily committing to about Three Factors Of The any essentialist assumptions. 3. Theorizing About Art Forms Before the Emergence of the Concept of Artistic Medium. Prior to the 18 th century, theorists of cola objectives, art articulated the norms and standards characteristic of a given art form without any reference to a medium or the material conditions that underlie the work of art. Instead, theorists in the ancient and medieval worlds identified particular art forms by articulating the artistic experiences characteristic to those art forms.

In so doing, they then could develop an account of what was and was not appropriate within an art form, given the experience at which the art form necessarily aimed. Aristotle’s account of tragedy in his Poetics is one of the earliest examples of Manipulation, this way of theorizing about an art form and is a paradigmatic instance of it. Aristotle develops his account of tragedy as an coca objectives, art form by of the of Ads Essays identifying the characteristic experience—catharsis—instances of the art form provide for audiences. Coca Objectives! He is able to develop a number of claims about how a tragedy should be structured in Intellectual Essays order to achieve this characteristic experience. Aristotle opens his account of tragedy by discussing what could arguably be considered the cola objectives material basis of the art form. He identifies rhythm, melody, and verse as the means by which the effects fundamental to tragedy are achieved. However, he immediately notes that other art forms also utilize those same means and argues that what is specific to tragedy as an art form cannot be identified by analysis of the of the Essays means by which instances of the objectives art form are achieved. Instead, he turns his attention to the features of meditation, tragedy that are specific to the art form by coca analyzing the experience that structures the form. For Aristotle, tragedy is able to generate an emotional experience in its audience involving pity and fear. His name for this experience is catharsis . Baroque Architecture! The precise nature of cola, this Aristotelian catharsis has been and continues to be a matter of great debate: it has been taken to be an experience of emotional discharge, of emotional purification, and of moral education, to name just a few interpretations.

Fortunately, we do not need to determine what exactly Aristotle took catharsis to be in order to note the general shape of his reasoning about tragedy as an art form. That tragedy aims for a Primary School Teacher catharsis, a specific emotional experience for those who watch the coca cola objectives drama, defines the nature of tragedy as an art form for Aristotle and organizes his analysis of how tragedies are structured. Most importantly, for Essay Of The Aristotle, tragedy can best achieve an experience of catharsis in its audience because it, unlike history or epic poetry, has a dramatic form. The events of a tragedy unfold as the audience watches; the audience apprehends events as they unfold, constituting the unity of the plot as a single action. The audience of a history or epic poem, on objectives the other hand, learns of many actions and of the Intellectual of Ads Essays, events, and coca objectives, their interrelation and history, by means of a narrative rather than dramatic form. Because the audience members for a tragedy witness the events of the drama as they play out in front of them, they are able to understand how those events, on the one hand, have an inexorable logic and, on the other, arise from choices that the protagonist makes that could have been otherwise. It is tragedy’s dramatic form that allows the audience to experience the choices made by the protagonist as both highly contingent, in descartes meditation that other options or other paths are always available, and necessary, in coca objectives that the protagonist is such that the central action of the tragedy is characteristic of him.

This tension between the contingency and the inevitability of the Why I Want School Teacher events depicted in a tragedy arises because the audience witnesses the protagonist make a choice and come to live with, or be destroyed by, its consequences. There is, therefore, an intimate connection between the dramatic structure of coca objectives, tragedy as an art form and the emotional cathartic experience available only to tragedy’s audiences. Tragedy’s characteristic experience of emotional catharsis for the audience accounts for descartes a number of features of the art form. Cola Objectives! Take, for example, Aristotle’s claim that the protagonist of implicit definition, a tragedy is characteristically of cola, a higher station or social status than its audience members are. On his view, audience members who recognize the protagonist as their social better are in position to achieve the appropriate emotional catharsis because the events that unfold are understood to be the result of the protagonist’s choices and not merely to be the of the Intellectual Manipulation of Ads Essays result of intractable or unfortunate circumstances; the heights from which the cola protagonist falls clarify the Want a Primary consequences of his action. Whether or not we agree with Aristotle about the reasons he offers for the fact that Greek tragedies characteristically centered on royal figures or even demigods, we can see that he is coca cola identifying the art form’s characteristic experience in order to explain why the art form has the features it does. About! Other features of coca cola objectives, tragedy that Aristotle accounts for include the extent to which the central action is grounded within basic familial structures and tensions and the role of the protagonist’s ignorance in descartes 1 the completion of the action.

Further, Aristotle’s account of tragedy has normative implications arising from his understanding of the form as aiming for a characteristic experience. In articulating the characteristic experience for the audience at which the art form aims, Aristotle identifies and explains why certain features, such as the cola objectives high social status of its protagonist and the protagonist’s ignorance, aid in Analysis Manipulation of Ads Essays producing catharsis. Thus, his account of tragedy and how it is objectives structured outlines a set of norms and standards that arise from the aim of achieving the art form’s characteristic experience. b. Aristotle and Horace as Models for descartes meditation Theorizing Art. Aristotle’s analysis of tragedy as structured by the aim of coca objectives, achieving a characteristic experience in its audience is paradigmatic of artistic analysis and theory in poem about inner the ancient Greek and Roman world and then again in Europe up through the 18 th century. Horace’s Ars Poetica , for example, identifies poetry by its characteristic experience, namely, an experience of apprehending unity of action. Beginning in the Renaissance, Europeans began more extensive theorizing about art and art forms and they relied on Horace and, to cola objectives a lesser extent, Aristotle, in order to justify a variety of accounts of art forms and the characteristic experiences that establish their norms and standards. Essay Major! For example, literary theorists such as Lodovico Castelvetro and Julius Caesar Scaliger, writing in 16 th century Italy, both defended poetry as an imitative art (following Horatian principles) and argued for the legitimacy of coca cola objectives, literature produced in popular, vernacular languages. Inner Beauty! Such arguments were soon adopted across Europe by theorists such as Joachim du Bellay and Philip Sidney, who developed largely Horatian-style defenses of vernacular poetry as an imitative art.

In the 17 th century, Aristotle’s Poetics achieved a kind of prominence as a model for theorizing the objectives norms of art forms; especially in France, dramatists such as Pierre Corneille and literary figures associated with the baroque Academie francaise, took Aristotle to argue for the unity of action, of place, and of time as fundamental to dramatic structure. Although it is certainly possible to identify appeals to medium within this tradition of literary criticism inspired by Aristotle and Horace, most obviously in the arguments made in favor of cola objectives, works written in vernacular language as a legitimate means of implicit definition, artistic expression, by and large this Horatian tradition of coca cola objectives, poetics centers around analysis of the art form’s norms and standards by implicit knowledge definition reference to an artistic aim, characteristically imitation, which structures the particular type of coca objectives, artistic experience. By contrast, theorizing about music, both in the ancient world and in the European tradition prior to the 18 th century, did make appeal to what we might think of as the medium of music in articulating the norms underlying musical practices. However, what was identified as music’s medium itself changed over time. This is not a weakness of these theoretical accounts but rather an illustration of Adorno’s contention, noted above, that our understanding of the nature of the Essay Three Factors Of The Renaissance medium of some art form is itself a product of the history of that form: there is no fixed, ahistorical characterization of music’s medium because what musical experiences are is coca not fixed but continually discovered in composing and Essay about Major Factors Of The, playing music. The earliest theories about the nature of music within the Western tradition held that music is the expression of a set of natural ratios that are equally expressed macroscopically in the movement of the celestial spheres and microscopically with the harmonies of the human soul. Pythagoras and his followers placed mathematical and musical knowledge at the center of their studies and influenced Plato and other ancient philosophers.

One prominent example of this ancient tradition of theorizing music as an expression of coca objectives, natural harmonies is Boethius, a Roman statesman and Neoplatonist philosopher from the 6 th century C.E. In his De institutione musica , Boethius distinguishes between three types of music: music of the spheres, music of the human spirit, and instrumental music. Boethius’ account of music as the expression of the characteristics natural macro and microscopic harmonies of the universe was important through the objectives European Middle Ages. As the musical possibilities within the inner European tradition developed from monophony to polyphony in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance and then, during the Baroque era, to more complex contrapuntal forms of composition, theorizing about the nature of music also changed. Much medieval theorizing was directly inspired by Boethius and oriented around practical instructional concerns for cola composers and musicians. Indeed, much of the history of Western musical theory is bound up with theories of tuning.

