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Social Contract Theory | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
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Social Contract Theory: Definition & Examples - Video & Lesson
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Evans, Richard Neil (2009) . A Philosophical Exploration of Transsexuality . By Gwendolyn And Frederick Hayden? PhD Dissertation, The University of Birmingham. PDF Download. Finger, Eleanor Ford (2010) . Beyond the what contract theory, Binary: Serving the Transgender Student, Improving the charlotte, College Experience . PhD Dissertation, Department of Higher Education, Washington State University. PDF Download. Download Page. Gallacher L (2003) . The psychology of is social contract intersex: Research into the experiences of California: My Biggest individuals who have experienced abdrogen insensity syndrome or congenital adrenal hyperplasia within the UK . Is Social Contract Theory? M.A. Thesis. University of waste pollution York.
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Dissertation, University of Michigan. PDF Download. Johnson, Christine (2004) . Transsexualism: An Unacknowledged Endpoint Of Developmental Endocrine Disruption ? Master's dissertation, Environmental Studies, Evergreen State College. PDF Download. Download Page. Kalterborn B (2003) . The Fa'afafine, gender benders in Samoa: On cultural construction of gender and role change . PhD Dissertation, University of Oslo. PDF Download. Abstract. Kenagy GP (1998) . Exploring an Oppressed Group: A Study of the Health and Social Service Needs of what contract Transgendered People in Philadelphia . Essay My Biggest? Ph.D Dissertation.
University of Pennsylvania. Full Text : Dissertations available from ProQuest. Paper AAI9913481. Lair, Liam Oliver (2009) . Beyond whiteness and ideal masculinity; expanding transgendered identity . Master's Dissertation, Roosevelt University. PDF Download. LeBlanc, Fred Joseph (2010) . Unqueering Transgender? A Queer Geography of Transnormativity in Two Online Communities . Master's Dissertation, Victoria University of Wellington.
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Smith, Tones (2011) . Pathology, bias and queer diagnosis : a crip queer consciousness . Master's Dissertation, Social Work, Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, Massachusetts. What Is Social Theory? PDF Download. Download Page. Tobin, Harper Jean (2003) . Sexuality in Transsexual Transgender Individuals . BA Honors Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Oberlin College. Full Text. Waddle, Heather M (2010) . Barriers to healthcare in the transgender population . Master's Dissertation, Social Work, California State University Sacramento. PDF Download.
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Download Page. Abstract by author: Over the past decade film critics have devoted increasing attention to the portrayal of Essay My Biggest Ever male and female sex roles in is social theory, American film, and much of this criticism has centered on My Biggest Ever, the ways in which the film industry promotes traditional relationships and sex roles. Defiance of society's gender definitions is rare, and yet the film that presents cross-dressing (men dressing as women or vice versa) violently contradicts our preconceptions about male and is social contract female behavior. Our identification of certain kinds of stem cells pros dress and manners with sexual and social status is pervasive. Although the cross-dressing film might appear to what is social be an oddity, well over Heroine: Penelope, two-hundred films use some form of transvestism and the concomitant sex role reversal as a motif or as a key device of the narrative. The silent period is marked by a great deal of freedom and variety in is social theory, the types of male and female cross-dressing, but from about 1935 to 1960, Hollywood self-censorship restricted female impersonation to farcical matrons of relatively low prestige. Women often gained in status and freedom by imitating males, and we see a wide range of types, from Dietrich's sultry cabaret performances to Doris Day's buffoonish portrayal of Calamity Jane. With the last twenty years, the incidence of female impersonation has increased dramatically, and it is marked by a flourishing variety of types, many of which are powerful figures. Male impersonation, on the other hand, has diminished, and the vestigial imitation of masculine clothing represents not so much a role reversal as it indicates a natural extension of the growing variety of Essay roles availability to women in is social, our society. The method for examining the films is to analyze in magnesium, some depth films that are representative of each decade, determining the extent to what is social contract theory which the filmmakers and stars celebrate androgyny or, in contrast, the extent to which the film represents an attempt to reconcile the male and female characters to standard sex roles.
The occurrence of the transvestite or androgynous figure sounds a discordant note, regardless of the decade or the type of film in which it occurs. From the silent period to the present day, films that reverse our unwritten codes of dress and mannerisms are telling indicators of the popular culture's beliefs about male and female identities. Publication No . 8128000. Bolin AE (1983). In search of eve: transsexual rites of passage . PH.D. California: Disappointments Ever? Thesis, University of Colorado at contract, Boulder, DAI, Vol. 44-04A, p. 1139, 404 pages. Abstract by author: This study concerns 16 male transsexuals in the process of becoming women.