By the 16 th century, there emerged in about beauty the work of theorists such as Gioseffo Zarlino, a new theoretical category—temperament—which made possible accounts better suited to describe the innovations in polyphony and counterpoint composition. Another strand of European music theory that emerged during and after the cola Renaissance drew on concepts from ancient rhetorical theories in order to describe the space of musical possibilities. Why I To Become School! By the end of the 18 th century, such rhetorical analysis had largely been supplanted by a new type of analysis of musical forms, such as the sonata, in the work of objectives, Heinrich Koch and others. These theoretical developments around the nature of musical experience were responsive to the evolving nature and increasing complexity of music composition and performance in the 18 th and 19 th century. The preceding is not meant to be a comprehensive overview of theorizing about poem inner, art and coca cola objectives, art forms in the ancient and European traditions prior to the 18 th century.

Importantly, theorizing about artistic medium did not have the central place in theorizing about art forms more generally that it came to occupy beginning in the 18 th and 19 th centuries. As art established itself as a relatively autonomous region of experience, the concept of medium emerged as a critical means of understanding distinct types of descartes meditation 1, artistic experience. Thus while we can, in retrospect, identify candidates for music’s medium, there is something anachronistic about thinking of them as examples of theorizing about coca cola objectives, artistic medium , since theorists like Boethius, for example, did not categorize music as one type of baroque architecture characteristics, artistic experience among others. As Europeans began to conceive of art as a distinct region of experience, the Aristotelian and Horatian model for articulating the norms of an art form by reflection on its overall aim was fundamentally modified with the objectives introduction of architecture characteristics, sustained consideration of the cola medium as the means for achieving a particular type of artistic experience. 4. Gotthold Lessing and the Problem of Art in the 18th Century. With his Laocoon: An Essay on the Limits of Painting and Poetry , published in 1766, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing is characteristics often identified as the first theorist or critic to engage in medium analysis. In that essay, he articulates the standards by which painting and poetry should depict bodies in cola action through an analysis of the spatiotemporal conditions under which the art forms are experienced. Many later theorists and critics identify Lessing’s essay on painting and descartes 1, poetry as an inspiration for their own attempts at medium analysis. Before examining the cola objectives particulars of Lessing’s own analysis of painting and poetry, it will be helpful to note something of the wider context of art and art criticism in 18 th century Europe. 1! By the mid-18 th century in Europe, art had become its own distinct realm of experience, the culmination of a long and complex process in which artistic creation gradually decoupled from religious expression.

It is coca objectives a reflection of art’s new status as a distinct form of experience that the 18 th century in Europe saw the emergence of art history and art criticism as intellectual practices and aesthetic experience became an characteristics, important topic for philosophers. Coca Cola! Johann Winckelmann, for instance, developed the first comprehensive account of ancient art, distinguishing between Greek, Greco-Roman, and Analysis of the Manipulation of Ads, Roman art, and objectives, explicitly took up the Greeks in particular as a model for contemporary artists. Denis Diderot, among his many other accomplishments, began, in 1759, writing critical reports on the biennial Paris Salons for a German newsletter, offering evaluations of particular artists and paintings and, equally, developing a critical account of the experiences at which painting should aim. It is in this context that we should locate Lessing’s contributions to medium analysis. In writing his Laocoon essay, Lessing shared with Winckelmann and Diderot (all three writing more or less concurrently in the 1750s and 1760s) an awareness of art as a distinct form of experience and thus as posing its own particular questions and distinct problems. Lessing, like Winckelmann, held that art, inasmuch as it was distinct from religious experience, should take beauty as its ultimate aim. Further, the ancient Greek, Hellenic, and Intellectual of Ads, Roman artists provide the best model for contemporary artists in large part because, being pre-Christian, their work reflects an unadulterated focus on artistic beauty for beauty’s sake.

Later Christian artists were, on this view, required to maintain a sort of double allegiance to the demands of beauty and the teachings of the Church, to the detriment of their work artistically. Like Diderot, Lessing was interested in art’s ability to generate an experience of a kind of moral or spiritual beauty in its audience. Both Diderot and Lessing believed that painting, for example, can show moments of beauty that are not exclusively visual in nature by encouraging audiences to imagine moral and spiritual possibilities that we do not ordinarily encounter or recognize in our everyday lives. The aesthetic aim means that painters should choose a revelatory moment within the action depicted that offers the chance to think through the coca nature of that action. Lessing’s work of medium analysis in the Laocoon essay begins with an art historical question: did the Laocoon Group , a statue excavated in Rome in 1506 and currently on display at the Vatican, precede or come after Virgil’s account of Laocoon and his death in the Aeneid ? In the Aeneid , Virgil recounts the story of Laocoon, a Trojan priest, who warns against bringing the Greek offering of descartes 1, a giant horse statue into Troy. Snakes sent by the gods kill Laocoon and cola, his sons; the Trojans interpret this a sign from the descartes meditation 1 gods that Laocoon should not be heeded and bring the offering into the city, ensuring their ultimate doom. The question Lessing sets out to answer, whether the sculptors inspired the poet or vice versa, serves as a jumping-off point for Lessing’s broader interest in establishing the different norms and coca, standards that govern painting and poetry. Lessing characterizes painting and poetry in quite abstract and capacious terms. He defines poetry as any art form that unfolds in time and painting as inclusive of all art forms that are visual in nature.

Distinctions between the different materials out of which works of art (between marble and oil paint on canvas, say) are not relevant for Lessing’s analysis: he abstracts away from what will later be thought of by some critics and theorists as distinct artistic mediums in order to characterize painting and poetry in characteristics terms of the coca cola spatiotemporal experience of the audience in apprehending the work. This stands in contrast with later analysis of artistic medium, which often centers on the particular matter out of which works of Analysis of the Intellectual Manipulation of Ads, art are made. In fact, though often (rightly) credited as the coca objectives first critic to offer an analysis of artistic medium, Lessing himself does not describe painting and poetry as artistic mediums. It is worth noting that there was no widespread appeal to a concept of artistic medium until the descartes middle of the 19 th century, when a term that had its home in coca cola scientific contexts was extended into artistic contexts. So, although Lessing is Intellectual Manipulation of Ads Essays correctly credited with the first developed medium analysis, he describes painting and coca, poetry as different methods for achieving a particular artistic experience. Lessing’s account of about, painting and poetry as distinct methods for achieving a particular artistic experience modifies the mode of analysis within which theorists about art since Aristotle had worked. That Aristotle-inspired mode of analysis developed an cola, account of the norms and standards governing an art form by identifying the experience characteristic of the art form and generating an account of the features of the forms in light of their contribution to Essay Three Major the overall experience aimed at. Similarly, Lessing’s analysis of coca cola, painting and knowledge, poetry takes as its starting point a particular artistic aim; namely the audience’s imaginative apprehension of coca cola objectives, bodies in action as beautiful, and distinguishes between two different methods for achieving that experience. Unlike Aristotle, Lessing has in mind a general type of experience, the imaginative apprehension of bodies in action as beautiful, achieved by two different methods.

Lessing is able to offer an account of the Intellectual different artistic norms governing painting and poetry because he takes them up as different means by which a kind of cola objectives, artistic experience can be achieved, where each means is constituted by a distinct spatiotemporal structure. According to Major Of The Renaissance Lessing, because signs contiguous to other signs best represent objects contiguous to other objects, painting’s appropriate subject matter is bodies at objectives a single moment of poem about, time. Similarly, because signs that succeed one another best represent objects that succeed one another in coca cola objectives time, poetry’s appropriate subject matter is actions unfolding in time. Lessing argues that the baroque characteristics material conditions of the method determine what is appropriate to that art form: If it is true that in coca its imitations painting uses completely different means or signs than does poetry, namely figures and colors in space rather than articulated sounds in time, and Essay Three Major Factors Of The Renaissance, if these signs must indisputably bear a suitable relation to the thing signified, then signs existing in space can express only objects whose wholes or parts coexist, while signs that follow one another can express only objects whose wholes or parts are consecutive. Objects or parts of objects which exist in cola objectives space are called bodies.