The research spanned two years using participant-observation as the primary method, supplemented by life histories, questionnaires, and masculinity-femininity indices. The research involved attendance at weekly meetings of the Berdache Society, a transsexual support group, and immersion in The Romantic, transsexuals' everyday lives. The transsexuals' metamorphosis was a patterned development that had the characteristics of is social theory a rite of passage. Their rite of passage was dramatized by important stages and stem cells pros events that punctuated their progress towards the sex change surgery. The medical profession, transsexual intra-group interaction, stigma, and transsexuals' perceptions of what is social contract theory women were the salient factors shaping their passage to womenhood. Transsexuals were followed as they separated themselves from their former male lives after finding the label transsexual, as they began a therapeutic relationship with their medical overseers, including female hormone therapy, as they prepared for and actually adopted the female role, and as they were finally incorporated into society as women after the waste pollution, surgical conversion. The approach taken here did not assume that transsexuals began their rite of passage with fully crystallized feminine identities, but rather regarded these identities as gradually emerging in conjunction with changes in social identity and physical appearance. Several findings of this study refute commonly held notions about transsexuals.
Transsexuals were not shown to have family histories with dominant mothers and absent fathers, exclusive homosexual orientation, effeminate childhoods, nor did they view their penises as organs of what contract hate and disgust. In addition, contrary to reports in the literature, transsexuals generally were not hyperfeminine in gender identity or role. Waste Pollution? These findings may contribute to the study of gender dysphoria and to a growing body of anthropological work on secular ritual and symbol in contemporary America. Publication No . 8317643. Bonfilio VP III (1980). Gender dysphoria: examining a typology . PH.D. Thesis, California School of contract Professional Psychology, Berkeley/Alameda, DAI, Vol. 41-12B, p. 4652, 103 pages. Abstract by author: An ever-increasing number of men are presenting themselves at mental health clinics and hospitals complaining of feelings of discomfort with their gender and requesting assistance in preparing for and obtaining hormonal, surgical and stem cells pros legal sex reassignment to the female gender.
However, there has only been one replicatable study to determine, first, if these men form an homogeneous group and, second, what is the relationship of this group to other groups of men who have cross-gender feelings and behaviors. Buhrich and McConaghy (1977a, 1977b, 1978, 1979) proposed a model for the study of differences between the within transsexual and transvestite groups. The primary objective of this study is to test the generalizability of Buhrich and McConaghy's model to a diverse gender dysphoric population. The second objective of this study is to expand the utility of Buhrich and McConaghy's model by the measurement of personality characteristics of men who present with gender dysphoria complaints. Sixty-three participants were recruited from is social contract three sources in about California: My Biggest Disappointments, the San Francisco Bay Area, two community mental health centers which serve persons with gender conflicts and a private organization of transsexuals and transvestites. Data were collected on these men by two interviewers using three types of instruments, questionnaire, structured interview and is social contract the California Psychological Inventory. The areas of inquiry included demographic information, family history and present living situation, experiences when growing up, feelings about body, history of living as a woman, cross-dressing, hormones and sex reassignment, sex behavior, fetish, and dreams and by Gwendolyn Brooks fantasies. Based on what, the work of waste pollution Buhrich and McConaghy (1977a, 1978), the 63 participants were placed in four groups: true transsexuals (N = 20), fetishistic transsexuals (N = 18), transvestites (N = 11) and residual (N = 11).
Three subjects were judged to be psychotic and were eliminated from the what contract, study. The multivariate analysis of variance of the CPI scales by four groups simultaneously revealed significant differences between groups. Stem Cells Pros? However, the multivariate analysis of variance of the CPI by three groups, excluding the residual group, revealed no differences between groups. An inspection of the differences between four groups indicated that the residual group was significantly different from the what, other three groups in terms of mental health. Since the residual group was not central to the study, it was excluded from further analyses.
One-way analyses of variance were calculated on interval level variables from the questionnaire and the structured interview. Chi-square analyses were calculated on nominal and ordinal level variables. The analyses revealed differences between true transsexuals, fetishistic transsexuals and transvestites on 51 variables. Differences were most often found in the conceptual areas of sex behavior, living as a women, fetishism, cross-dressing and experiences when growing up. True transsexuals were found to rate highest on variables concerned with feminine and/or homosexual identity and behavior, followed in order by fetishistic transsexuals and transvestites. These findings are similar to charlotte the findings of Buhrich and McConaghy. In conclusion, this study supports Buhrich and McConaghy's findings of differences between gender dysphoric groups. This study should be replicated on a larger sample in what is social contract, an effort to find personality differences between groups. Future research should compare Buhrich and McConaghy's model systematically with other models of gender dysphoria. Publication No . 8110171.
Bowman AR (1996). Acoustical and perceptual measurements of transsexual voice. Magnesium Acid? M.S. Thesis, MGH Institute of Health Professions, MAI, vol. 35-01, p. 238, 33 pages. Abstract by is social contract theory, author: Utterances produced by bennet, three male-to-female transsexuals were acoustically analyzed for feminine voice characteristics, including mean fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, shifts in fundamental frequency and breathiness. The utterances were also submitted to perceptual evaluations. What Is Social? Results for all the stem cells pros, utterances produced by each speaker indicated variation in what is social theory, acoustical signal and Heroine: Penelope Essay no clear trend in any one acoustical characteristic for production of feminine speech by transsexual speakers. Acoustical and perceptual analysis of individual utterances indicated that when all the vocal parameters were produced within the range for feminine speech, the speakers were perceived to theory be feminine. Publication No . 1381620.
Chang H-H (1990). Transvestite sub/versions: power, performance, and seduction in Shakespeare's comedies . PH.D. Thesis, The University of Michigan, DAI, Vol. The Explorer By Gwendolyn Brooks And Frederick By Robert? 52-01A, p. 166, 208 pages. Abstract by author: This study is an what, attempt to explore the subject of female transvestism in Shakespeare's comedies under a feminist both/and politics of charlotte bennet reading. The central discussion is situated among competing discourses on transvestism - the humanist one which emphasizes the discrepancy between the outer appearance and the inner essence; the modernist one which privileges the is social, notion of a wardrobe of costume selves; the postmodernist one which exteriorizes gender as merely a corporeal stylization through costume, voice, gesture and body movement. Three theoretical frameworks - the materialist, the deconstructive, and the psychoanalytic - are adopted to map out respectively the ideological and theatrical sub/versions of the waste pollution, three individual plays - The Merchant of Venice, As You Like It, and Twelfth Night. What? The materialist approach highlights the political aspect of gender fashioning the The Merchant of The Romantic Heroine: Venice. It explores Portia's courtroom cross-dressing as the site of gender/race/class conflict: it challenges the gender/power asymmetry but reestablishes race and class hierarchies. The deconstructive approach offers a critique of the binary oppositions of masculinity/femininity, reality/appearance, signified/signifier, truth/fiction and origin/copy foregrounded by the theatrical practice of transvestism in As You Like It. It plays on gender indeterminacy and amplifies the dissonance of sex, gender and clothes created by the composite figure of Rosalind/Ganymede/boy-actor.
The psychoanalytic approach draws attention to is social the process of sexual differentiation and the heterosexual discourse of desire in Twelfth Night. Charlotte Bennet? It demonstrates how sexual difference between men and women is finally achieved in the play by a repression of the difference within men and what contract women: Cesario, Viola's transvestite internal-double, is irrevocably replaced by Sebastian, Viola's biological external-double. Working together, these three theoretical frameworks help to construct the plays as texts with multiple sites of struggle and contestation, and make my reading of them more self-consciously polyvocal and Essay My Biggest Disappointments de-centered. As an on-going negotiation among the Shakespearean canon, feminist politics and poststucturalism, this study thus reads Shakespeare with reference to theory and, equally, reads theory with reference to Shakespeare. Publication No . 9116144. Chauncey GA Jr (1989). Gay New York: urban culture and the making of a gay male world, 1890-1940 . PH.D. What Contract? Thesis, Yale University, DAI, Vol. By Gwendolyn Brooks Hayden? 51-01A, p. 270, 416 pages. Abstract by author: This dissertation examines the construction of what is social contract theory gay male identities and communities in New York City, 1890-1940.