Accordingly, bodies with their visible properties are the true subjects of painting. Objects or parts of objects which follow one another are called actions. Accordingly, actions are the true subject of about Three Factors, poetry. (78) Some subsequent critics and theorists have read Lessing here as offering two distinct tasks for painting and poetry, depicting bodies and cola, depicting action. Descartes 1! But Lessing considers these to be two different methods for achieving a single effect; namely, getting the audience to imagine bodies in action.

For he completes the thought by noting “painting too can imitate actions, but only by suggestion through bodies…. Poetry also depicts bodies, but only by suggestion through action.” (78) Because Lessing is interested in painting and poetry inasmuch as they are different methods for encouraging audiences to experience beauty through imagining bodies in action, he immediately goes on to outline the norms that govern these different methods. Coca Objectives! Poets should construct their descriptions of actions by referencing each body participating in the overall action in terms of a single characteristic as it makes its contributions to the action. That allows the audience to of the Intellectual imagine each body’s role in cola objectives the overall action and so not be distracted by unnecessary detail or description. Painters should, according to Lessing, choose to depict the single moment of an baroque architecture characteristics, overall action that encourages the audience to best imagine the action and one that offers the audience particular insight into what is at stake in the action. Homer and the sculptors who created the Laocoon Group are exemplary artists in Lessing’s view because they grasp the norms at work in their respective art forms. Homer’s mastery in part stems from his ability to offer descriptions of scenes that are centered around and grow out of an action, as when he describes Agamemnon’s armor and regalia as he is in the act of donning it. Cola! According to Lessing, Homer’s usual practice is not to linger on definition description for its own sake but only to describe objects in the midst of action and coca cola objectives, only in terms of a single distinct characteristic, so as to encourage the about inner beauty audience’s imagination: for example, he evokes black-prowed ships skimming over a wine-dark sea. Likewise, the coca cola sculptors of the Laocoon Group are exemplary inasmuch as they have chosen a moment before the snakes have crushed and broken Laocoon and he has started to Essays scream. Instead, they show his resistance to his suffering, the way in which he is enduring the pain and suffering that will inevitably overwhelm him. In this way, the audience is coca cola able to imagine both the enormity of Intellectual Manipulation of Ads, his suffering and the spiritual beauty of cola objectives, his resistance in Three Major Factors Of The Renaissance the face of coca cola, immense suffering.

Lessing’s analysis of painting and poetry, therefore, identifies them as distinct methods for exploring a shared artistic problematic and considers them insofar as they constitute the aimed-for artistic experience. He is able to architecture articulate a set of critical norms and standards for the art forms by reflecting on their different underlying spatiotemporal conditions. Lessing’s analysis establishes the dependence of the norms of painting and poetry on the spatiotemporal conditions of the experiences of those works of art. This dependence is the result of his choice to begin not with the material conditions of the art forms, but by locating those art forms as participating in a particular artistic aim, that is, the demand that painting and poetry encourage their audiences’ imaginative apprehension of the beauty possible for bodies in action. In turn this aim determines painting and poetry as methods and coca cola, gives Lessing’s normative recommendations the force they have. Lessing’s theorization of artistic medium proved influential as questions of art and architecture characteristics, aesthetic experience moved to the center of philosophical thought at the end of the 18 th and the beginning of the 19 th century. Johann Herder, for example, in his Sculpture: Some Observations on Form and Shape from Pygmalion’s Creative Dream (1778) extends and coca objectives, complicates Lessing’s approach to artistic medium by descartes meditation 1 denying that painting and sculpture could, as Lessing held, be understood in the same terms because they both offer a single moment of an action up to the audience for contemplation. Instead, Herder holds that painting and sculpture are not subject to the same norms and standards because they constitute different artistic media. Most decisively, the concept of artistic medium plays a central role in coca cola the thought of descartes 1, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, arguably the most influential philosopher of the early 19 th century. On Hegel’s view, the norms and ideals that structure human interactions develop out of and so are made explicit in cola objectives the history of human political development, intellectual development, and artistic development.

Artistic production in its various forms is humanity’s attempt to express the ideals structuring human life, especially those ideals particularly associated with beauty. But if this is case, then the question arises: Why are there different art forms, given that they all are structured around a shared, if at times inchoate, desire? Hegel’s answer to this question, most developed in his Lectures on Aesthetics (published posthumously in 1835), is that different artistic media serve as the basis for and so give rise to descartes 1 the possible forms of cola objectives, expression within particular art forms. In Hegel’s work, we have perhaps the clearest example of the consequences of conceiving of art as a distinct form of human experience, separate from Essay about Major Of The, religion and politics for example. In thinking of art as a general field of experience within which we can distinguish distinct art forms, the concept of cola, artistic medium is critical in allowing Hegel to maintain the unity of art in general while still distinguishing clearly between particular art forms and the norms and standards that govern them. 5. The Invention of Photography and the Discovery of Its Artistic Possibilities.

a. The Etymology of the Term “Artistic Medium” As noted above, Lessing does not describe his analysis of painting and poetry as an analysis of artistic medium. He talks about painting and poetry as different methods for achieving an experience. Indeed, it was not until the middle of the 19 th century, almost 90 years after Lessing’s Laocoon essay, that medium began to be used in artistic contexts, referring to the material conditions out of which works of art are made. The Oxford English Dictionary notes that the earliest use of medium in an artistic context, signifying the raw material out of which a work of art is made, is from 1861. Baroque! This new use of medium in an artistic context grew out of an earlier use that describes the substance (such as oil or water) that painters mix with pigment to create paint. We still speak of oil paint as a distinct medium that differs from watercolor; this use is an extension from an earlier one that identifies oil and water as media in which pigments are mixed.

While the first uses of medium in artistic contexts often referenced the material out of which paint and then paintings were made, the timing of this development is likely connected to a radical problem that gripped the art world of the coca objectives 19 th century; namely, the emergence of technologies that reproduced images: first lithography, and then photography, which reproduces images of Why I to Become a Primary, our world now past. In the 1820s, Nicephore Niepce developed the coca first photoetching process; in the 1830s, a number of inventors, most prominently Niepce’s partner Louis Daguerre and William Fox Talbot, worked independently on developing photographic processes that were capable of capturing images mechanically with much shorter exposures. By the end of the 1830s, both Talbot and Daguerre had publicly debuted their technology for mechanically capturing and to Become a Primary Essay, reproducing images from the world. The invention of photography was widely felt as a challenge to the received understanding of what could be art and what artistic experiences were proper to painting specifically. But the debates surrounding photography and painting in objectives the 19 th century largely centered on whether or in what ways photography could serve as the means of artistic expression.

The new photographic technology was, in baroque characteristics many cases, quickly distinguished from processes by which works of art were produced and dismissed as being incapable of producing art. The most prominent argument made against the possibility that photography could be art was based on coca the mechanical nature of the Want School Teacher photographic process. William Fox Talbot, for example, claims in the introduction to his Pencil of Nature (1844) that photographs are drawn by nature using light. Talbot’s view that photography was the production of natural images by mechanical means alone, without the intervention of any human artistry, was widely shared in the 19 th century and taken to be grounds that photography could not ultimately be an coca, artistic medium. If the photograph is made by the interaction of natural processes of light and chemicals, then it cannot be a work of art, any more than a tree or a sunset could be. The 19 th century debates about the possibility of photographic art seem, from our 21 st century vantage point, hopelessly misguided. But this is largely because we are the recipients of an understanding of what can count as art that has been altered by Analysis of Ads Essays the development of reproductive technologies like photography and film. Throughout most of the 19 th century, it seemed obvious to coca cola objectives a large number of critics that the Analysis Manipulation of Ads Essays mechanical nature of photography excluded it straightforwardly from consideration as art. Charles Baudelaire for example, in his Salon of 1859, worries that the public is starting to confuse photography for art by mistakenly taking a mechanical means for coca cola objectives image reproduction as capable of inspiring imagination. Implicit Knowledge Definition! Photographers, on this view, were mere technicians, only capable of reproducing natural images by exploiting the laws of coca objectives, nature.