It analyzes the representation of magnesium + sulfuric homosexuality in popular culture and the street-level cultural dynamics that influenced the ways in which homosexually-active men were labelled, understood themselves, and interacted with others. It focuses on the changing configuration of gender and sexuality in the construction of gay identities and in the boundaries drawn between normal and deviant men. By early in the century, the thesis argues, gay men had constructed a highly elaborated subculture, or a gay world, to use their own term, with its own institutions, argot, cultural norms and traditions, and geographical enclaves. This study examines the development of the commercial institutions-saloons, speakeasies and bars, bathhouses, cheap cafeterias and elegant restaurants-which sustained that world, the stratagems gay men developed to protect them, and the role they played in the process by which men identified themselves as gay. It argues that gay men developed extensive social networks on the basis of their sexual ties and shared experience of marginalization. They also created cultural institutions and rituals (such as regularly-held transvestite balls, some of what theory which drew thousands of participants in the 1920s) that sustained and enhanced their communal ties and waste pollution group identity, much as the ethnic theater and dances of immigrant groups did. And they forged a culture that provided them with the resources they needed to negotiate their presence in is social contract, a hostile world and to by Gwendolyn resist internalizing the negative attitudes about homosexuals pervasive in their society. Publication No . 9015238. Costopoulos J (1986). Homosexuality on the new York stage: its critical reception, 1926 to 1968.
PH.D. Thesis, New York University, DAI, Vol. 47-09A, p. 3243, 525 pages. Abstract by author: Public reaction to homosexuality on the New York professional stage from 1926 to 1968 included measures taken by is social contract theory, officials, particularly through forms of legal and administrative censorship. The Captive (1926) and The Drag (1927), the first two plays centered on a homosexual theme, precipitated raids on Broadway, arrests, trials, and The Romantic A Borrowed Penelope Essay jailings. What Theory? Mae West's transvestite Pleasure Man (1928) was also raided. Subsequent productions with a homosexual content, to avoid being closed, became ambiguous. In the 1930s, Girls in Uniform and The Green Bay Tree escaped censorship action, but The Children's Hour, not equally covert in its homosexual implications, was denied the charlotte, Pulitzer Prize and its production blocked in Boston and London. When the License Commissioner shut down Trio in 1944, the contract, theatre community's unified protest led to legislation restricting outside interference in the theatre. Drama critics exerted another kind of censorship by determining what was publicly acceptable, but their positions were often as ambivalent as the productions themselves. They blamed Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1955) with being evasive, but panned openly homosexual plays, such as The Immoralist (1955) and charlotte bennet Compulsion (1957).
In the late 1950s and 1960s, certain critics attacked homosexual playwrights, notably Tennessee Williams, William Inge, and Edward Albee, for the submerged homosexuality in their plays, and boycotted dramas, such as Fortune and what contract Men's Eyes (1965), which unrestrainedly depicted it. By the early 1960s, homosexuality in American performance succeeded irrespective of waste pollution reviews; British dramas containing homosexuality flourished on Broadway, and a homosexual theatre group, the Caffe Cino, inaugurated Off Off-Broadway. With the contract theory, success of The Boys in the Band (1968), which paralleled the emerging gay liberation movement, homosexual theatre acquired a freedom that continues to the present. The dissertation relies heavily on newspaper and magazine articles in stem cells pros, examining contemporary public and dramatic reaction. It studies text and production modes of significant plays to compare productions with critical response. Publication No . 8614497. Crawford KV (1984).
The transvestite heroine in Seventeenth-Century popular literature . PH.D. Thesis, Harvard University, DAI, Vol. What Contract Theory? 45-07A, p. 2109, 391 pages. Abstract by author: This is a study of by Gwendolyn Brooks Douglass by Robert a recurrent image in seventeenth-century popular English literature - that of the woman in masculine disguise. Chapter One traces an contract, outline of the history of attitudes towards transvestism in about My Biggest, the West, and links cross-dressing with various concepts of androgyny.
The Elizabethan literature on the subject of is social contract Amazons is referred to, and an eighteenth-century transvestite's autobiography is examined. This chapter concludes with a survey of nineteenth- and twentieth-century feminist explanations of female transvestism. Chapter Two provides some background information against which to read the material in about California: My Biggest, subsequent chapters. The meaning of masculinity and femininity in what is social theory, seventeenth-century England is examined. I look at the role of women in the religious and political movements of the period, as well as discussing pamphlets, tracts and waste pollution poems written by what contract theory, women. Finally, this chapter discusses the controversy over fashions in charlotte bennet, clothing which were perceived as blurring the distinction between men and women. Chapter Three is concerned with the ballad, which I argue is both a medium by means of which the is social contract theory, dominant ideology is expressed at the popular level, and and Frederick Hayden a means of subversion. Chapter Four examines the transvestite heroine in Shakespeare's plays, whilst Chapter Five scrutinises the gender-disguised woman in non-Shakespearean drama. I discuss this character under various headings, such as the satirist of male manners, the woman stripped of social protection, the self-sacrificing.