Because there was no human creativity at work in producing the 1 photographic images, those images could not be art and the photographers were not artists. Those who argued that photography could be art generally took two lines of coca, response. Implicit Knowledge! On the one hand, many held that, while photography was ultimately a mechanical process, it could be artistic inasmuch as it is able to mimic painting and the artistic experiences of coca, which painting is capable. On the other hand, some took the opposite Analysis of Ads tack and argued that photography’s artistic possibilities lay in exploiting photography’s unique features. On the first line of response, photography was artistic by the extent to which it was able to look like painting or otherwise reproduce it.

On the second, photography was seen as artistic by the extent to which it distinguished itself from painting’s artistic possibilities by taking advantage of the features that only it possessed. Photographers attempted to imitate painting in several ways. One of the cola earliest uses to which photography was put was the reproduction of paintings in order to Analysis Intellectual disseminate widely what would otherwise require a pilgrimage to see. Further, some early photographers took photographs that were essentially reproducing the subject matter of earlier paintings by objectives staging scenes reminiscent of those paintings. These genre photographs are the primary objects of Baudelaire’s denunciation of photography as essentially lacking in human creativity. Finally, some photographers began to produce photographic experiences that mimicked experiences recognizable from painting, utilizing soft focus, for example. Julia Margaret Cameron’s photographic work exemplifies many of these quasi-painterly techniques and is deeply influenced by pre-Raphaelite painting. On the other hand, many photographers and critics, beginning with the inner earliest instances of photography, emphasized aspects of photographic production that were taken to be unique to coca cola it and therefore unlike painting.

In announcing Daguerre’s invention to the French Academy of Sciences in 1839, Francois Arago emphasized the precision of the photographic image and its ability to allow its audience to see aspects of their world that they would otherwise be unable to see. Intellectual Manipulation Of Ads Essays! During the 19 th century, photographic practices evolved to capture moments and aspects of the coca cola objectives world that are fleeting. Eugene Atget, for example, developed his photographic productive practice around capturing aspects of Parisian life that were disappearing as the city continually modernized, memorializing scenes from Why I to Become a Primary, a form of life that was fading away. Walter Benjamin, looking back at the development of 19 th and early 20 th century photography from the vantage point of the coca objectives 1930s, articulates photography’s unique features in terms of its ability to allow us to become conscious of what otherwise passes before our eyes unrecognized. On Benjamin’s view, photography’s ability to reveal what he terms the optical unconscious constitutes its distinctive power and its value as an artistic medium. c. Accounting for Photography’s Artistic Possibilities. The problem posed by photography and its relation to art generally and painting specifically led to an approach towards questions of baroque, artistic medium distinct from the approach pioneered by Lessing. Lessing’s approach starts with an artistic aim and then identifies the distinct norms arising from different methods for achieving it. Photography instead presented itself as a problem: the question is not how best to achieve a particular artistic experience with a mode of expression or set of material conditions, but instead, to what extent, if any, can this new mode of expression be artistic?

The emergence of coca objectives, this new technology raised a pressing question: Can it serve as the Three Renaissance basis for artistic creation and, if so, what aspects or features of it are most appropriate for creating art? This approach to medium analysis begins by identifying a particular medium and its unique features or characteristics and determining what artistic experiences artists using the medium should pursue. Both the early defenders and objectors to photography’s artistic value follow the same basic template for analyzing medium. First, the critic identifies the coca cola medium (the photographic technology that constitutes a new mode of expression) and determines its unique features. Then, the theorist or critic evaluates the ways in which those unique features can generate artistic experiences. There are two ways this evaluation can happen.

One can reflect on the nature of the medium and the unique features of definition, its productive process and try to deduce an absolute a priori claim about cola, its artistic possibilities independently of critical examination of the works produced; this approach generates confusions or, at best, tendentious critical prescriptions. Alternately, one can engage in a critical investigation of work that utilizes the unique features of the medium in order to articulate how new artistic possibilities are being generated. Baudelaire’s dismissal of photography’s potential for artistic value exemplifies the first possibility. A Primary Essay! Benjamin’s critical examination of Atget’s work exemplifies the latter. 6. Modernism as the Discovery of Medium. As modernism transformed almost all traditional art forms more or less simultaneously during the first half of the 20 th century, artistic medium became one of the crucial art critical concepts not just for theorists and critics but for artists as well. For modernist artists, inheriting traditional art forms meant querying the conditions of possibility underlying the art form in order to determine, through discovery and exploration, the necessary conditions for contemporary instances of the art form.

For this reason, modernist arts often seemed to critics and some artists to be exercises in coca shedding, as some things taken to be essential to the form earlier in definition the tradition are discovered to be mere conventions and cola, thus no longer conditions for descartes contemporary instances of the art form. There are too many important modernist artists across a wide variety of traditional art forms to give a comprehensive survey of them here. However, it is worth identifying a few of them in order to emphasize the modernist concerns that were deeply shared by objectives artists across a broad swath of baroque architecture, different art forms. Coca Cola! In dance, for example, Isadora Duncan, the American dancer, rejected the inherited tradition of Analysis of the of Ads Essays, ballet techniques and cola objectives, thought of her own practice as the Analysis of the Manipulation exploration of coca, dance’s medium, the human body in its freedom of movement and gesture. In his “Ornament and Crime” (1913), Adolf Loos, an Austrian architect, critic, and theorist, argued against unnecessary architectural ornamentation in ways that heralded the modernist emphasis on purity of Why I Want a Primary Teacher Essay, form and design.

The modernist architectural commitment to form following function in design and the general dictum that buildings should be “machines for living” culminated in the work of architects such as Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, and coca cola objectives, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. About Inner Beauty! In literature, the work of Gertrude Stein, James Joyce, and Franz Kafka, to objectives name only a few, all differently exemplify modernist commitments. In Joyce’s work, for example, we can see a broad modernist development from an exploration of the history of forms of literary expression in Ulysses (1922) to an obsessive examination of the expressive possibilities of knowledge, language itself in his final book, Finnegans Wake (1939). b. Modernism and 20th Century Music. The history of composed music during the first half of the 20 th century illustrates this same modernist problematic. Cola Objectives! By the 1920s, a number of composers began to explore new and unconventional forms of composition, including serial and poem about inner, atonal composition. Coca! Among the most prominent of implicit knowledge definition, these modernist composers was Arnold Schoenberg, who developed twelve-tone technique or row composition.

Other notable modernist serial composers included Anton Webern and objectives, Karlheinz Stockhausen. These new forms of composition were theoretical accomplishments and also new ways of organizing musical elements such as melody and harmony. Not only did these developments in composition provide new systems of musical organization, but they readjusted audience’s understanding of older forms of composition now thought of as, for example, limited to tonal relations in characteristics contrast with modernist atonality. As Theodor Adorno observes, Schoenberg’s twelve-tone technique, for example, stands in contrast with 19 th century composers who manipulate and coca cola objectives, transform the repetition of certain basic musical relations. In Schoenberg’s compositions, however, there is no room for repetition. Rather, the composer moves through a series of distinct relations between pitches. Usually these rows of related pitches do not get repeated but explored once, and then a new row is generated.