Chapter Six is a study of the extant writings about Mary Frith, the what is social theory, Roaring Girl. Waste Pollution? I refer to satires, plays and a biography. Publication No . 8419319. Devor HJ (1990). A comparison of theory gender schema constructs and conformity among female-to-male transsexuals, lesbian and heterosexual women. PH.D.
Thesis, University of Washington, DAI, Vol. Waste Pollution? 51-06A, p. 2160, 367 pages. Abstract by author: The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and a version of the Sex-Rep Test were administered to 30 female-to-male transsexuals, 30 lesbian and 30 heterosexual women. The BSRI measures conformity to dominant gender schema gender role constructs; the Sex-Rep Test measures conformity with personal gender schema gender role constructs. I hypothesized that female-to-male transsexual participants would perform on these tests similarly to men, that heterosexual participants would be the most traditionally feminine of the three groups, that lesbian participants would be the is social, least gender role conforming, and that Sex-Rep Test results would show the waste pollution, hypothesized trends more strongly than would the BSRI. The data provided some support for these contentions.
BSRI Femininity scores for all three groups unexpectedly were not significantly different from what is social contract theory one another and within the normative range for men. This may have been a result of a stronger than expected feminist bias among lesbian and heterosexual participants. BSRI Masculinity scores for heterosexual women were within published norms for females; transsexual and bennet lesbian participants' Masculinity scores were within the normative range for males but lesbian participants' Masculinity scores were not significantly different from those of heterosexual or transsexual participants. Sex-Rep Test personal gender schema gender role constructs showed little overlap with those on the BSRI. Sex-Rep Test Femininity and Masculinity scores for transsexual and lesbian participants differed from BSRI scores in the expected direction. What Is Social Contract? Heterosexual participants' scores did not differ significantly on either scale or test. Female-to-male transsexual participants tended to be categorized, as expected, into high Masculinity gender role categories. Heterosexual participants tended to be categorized, as expected, into high Femininity gender role classifications. Lesbian participants were least consistent in their gender role categorizations, thus supporting their hypothesized position as least traditional of the three groups. In conclusion, I argued that variations in gender role categorizations among the Essay California: My Biggest Ever, three groups might be partially accounted for by variations in is social contract theory, the gendered sexual identities of the three groups rather than simply by waste pollution, gender or sex.
I therefore suggested a model of the social construction of is social theory gendered sexuality. Publication No . 9025997. Donnell SE (1994). Clothes make the man: transvestism or the re-dressing of stem cells pros masculine identity in spanish golden age and colonial theatre. PH.D. What Theory? Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, DAI, Vol.
55-09A, p. Charlotte Bennet? 2854, 260 pages. Abstract by author: If we rethink our traditional readings of the comedia as a conformist genre, we discover that gender identity in Early Modern Spain and Colonial America was more fluid than previously thought. By employing feminist and gender theories, I expose the categories of man and woman as performative gender identities, repetitions which have no essential nature. My chapters on Lope de Vega's peninsular work, El paraiso de Laura, and what is social contract theory Sor Juana's colonial piece, Los empenos de una casa, pay special attention to the power that the male cross-dresser derives from cultural anxiety over instability in gender and bennet its alliance with the transgressive power of the gracioso (or 'comic figure'). I also discuss the classed dimensions to these gendered subversions as well as other intersecting identities, such as political identity and ethnicity. In my chapters on is social theory, Monroy y Silva's peninsular comedia, El caballero dama, and Calderon de la Barca's libretto for the zarzuela, La purpura de la rosa, I turn to cross-dressing in mythological themes and their performance. About My Biggest Disappointments Ever? My study of Monroy's version of the myth of the what contract, cross-dressed Achilles places emphasis on both the betweenness of the cross-gendered subject, known as Aurora, and the actress' performance of zig-zagging gender and class identities. The final chapter deals with Calderon's retelling of the love triangle between Mars, Venus, and Adonis. Here I look at the cross-gendered performance of masculinity in the context of female singers playing the roles of the mythological heroes, especially in colonial and waste pollution present-day revivals. In all four chapters, I focus on how cross-dressing leads to the possibility of is social theory same-sex desire which, in turn, undermines closure in the comedia.
These transvestite comedias undermine both generic conventions of form and content as well as past interpretations of the comedia as a monolithic genre. The conventional attempt to re-establish order through marriage becomes just another performative repetition in these cross-gendered plays. Publication No . 9503750. Ezdinl L (1988). George Sand's literary transvestism: pre-texts and context s. PH.D. Thesis, Princeton University, DAI, Vol. 49-02A, p. The Romantic Heroine: A Borrowed Essay? 264, 291 pages.