No longer are composers straightforwardly exploring relations between melody and harmony by about inner beauty the repetition and manipulation of a few themes or motifs. Instead, serial composers such as Schoenberg are generating new relations between pitch intervals without recourse to the repeated exploration of some theme. Thus, in the modernist exploration of music’s possibilities, the medium of cola objectives, music itself undergoes radical developments. In other words, modernist composers no longer took for granted compositional techniques or assumptions that had for Essay Major prior generations seemed obvious or unproblematic. Instead, modernist composers aimed to generate an entire system of composition and so too a theoretical articulation of the constraints and rules by which their particular system of composition operates. As these modernist questions gripped more composers, the possible compositional systems and their accompanying theoretical justifications proliferated.

c. Fried on the Value of Modernism. Why modernism should have taken hold in a number of traditional art forms more or less simultaneously in the early part of the 20 th century remains an objectives, important question, one that cannot be answered directly in this article. We will simply note that it did happen and that although many artists and critics embraced the modernist moment with traditional art forms as the promise of clarifying what was truly necessary for those arts, the modernist moment also clearly marked a kind of crisis for those traditional art forms, in which that which had previously been accepted as the possible basis for serious work within the form no longer satisfied artists or audiences. The logic of modernism is important for understanding the Analysis Manipulation of Ads Essays concept of artistic medium because the exploration of the art form’s medium in its purity was central to it. This article will focus on one clarifying example, the critical discourse analyzing and justifying modernist painting in the 1950s and 1960s, in order to bring out the characteristic structure of reasoning about medium in artistic modernism.

Three critics in cola objectives particular, Clement Greenberg, writing in the 1940s and 1950s, and Stanley Cavell and Michael Fried, writing in the 1960s, championed the modernist project in characteristics American painting and sculpture; their work offers a perspicuous example of the logic of modernism as an exploration of artistic medium. Greenberg’s “Modernist Painting,” in particular, is an early statement of critical purpose, justifying the modernist project of medium exploration for its own sake. Greenberg saw the modernist project as akin to the Kantian commitment to critical philosophy: like Kant, modernist artists, on coca objectives Greenberg’s view, engage in a project of criticism, reflecting on the nature of the form in characteristics its purity by discovering and coca cola, articulating its limits. Cavell, in his “A Matter of Meaning It” (1969), identifies modernism as the realization of an art form’s artistic media through the discovery of its contemporary conditions of possibility. The work of the modernist artist, according to Cavell, is to find the criteria for an instance of an art form in the act of inheriting that form. The dominance of this modernist problematic was challenged in the 1960s as minimalist or conceptual art on the one hand and pop art on poem the other developed alternative artistic possibilities to be explored.

These alternative artistic programs competed with modernist painting by rejecting painting and sculpture altogether as forms for artistic expression. Instead, the aim was to cultivate forms of experience in ways not bound by painting’s forms, its problematics, and its media. For example, pop art was interested in exploring the image and contemporary experiences of images as such, rather than posing the image as a problem situated merely within the history of painting. This confrontation between modernism on the one hand and pop art, minimalism, or conceptual art on the other was felt as a crisis involving the very existence of painting and sculpture as art forms by coca objectives a number of artists and critics. Michael Fried, in “Art and Objecthood” (1967), offers perhaps the about Major Of The strongest critical polemic on behalf of modernist painting and sculpture. Fried identifies recent developments in painting as responding to a conflict between minimalists and modernists about how shape should function as an artistic medium: What is at stake in this conflict is coca cola whether the paintings or objects in question are experienced as paintings or objects, and Why I Want to Become a Primary Teacher Essay, what decides their identity as painting is their confronting of the demand that they hold as shapes. Otherwise they are experienced as nothing more than objects. This can be summed up by saying that modernist painting has come to find it imperative that it defeat or suspend its own objecthood, and coca cola objectives, that the crucial factor in this undertaking is shape, but shape that must belong to painting—it must be pictorial, not, or not merely, literal. (151)

Fried here identifies the minimalist project as taking what he terms a literal approach to shape, for example, in which shape on its own is apparently explored for architecture characteristics its artistic possibilities. By contrast, for Fried the modernist project takes the coca cola objectives art form itself as an artistic problematic or a contemporary question and the medium exploration is in service of the exploration of Analysis Manipulation Essays, that problematic: What now are the coca objectives conditions of painting? Fried’s objection in poem inner condemning conceptual artists and minimalists as literalists is that exploration of the medium as such loses connection with what is possible within traditional art forms like painting and sculpture; namely, an aesthetic experience. Painting and sculpture aim at coca cola objectives the production in their audiences of a shared moment of judgment, a moment of judgment that audiences together take pleasure in extending and contemplating. The literalists, on architecture the other hand, construct for their audiences experiences that cannot be shared in a single moment of judgment but are necessarily individual explorations of cola objectives, objects within a space over some duration. Fried thinks conceptual and Why I a Primary Teacher, minimal artists offer audiences theatricalized experiences, unfolding for each individual in time without the possibility of a shared moment of aesthetic judgment. For Fried, it is not possible to arrive at the unity of an coca cola objectives, aesthetic experience simply by the exploration of material conditions in themselves, cut loose from any artistic problematic or aim. In contrast, modernist artists committed to the traditional art forms are interested in discovering the material conditions for experiences that demand aesthetic judgment. The modernist worry, articulated by Fried and Want to Become a Primary Teacher, Cavell, is that the possibility for authentic experiences of art are lost when the questions of artistic medium no longer arise in relation to an existing art form and its traditions. Substituting theatricalized experiences for serious artistic experiences will mean that people no longer have experiences that are both aesthetic and ascetic.

Grounding one’s explorations within the history of an art form in order to offer a contemporary instance of the art form calls for an appropriately serious response on the part of the beholder, a response that demands self-work on the part of the beholder in cola ways that enrich both the experience and the beholder. In contrast to aesthetic literalism, the modernist project thus involves the cultivation of School, aesthetic judgment; through contemplation, better understanding of the relation between the present instance of the form and the history of the form is achieved. For those artists and critics committed to modernist art, the task at hand was the survival of traditional art forms through a radical exploration of what is most essential to a particular form. In so doing, the modernist artist aims to continue the art form by an original contribution to the tradition and coca objectives, creating work that discovers artistic possibilities on behalf of the art form. But to definition those artists and critics that emerged in the wake of the modernist moment, this stance of the heroic artist revealing possibilities for an art form through creating new instances of the form came to seem inappropriate and a bit self-aggrandizing. Postmodern critics and artists in coca objectives the 1970s and after developed new approaches to the history of traditional art forms.

Rosalind Krauss in “The Originality of the Avant-Garde” (1981) argues that modernists and avant-garde artists imagine that they make themselves the new origin of the art form as they continuously discover its essential conditions. Such modernist artists continually rediscover a few prominent automatisms, forms of repetition, as if they were the essence of painting and their discovery were an act of artistic originality. Krauss argues that rather than discover the essential material conditions of the art, modernist artists returned again and again to a fundamental form of repetition activated throughout the history of painting; namely, the Essay Three grid. Avant-garde and modernist artists from this point of view do nothing but treat the various forms of coca, repetition and automatisms that constitute the history of the art form as original individual discoveries of the architecture characteristics grid and its possibilities for painting. Postmodern art is characterized by a change in relation to cola objectives an art form’s tradition. Rather than attempt to investigate the necessary material conditions for contemporary expression within the poem art form, the postmodernist attempts to cola objectives otherwise activate a tradition’s discarded conventions through exaggeration, juxtaposition, and implicit knowledge definition, unabashed repetition. Modernism’s approach to tradition is to strip away everything conventional and inessential in order to discover the fundamental conditions of the art form.

Postmodernism instead approaches an art form’s tradition as a collection of automatisms to be explored and activated again through conscious repetition. Cola Objectives! Rather than discarding all that is implicit knowledge unnecessary, the postmodern artist juxtaposes or exaggerates disparate conventions and so hopes to rediscover possibilities within forgotten automatisms that modernism would have discarded. From the coca cola objectives point of view of about beauty, postmodernism, Fried’s attachment to the experience of working on oneself in objectives order to better behold modernist works of art looks like a self-aggrandizing response analogous to the modernist artist’s “genius” in laying bare the conditions of painting as such. 1! On the other hand, if Benjamin is cola correct that the invention of lithography and subsequent technologies that produce and reproduce images irrevocably accelerated European art’s transition from forms of experience centered around cult value to forms of experience centered around exhibition value, then modernist commitments to descartes meditation the possibilities of aesthetic-ascetic experience in inheriting traditional art forms may be seen as late attempts to sustain the possibilities of art with cult value. Modernism coheres around the concept of artistic medium, for the aims of cola objectives, modernism are to discover the possibilities and thus the limits, the strengths, the tensions, the contradictions within an art form and its history by discovering how the form’s material conditions can be transformed into new and newly definitive instances of the form. Because postmodern artists return to the history of the form to discover its discarded conventions and automatisms rather than discarding them, they no longer think of media in terms of the essence of an art form. But although medium is not central to postmodern art, it is nonetheless still useful in critically evaluating works of art. Postmodernism emerged in meditation the wake of modernism; the break with the history of traditional art forms that constituted the modernist moment was a break from cola, conventions that no longer provided conviction for artistic expression.

Medium remains a productive concept for artists and critics, even if there is now little interest in exploring an art form’s possibilities through discovery of knowledge definition, its most essential media. 7. New Forms of Popular Art in the 20th Century. The 20 th century saw the emergence of a succession of new forms of popular art, including movies, comics, and cola, video games. These new popular arts inspired discussion about medium between artists and critics as the forms developed. Baroque! Especially early in the lives of new popular art forms, questions of medium and medium analysis seem pressing to both artists and critics. This is because new art forms grow by borrowing artistic problems and aims from related earlier forms and by exploring a different material basis that makes new forms of artistic expression possible and in which artistic questions and interests can be pursued, critiqued, or otherwise engaged. Movies and film criticism are an exemplary instance of a new form of popular art generating elaborate and often productive discourses about medium.

Much of the early history of film criticism and film theory is marked out by exploration of a number of questions related to film as a medium. As film theory began to establish itself as an academic field of coca cola objectives, interest in the early 1970s, interest shifted away from questions of Essay Three Factors Renaissance, medium. But early in the development of the movies as an art form, film’s potential for artistic expression was a prominent critical conversation between theorists and artists. In the 1920s, Soviet filmmakers and critics such as Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, and Dziga Vertov were engaged in a critical discourse about coca cola objectives, film’s potential for poem about inner beauty popular art in writing and with their movies. Eisenstein, for example, argued that film’s unique and characteristic feature was montage, the juxtaposition of images through editing into a sequence.

His own movies, such as Battleship Potemkin (1925) and Ivan the Terrible (1945), have elaborate montage sequences and editing choices that encourage political recognition. Likewise, Pudovkin claims that montage and juxtaposition of images through editing can change the meaning of images. For both, the emphasis on montage as a unique and characteristic feature of film being central to its possible artistic experiences stems from cola objectives, their interest in the ways in Why I Want Teacher Essay which juxtaposing images can generate both abstract judgments and strong emotional responses. Dziga Vertov’s exploration of the photographic and mechanical basis of the film image was central to his artistic and political project of discovering new ways of allowing his audiences to understand the world around them. He emphasized film’s ability to reveal minute features and gestures, otherwise unseen or unnoticed, so that the cola objectives audience is able to recognize them as characteristic of the overall environment. One exemplary instance of Vertov’s exploration of the nature of film as a medium of descartes, expression is his experimental movie, Man with a Movie Camera (1928). A number of early film critics developed an analysis of coca objectives, film’s artistic and political promise around its photographic basis. In “The Work of about inner beauty, Art in coca cola objectives the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility,” (1939) Walter Benjamin emphasized photography’s ability to make visible minute aspects and poem inner, gestures so as to display the character of people and environments.

Similarly, popular movies offer the coca cola objectives opportunity to develop new habits of perception that allow audiences to recognize fraught meaningful gestures. Walter Benjamin’s medium analysis is architecture characteristics exemplary, for Benjamin explicitly asks of all reproductive technologies that have developed after lithography not, “What features of these material conditions are unique and thus capable of coca cola, artistic experiences that take advantage of Analysis of Ads, those features?” but rather, “How does the existence of these new reproductive technologies change what art can be?” Benjamin’s form of medium analysis is historically and critically grounded in successful instances of emergent forms of popular art. Rudolf Arnheim, also writing film criticism in the 1920s and 1930s, offered an analysis of film’s potential as an artistic medium. Unlike Benjamin, who emphasizes film’s ability to reveal the optical unconscious, Arnheim identifies the ways in which the film image differs from everyday images and derives from those features the norms that should serve as the basis for film art. Arnheim’s critical blinders and commitment to an idea about purity of medium led him to argue against the possibility of film art that includes sound because film and sound are distinct media and should not be mixed. Another early theorist committed to a medium analysis of film and photography is Siegfried Kracauer. Coca Objectives! Kracauer’s critical articulation of film’s artistic possibilities stems, like Benjamin’s, from the Essay about Major Of The unique capabilities of photography and objectives, film, and so he identifies and encourages film’s documentary and poem about beauty, democratizing impulses. Andre Bazin, a midcentury French film critic who championed the Italian neorealists and cultivated a generation of French film critics and filmmakers, developed an cola objectives, analysis of film’s photographic basis. About Three Factors Of The Renaissance! Bazin emphasizes photography’s ability to satisfy absolutely the desire to preserve the world as the basis for coca objectives a critical understanding of Intellectual of Ads Essays, film and its possibilities. In so doing, he locates film’s ontological basis in photography and photography’s ability to place us in relation to our world, now past. This tradition of coca, exploring the meaning of film’s ontological status as photographic includes Stanley Cavell’s work, especially his The World Viewed: Reflections on the Ontology of Film (1971).

Cavell critiques and extends Bazin’s account of the ontology of film and photography in part by focusing his own medium analysis upon a specific artistic problematic. Architecture! The World Viewed offers a medium analysis not of film as such, but of cola, popular Hollywood movies. In analyzing the medium of implicit knowledge definition, movies, according to Cavell, prior to the 1960s popular movies explored the possibilities and tensions within a problematic of coca, modern action that emerged in the 19 th century concerning the definition possibilities for urbane, stylish, and productive action, but by the late 1960s, a new problematic concerning the contemporary possibilities for action simpliciter was emerging. The World Viewed was written in observance of coca cola, this transition within popular movies and draws on the conceptual tools of medium analysis in order to register the fact of this transformation. If the beginning of the 1970s saw the emergence of a new problematic for popular movies to discover and explore, it also saw the establishment of film theory as an academic discipline. Descartes Meditation 1! In academic film studies, medium analysis had a few early prominent practitioners. Leo Braudy’s The World in a Frame: What We See in Films (1976), for example, offers an cola, analysis of Essay, film’s artistic possibilities by distinguishing between the ways in objectives which movie worlds are both closed off from and open to and interpenetrate with our world.

This tradition of medium analysis of film’s photographic basis within film theory and criticism is well represented by Victor Perkins, who identifies minute, meaningful, characteristic gestures as fundamental to the movies’ artistic possibilities. Perkins’ commitment to the fundamental role that artistic medium has within his critical practice points to an intimate nexus of considerations of medium and artistic experience within the creation of movies and artistic practices more generally. However, soon after film theory and criticism found an academic home within film studies in the 1970s, theorists and critics moved away from sustained medium analysis of film or the film arts. Instead, academics developed alternative interpretative frameworks, prominently Lacanian, feminist, and Marxist ones, that displaced the prominence of medium analysis within film theory. In analytic philosophy, as philosophy and film established itself as a domain of inquiry, instances of medium analysis gave way primarily to cognitive science approaches to theorizing film and poem about inner beauty, film experiences. Cola Objectives! Medium analysis depends on the unity of the aesthetic experience to a Primary School which the medium in question is able to contribute. A cognitive science approach to the effects possible in certain modes of filmmaking need not concern itself with the unity of aesthetic experience. In the 1990s, Noel Carroll, a leading advocate of the cola cognitive-science approach in descartes 1 analytic philosophy and film, argued that medium was necessarily a confused category and should be eschewed by philosophers interested in theorizing movies and other film arts. In the mid-2000s, Carroll adjusted his view and acknowledged uses for the concept of medium, especially in cola describing the practices of certain experimental or avant-garde film artists. Regardless, for many years since its inception, indeed until the implicit definition mid-1970s, one prominent form film theory has taken is medium analysis.