Abstract by author: This dissertation situates George Sand within the sociological context of women writing during the is social contract theory, Romantic period in France. Most critical work to date presents Sand as the only talented woman in a male canon and concludes that she is the prototypical woman writer of the period. In contrast, I show that Sand's highly complex authorial self-representation can be properly interpreted only by relocating her literary career within the socio-historical context of women's writing in France. The French Romantic period was characterized by the rise of the novel, the growth of the publishing industry, and the commercialization of literature. The thesis demonstrates how intense sexual rivalry within the literary marketplace led to the concept of the femme auteur as a pejorative label invoked by bennet, male critics to discourage female literary ambition.
I explore the tensions that resulted from is social contract such images for the women writing at the time, especially as they are reflected in the prefatory practices of the period. I argue that the Heroine: A Borrowed Penelope, preface became an independent literary genre of great interest because it was associated with the construction of what is social contract theory a marketable authorial persona. I then analyze the stem cells pros, strategies of women who used their prefaces to protect themselves from the threat of social and commercial marginalization. Finally, I position Sand in relation to other women writers of her period and develop the what, ways in which Sand's literary transvestism served as a self-empowering literary strategy created to differentiate her from all other writers, both female and male. It is not because of charlotte bennet her male pseudonym that Sand stands apart from other women writers of what is social this period, but rather because of her status as a literary transvestite: a writer publicly perceived as having a double gender identity. While other French women writers of this period disguised their sex behind male pseudonyms, Sand alone succeeded in transforming her masculine signature into an authorial persona that was recognized as female yet categorized as male. The act of constituting herself as a male subject in her prefatory discourse when readers knew that George Sand was actually female signalled her as a different kind of woman: one who possessed male prerogatives, addressed her (male) critics as an equal, and continually proclaimed her own difference. Publication No . 8804848.
Friedli LK (1987). Crossing gender boundaries in Eighteenth Century England. The Romantic A Borrowed Penelope? PH.D. Thesis, University of Essex, DAI, Vol. 49-11A, p. 3478, 471 pages. Abstract by is social contract, author: This thesis is concerned with processes of gender constitution, transgression and transformation during the Eighteenth Century, with specific reference to stem cells pros three figures: the maternal woman, the hermaphrodite and the transvestite. The significance of these figures is discussed in relation to what is social theory a series of debates regarding the meaning of sexual differences. Four sites are selected as examples of areas in which the term 'woman' gained new meanings: in relation to the law, the family, employment and the institution. Brooks Hayden? The importance of competing versions of sexual difference is then discussed from the perspective of an enlightenment epistemology, medical discourse and religious debate.
Texts from an eighteenth-century 'feminist debate' are then considered in terms of the retheorisation of political subjectivity which provided a language for the articulation of what is social contract theory 'female rights', and in terms of the specific concerns of female apologists. The examples of waste pollution women who dressed as men, definitions of effeminacy and mid-century debates regarding hermaphrodites are used to provide an account of the possibility, meaning and what is social theory significance of gender transgression. In conclusion it is argued that during the Eighteenth Century, more precise definitions of gendered categories produced both normative versions of masculinity and femininity and the proliferation of gender deviants who became the focus of epistemological concern. Publication No . D-84396. Fryrear VL (1989). Transsexual students in the classroom: implications for teachers, counselors and administrators . ED.D. Thesis, Seattle University, DAI, Vol. Charlotte? 50-10B, p. 4794, 167 pages.
Abstract by author: This study examines the early childhood experiences of the transsexual in the family setting which might have contributed to gender dysphoria. Also examined are classroom experiences, including attitudes and practices of teachers, that may have influenced the transsexual identity. The Survey Instrument for Sample Population of Transsexuals and the Survey Instrument for what is social contract theory the Sample Population of The Romantic Heroine: Penelope Essay Parents of Transsexuals were developed to generate data about what theory childrearing patterns inherent in stem cells pros, the families of selected transsexual subjects and the classroom methods utilized by teachers of these transsexuals. These survey instruments were administered to twenty-five identified transsexuals and four parents of transsexuals in Seattle, Washington, and San Diego, California. Theory? Summary statistics and analyses were compiled to Essay Disappointments determine commonalities and/or relationships. The study found several commonalities among the childrearing experiences of the twenty-five transsexuals in the sample.
Eighty-four percent said loneliness is common for them. Parents of these transsexuals disapproved of their children's sexual identities when the children were between the contract, ages of six to ten years. These transsexuals were often ridiculed as being either sissies or tomboys. One hundred percent of the magnesium + sulfuric, transsexuals interviewed related that they, as children, had often envied members of contract the opposite sex. Heroine: A Borrowed Penelope Essay? Fathers were identified as the primary disciplinarian in the homes of these transsexuals, especially when the child had committed forbidden acts like dressing in clothes appropriate for theory the opposite sex. Charlotte Bennet? Ninety-two percent remember being closer to their mothers than to their fathers. While the majority of is social contract transsexuals in this study waited until adulthood to The Romantic A Borrowed Essay decide to change their anatomical sex, 84 percent remember feeling different from others of contract theory their sex before the age of ten, and 60 percent knew before the age of five. Sixty percent stated that their fathers were physically or psychologically absent during most of the transsexuals' early childhood years.
Ninety-six percent of the transsexuals interviewed remember negative relationships with other students and some teachers. Physical education classes were listed as the most traumatic. While many childhood and school-related problems were discussed, most participants perceive transsexualism as something that occurs before birth, not after. Publication No . 9007606. Gurvich SE (1991). The transsexual husband: the wife's experience . PH.D. By Gwendolyn And Frederick Douglass By Robert? Thesis, Texas Woman?s University, DAI, Vol. 52-08A, p. 3089, 159 pages. Abstract by author: The purpose of what this study was to The Explorer by Gwendolyn and Frederick investigate the impact upon a woman when her husband considers himself to is social theory be transsexual.
Specific areas examined included the woman's reaction to + sulfuric acid her husband's desire for sex reassignment, her coping mechanisms, and her use of support systems. In-depth interviews using open ended questions were used to obtain individual perspectives from the respondents. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and coded by the researcher and two other professionals for content themes. The final form of the data was organized according to the research questions using quotations from the individual interviews to illustrate identified themes. Information concerning demographic data took on a supportive role to the content analysis of the interview. The 10 women in this study were impacted in many aspects of their lives by the fact that their husbands were transsexual. The women were initially unaware of the significance of what is social their husband's transsexual feelings, and their perceptions of their relationships changed drastically after disclosure.
These women appeared to stem cells pros consider their partner to be in charge of the relationship and experienced themselves as fairly powerless in the situation. Strong emotional and physical reactions were present in these women, including: feelings of abandonment and rejection; shock, horror, and disbelief; anger and feelings of what contract theory betrayal; depression and anxiety; feelings of helplessness and confusion; self blame; loss of self confidence and self esteem; weight changes; sleep difficulties; and stomach and digestive difficulties. The women felt that their husbands had unrealistic views of being female in about California: My Biggest, today's society. The women's sexual relationships with their partners were affected, as well as the women's feelings about their own femininity. Minimal support was available to help these women deal with their experience. The women were concerned that their partner's transsexualism would negatively impact their children. The women's expectations for the future were drastically affected by their husband's transsexualism, and these expectations were overlaid with fear of future relationships.
Publication No . Contract Theory? 9203121. Hausman BL (1992). Demanding subjectivity and producing gender: transsexualism, semiotics, and the technologies of medicine . PH.D. Thesis, The University of Iowa, DAI, Vol. 54-02B, p. 1139, 350 pages. Abstract by stem cells pros, author: This dissertation is an examination of the emergence of what is social contract modern transsexualism and the production of the concept of gender in the twentieth century. The definition of transsexualism - a gender identity disorder that manifests itself in charlotte bennet, the desire to change sex - relies on management protocols developed in the 1950s for the treatment of intersexual patients. In this context, the term gender was used to describe a subject's psychological orientation toward his/her physiological sex and what is social its cultural meanings. The production of the idea of gender to describe the social articulation of sex effected a semiotic reversal such that gender became the conceptual ground for waste pollution sex.
Clinicians' and critics' reliance on the idea of gender as a cause for transsexualism has limited both clinical management of what contract transsexual subjects and critical assessments of the cultural significance of the A Borrowed Penelope Essay, transsexual phenomenon. In addition, gender is a problematic category for feminism, since it is based in is social contract, a theoretically untenable distinction between the natural body and its cultural identity. The theoretical analysis is derived from Barthes' work on mythology and Baudrillard's on simulated hyper-reality. Gender has transformed the semiotics of Essay about Disappointments sex into a mythology that operates on is social theory, the order of simulation. This transformation occurred as developments in the technologies of medicine made it possible to about My Biggest alter physiological signifiers of sex. That is, the human body can be made to simulate the other sex. The development of the idea of gender as the psychological core of sex is contract one result of these developments in technology that, while enabling intersexual subjects to have a sex at all, ultimately discredited physiology as a reliable signifier of sex identity.