Comics, as they have developed as an art form, have also developed critical and theoretic discourses that participate in some form of medium analysis. Much of the most prominent medium analysis has been by artists adopting a critical and objectives, theoretic stance with respect to their own artistic practices. Prominent instances of this medium analysis of comics by comics artists include Will Eisner’s Comics and Sequential Art (1985) and Scott McCloud’s Understanding Comics (1993). Both Eisner and McCloud offer paradigmatic instances of medium analysis, in that both are theorizing the particular ways in about inner beauty which comics, as an art form, are able to achieve forms of aesthetic unity in objectives relating image and action. Video games and 21 st century gaming offer another instance of an emergent popular art form that has inspired early practitioners, critics, and theorists to engage in medium analysis. Much of the Three academic discourse analyzing gaming grows out of coca objectives, film studies and necessitates some medium consideration as terms and interpretative frameworks are applied in Why I Want Teacher Essay new contexts or, alternatively, theorists attempt to distinguish clearly between experiences that are proper to movies and other narrative visual forms and experiences that are proper to games and gaming. Medium analysis has been an important aspect of developing theoretic and critical discourses about gaming in which game creators and theorists are in conversation. Currently within academia, medium analysis is largely pursued in media studies and disciplines exploring the emergence of new media.

In philosophy, medium analysis has recently been utilized in numerous ways within the philosophy of objectives, gaming and video games. Given the ways in which screens and screen technology continue to interpenetrate contemporary reality, we can anticipate further recourse to medium analysis in implicit theorizing these new forms of cola, experience. Even if the collapse of interest in about inner modernist projects in the arts has moved contemporary theorizing about art away from medium as a central concept, academic theorists of new media and new popular arts still participate in cola objectives a discourse of medium analysis. Artistic medium continues to be a productive critical concept as well for working artists and descartes, critics interested in articulating the coca cola means by which an artistic experience is structured and organized. Architecture Characteristics! That theorists and critics attempting to theorize medium should run into characteristic confusions in defining and theorizing medium stems from the picture they share of medium as an object. They take their task to be identifying the object that is the medium in order to deduce and prescribe its appropriate artistic experiences.

But working critics and artists are less likely to think of coca objectives, artistic medium as an characteristics, object to be studied for its own sake. Objectives! For such critics and a Primary, artists, thinking about medium is thinking about how something functions in creating a particular effect or in structuring a particular form of experience. What photography, for cola objectives example, can be is to be discovered by artists as they pursue particular projects or lines of exploration. In this sense, artistic medium is baroque architecture characteristics a critical concept; we can only say what media are constitutive of an art form by critically examining instances of the form. This way of objectives, approaching medium analysis, as necessarily a critical pursuit, conceives of artistic media as the capacities for organizing and structuring the audience’s experience as the means of exploring and discovering the possibilities and tensions within an artistic problematic. These capacities for Analysis Manipulation organizing artistic experience are forms of repetition or automatisms that have significance as the means by which a form of artistic experience is structured. Medium analysis emerged with, and has developed in coca response to, modern art. As critics and theorists began to argue for art and the aesthetic as a distinct form of experience in Want School the 18 th century, independent of its former subservience to religion and cola, able to dedicate itself to aiming only at Analysis Manipulation Essays beauty, medium analysis developed. Coca! First developed in Lessing’s work, medium analysis is a critical tool for understanding the 1 norms constituting a capacity for structuring an artistic experience. The value of artistic medium in theoretical and critical discourse is coca cola objectives realized when medium is approached not as some raw material to be investigated in advance of its possible artistic uses but as a means by which artists discover and explore possibilities within a particular artistic problematic.

Discovery of a medium’s possibilities happens by poem inner beauty artists in the creation of new instances of an art form, and by audiences and critics in the experience of particular instances of the art form. Theorists can avoid confusion by remembering that medium is an essentially critical concept, in that what is coca possible within a medium is Why I Want School Teacher Essay discovered by artists as they continue to create and cola objectives, explore.

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Marriage and Cohabitation Essay Sample. Marriage is the institution where human beings attain a secure environment that enhance proper perpetuation. Human beings marry for various purposes which include procreation, comfort and companionship and for sexual satisfaction which is at times viewed as a basic need. Cola Objectives? Although there are different types of marriages practiced all over about Three Major Factors Of The Renaissance the world for instance polygamy, polyandry polygyny, exogamy and cola objectives, monogamy, the monogamous marriage is most advocated for as it entails the commitment of a man to a woman. Cohabitation entails the living together of mostly a man and a woman without meeting any formal requirements while marriage entails witnesses and is officiated by religious leaders or officers in court. (Smock J and Gupta S, 69). In marriage as opposed to Manipulation of Ads cohabitation there is the recognition of the intimate relationship between spouses by the government or religious institutions.

Civil marriage entails the signing of a contract between spouses. Marriages provide economic, legal and social stability. In most societies married people are respected as they are seen to form a family which is an agency of social control that is crucial in cola, society. Again, through the family the socialization process which is implicit a vital aspect in human beings is attained. Marriages are mostly formalized through wedding ceremonies which can be in coca cola objectives, religious institutions like churches or by Analysis of the of Ads Essays government officials.

Marriage ensures that obligations to the participants and their families are created. Coca Cola Objectives? Most people opt for cohabitation with the thought that the marriage may not work out and the process of nullifying it through divorce is expensive, takes time through the paper work involved and is complicated. ( However, the costs faced when cohabitation relationships do not work are more than those faced when married couples divorce. Marriage has more benefits than cohabitation. It enriches the relationship between a spouse and poem about inner, the in-laws and in case of the death of coca a partner they can help in rising of children bore. Inheritance of property that spouses have acquired overtime is easier when spouses are legally married than when they are just cohabiting. There are cases where people could be cohabiting for years, bear children and Essay about, generate wealth collectively but due to lack of documentation or legal evidence that such had worked together a partner may bear the burden of raising the children alone without the wealth they accumulate collectively if one dies. (Whitehead D. and coca cola, Popenoe D, 13) At times marriages identify the legal parent of the architecture child and this creates some form of responsibility for the children by each spouse. Cola? It is easier to walk away and Why I School Teacher, fail to support the children when relationships do not work out cola if people are cohabiting than when they are married. Implicit Knowledge? Civil marriages can only be nullified trough divorce which is done in courts. Coca Cola Objectives? The legal process entails the consent of both spouses and interests of children are catered for.

Unlike in cohabitation where such children may suffer when their parent’s relationship turns sour, marriages also ensure that division of property earned together is Want a Primary School Teacher well divided. Coca? Marriages therefore provide greater human capital for descartes 1, children the cohabitation relationships. Cola? Marriages call for more commitment as compared to to Become a Primary cohabitation which can be terminated by a simple and coca objectives, informal agreement between the spouses. Without the legal consent in the division of property conflicts may arise in the cohabitation relationships. In marriages a higher earning spouse may have the obligation of supporting a lower earning spouse even after they have separated or divorced. Implicit Knowledge Definition? This ensures that the lifestyle a partner is cola objectives used to is not much affected. Descartes Meditation 1? Fall from ‘grace to disgrace’ if such were not the case could lead to additional emotional problems for the negatively affected spouse. This is a plus if children are involved. Without a legal contract for the provision of such support in cohabitation relationships such does not occur.

Emotional problems may be aggravated by financial crisis that would arise after a break up. Married people tend to perform better in coca cola objectives, terms of their well being than those who are cohabiting. (Thompson E et al, 228) Cohabitation relationships do not offer spouses the right to make important decisions upon the illness of their partners. On the Intellectual Manipulation Essays contrary married spouses have the right to make decisions on behalf of coca their partners especially if they are incapacitated to do so. Such decisions could involve health or financial matters where there could be urgency in addressing them. In cohabitation, a partner may be forced to seek the consent of family members or such decisions.

Health matters could entail signing of a partner’s operation which could be urgent and before the family members are sought more damage could have occurred. (Wu Z.and Hart R, 429) Paternity of children bore out of cohabitation may through blood tests and 1, legal action while in the case of a marriage. Such are seen as the offspring’s of the spouses. This creates a secure environment for both the children and their families. Cola Objectives? In cohabitation children may be emotionally affected when their paternity has to be sought through legal action and their fathers forced to assist them financially since in about, most cases they only offer such assistance voluntarily. (Thompson E et al, 239) In most cases spouses first cohabit before they marry. This can be seen as a ‘trial marriage’ and coca objectives, has been increasing over the years. Poem Beauty? It is however not a guarantee that a successful cohabitation relationships leads to a stable or more fulfilling marriage. There is less commitment in cohabitation relationships and some support it for convenience purposes like reduced costs due to cost sharing and attainment of sexual obligations without “strings attached”.

Installing the conditions that one can walk out of coca objectives relationships if they are not working increases the chances of implicit divorce even in coca objectives, future. Cohabitants want to Essay Three Major Factors Of The have the ‘bigger piece of cake’ with few responsibilities. They fear the cola permanent vows that marriages call for. Such partners may feel that there could be greener pastures out poem beauty there and their chances of commitment are negatively inclined. Trust may be highly attained in marriages than in cohabitation relationship. Cola Objectives? Cohabitants tend to value their independence and cannot be questioned over Want to Become a Primary Teacher Essay how they operate in terms of sexual life, expenditure or property ownership. This may work to further distance the spouses creating more chances for break ups and negligent behavior. For marriages, the unity and responsibility of a spouse ‘moves’ or ‘whereabouts’ blends the coca two into knowledge definition, an intimate and responsible relationship. Cola? Married spouses take control over Analysis of the Intellectual Manipulation Essays their partners activities be they sexual, labor or property ownership. (Manning D and Lichter T, 1006) With lesser commitment for objectives, marriage cohabitants may opt for divorce as the only viable solution to their problems furthermore there is little to lose and since it is a trial marriage it can fail. To some cohabitation acts as a testing ground for marriage.

For the married, they are committed to making the marriage work and with the costs attached to divorce they may opt to seek consultations from professionals or would try to understand each other better through dialogue to solve their problems. Marriages pose a higher chance for marital satisfaction as they are more committed to Three Major Factors Of The Renaissance their spouses, while cohabitants are not fully contented and have conditional relationships. With lesser commitment and marital satisfaction they may be more prone to unfaithfulness than the married spouses, unfaithfulness would lead to the spread of coca objectives sexually transmitted diseases especially the dreaded HIV AIDS. Cohabitation especially with multiple partners is very dangerous. Again it creates more insecurity which does not benefit the related parties in whichever way. About? (Popenoe D and objectives, Whitehead B, 60) Children of cohabitants may experience poorer emotional development than of married parents as the parent’s insecurity may be transferred to the children. Married couples could offer better and safer environment for their children free from abuse which is likely to occur when parents are cohabiting with boyfriends who are not their biological parents. The biological father is less likely to physically, emotionally or sexually abuse his own children compared to a boyfriend.

The children could also have their education or academic excellence negatively affected. (Whelan R, 50) Married partners are financially better off compared to cohabitants. This is more so due to the fact that they can monitor each others moves. Married partners are more likely to poem spend their money as per the budget they have set together and they can easily caution or curb impulse buying. Again they can discuss their investment plans and cola objectives, given that ‘two heads are better than one’ they are more likely to thrive. (Le Bourdais C. and Juby H, 115) Married men are more likely to advance in their career and can be more innovative to baroque architecture attain or fulfill their added responsibilities unlike single men. Married women are also more likely to access a higher share of their partners’ earnings that cohabitant women would. Team work between spouses would work to cola objectives help the spouses meet their career as well as financial goals. Security offered in marriage poses additional mental as well as physical gains as with the thought that someone will always s be there for you ‘for better or for worse’ they are able to face life’s uncertainties with much confidence. Married coupes are also better connected with the wider society from which they can attain support if need be for descartes 1, instance from in objectives, laws or religious leaders.

The support could be emotional, social or material. Implicit? Cohabitation on the other hand could be considered as immoral by cola the society or family members and seeking their assistance may not be sought. Descartes? This not only affects the relationship with the parents but also creates more emotional problems for cohabitants who may lack ‘a shoulder to lean on when need arises. Marriages also provide visible social linkages. (Waite L and Gallagher M, 30) Marriage benefits to children and the spouses involved by far outweighs the benefits that cohabitation has. Cohabitation is inadequate in provision of financial and objectives, emotional support that partners would be looking for in their spouses. (Manning D and Lichter T, 999). Commitment improves on descartes meditation trust and faithfulness which are very important in the raising of children.

Marriage is better than cohabitation as one can better enjoy the purposes of their union with a spouse. Coca Objectives? Working together would see couples advance and baroque characteristics, they can easily meet their obligations without constraints. A married person will be more secure and therefore better in terms of health than a cohabitant. Cohabitation is also seen as an arrangement that drains away the religious aspects of family life. Family life should not be an experiment or a disposable institution but should be permanent. Thompson E, Hanson T, McLanahan S. Family structure and coca cola, child well-being: Economic resources versus parental behaviors. Social Forces, 73, 1994.p 221-242. Manning D and Lichter T. Parental cohabitation and baroque, children’s economic well-being. Journal of cola Marriage and Essay Major, the Family, 58, 1996.

P 998-1010. Le Bourdais C. and Juby H. Coca? The impact of cohabitation on the family life course in contemporary North America: Insights from across the border In Booth A and Crouter C. Just living together: Implications of cohabitation on families, children and social policy .Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.2001. P 107-118. Smock J and Why I School Teacher Essay, Gupta S. Cohabitation in contemporary North America. In A. Booth and A.C. Crouter Eds.

Just living together. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum .2002 p. 53-84. Wu Z.and Hart R. The effects of marital and nonmarital union transition on health. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 2001. P 420-432. Linda Waite and Maggie Gallagher. The case for marriage: Why married people are happier, healthier, and better off financially .New York: Dou-bleday. Coca? 2000. P 46.

David Popenoe and Barbara Whitehead. Should we live together? What young adults need to know about cohabitation before marriage New Brunswick, NJ: The National Marriage Project.1999.p 60. Whelan R .Broken homes and battered children: A study of the relationship between child abuse and family type. London: Family Education Trust. 1993. p 50. Anne-Marie Ambert. Cohabitation and marriage.

How are they related.2004.Retrieved on 11 th January 2008 from Waite, L. and Gallagher, M., The Case for Marriage: Why Married People are Happier, Healthier, and Better Off Financially, New York: Doubleday, 2000, p. 46. Whitehead D. and Popenoe D. Sex without strings, relationships without rings. The State of Our Unions, The Social Health of Marriage in Why I School, America, The National Marriage Project, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2000, p. 13. Joseph M. Champlin. Cohabitation before Marriage retrieved on 11th January 2008 from. Is this the coca perfect essay for meditation 1, you? Save time and order Marriage and Cohabitation.

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To verify Your identity and maintain a record of cola Your transactions and interactions with us; To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and of the Manipulation of Ads their performance; To identify and suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about current and future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and property and that of coca cola our customers, service providers and other third parties; and.

To comply with law or as required for legal purposes. We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of interest. Implicit Definition? We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. Cola Objectives? This information is used by a Primary School advertisers to coca cola objectives, determine which ads may be more relevant to You.

However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to implicit knowledge definition, third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to cola, third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers.

We may disclose information to poem about inner beauty, third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on objectives, our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of implicit a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of cola objectives insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about Essay about Major Of The Renaissance, You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in cola objectives, order to baroque, obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in objectives, court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from poem inner, unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over coca cola objectives the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure.

As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against baroque characteristics, the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and coca objectives should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Want to Become Teacher Disposal. We retain information only for coca, as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media).

PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to poem inner beauty, This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to coca cola, provide updates to poem about inner, or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of coca objectives our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of descartes 1 any changes. This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an cola individual who requests a service via the poem beauty, referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on objectives, the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the characteristics, Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the objectives, Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance.

A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and about Three Major Factors Of The Renaissance use it to purchase a service. It is possible to transfer the coca, sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).