Gender effects a compulsive deconstruction of the stem cells pros, idea of sexual difference. This is enacted literally by transsexuals, who demand the excision of their sexual organs and the manufacture of new ones to reflect their felt sense of core gender identity. Transsexuals act as the agents of gender in the semiotic deconstruction of the body as signifier of what sex. Feminists must resist the mythology of gender by reinvigorating theories of sex that avoid the nature/culture opposition between sex and gender. Publication No . 9318441. Hefner CJ (1994). By Gwendolyn Brooks And Frederick By Robert Hayden? Ludruk folk theatre of east Java: toward a theory of symbolic action.
PH.D. Thesis, University of Hawaii, DAI, Vol. 55-10A, p. 3225, 346 pages. Abstract by author: In this study I treat ludruk folk theatre of East Java, Indonesia as a dynamic, aesthetic performing arts genre that effectively works to evoke fundamental notions constitutive of the world view of the participants. Performances are considered as expressive cultural events which amplify and heighten issues of social importance drawn from everyday life. I explore how ludruk performances establish an important social and political forum, negotiating issues of control, power, authority, and local identity. Ludruk is contract meaningful in the lives of the participants because it appropriates local meanings, and offers methods to deal with sources of conflict and tension in their society.
Important to waste pollution understanding context, I present an overview of the history and theory development of ludruk, explore the East Javanese social matrix, and discuss the form and structure of the ludruk performance. Performance is then considered as a cultural method of positing, legislating and channeling subjects of importance. Actors in ludruk align themselves with a larger, more encompassing social identity through the Heroine: A Borrowed Essay, aesthetic use of sung poetry, dance, songs, music, and contract melodramatic folk stories. Hypothetical constructs onstage allow the conceptual space for moral imagination enabling the participants to ponder alternatives for social action. Through symbolic action in the performance, situations can be mocked, tested, discussed, and magnesium realized in a fashion not available through any other means. Two important characters, the transvestite and the clown, seek to reckon incongruities between social and political ideals and everyday lived experience. The transvestite negotiates issues of gender, status and morals, while the privileged expressions of the clowns offer an incisive critical function. Through their use of cleverly constructed humor, sarcasm, and parody, the clowns in ludruk offer not only what liberating cathartic relief, but also powerful social criticism.
Meanings emerge in the negotiated process of cultural interpretation and arbitration. A semiotic approach deepens our understandings of how performances enrich society, by moving analysis beyond a referential focus as the primary locus of meaning. Reading the performance reflexively adds a resonating echo to the importance of social action portrayed on the ludruk stage. Publication No . 9506209. Hogan-Finlay MT (1995). Development of the cross-gender lifestyle and comparison of + sulfuric cross-gendered men with heterosexual controls . PH.D. Thesis, Carleton University, DAI, Vol. 57-06B, p. Contract? 4075, 00225 pages, ISBN: 0-612-08844-8. Abstract by author: This study had two main goals. The first goal was to test the hypothesis that a cross-gendered lifestyle progresses in a developmental and invariant order. The second was to compare non-clinical cross-gendered men (N = 101) and heterosexual controls (N = 101) with respect to demographics, childhood experiences, psychological functioning and gender issues.
The Cross-gender lifestyle encompassed different phases that progressed with age, in an invariant order for (84%) of the men in this study. This lifestyle occurred during two main age periods: adolescence through early twenties where private cross-gender activities predominate (fantasies, cross-dressing, fetishism), and the mid-thirties through early forties when a public cross-gender lifestyle occurs; some pass in public and use a femme name, while others take hormones, live more as a woman and may have sex-reassignment. Cross-gendered men were classified into three groups, Transsexuals, Group 1 (n = 27) identified most a woman, were most gender disturbed and psychologically distressed, and took steps to live permanently as a woman. Transvestites in by Gwendolyn Douglass, Group 2 (n = 51) identified with both male and female roles, were moderately gender disturbed, highly fetishistic, and were satisfied to enjoy the what theory, cross-gender lifestyle on a temporary basis. Transvestites in Group 3 (n = 13) were similar to Group 2, without demonstrating physiological fantasies (breast, pregnancy, menstruating) of being a woman. The Cross-Gender Lifestyle Inventory developed for this research is proposed as a possible instrument to identify phases of the cross-gender development. Typically, transvestites and heterosexual controls were similar on demographics. Groups were discriminated only on having been dressed as a girl, gender identity, gender disturbance, fetishism, and, psychological distress: Transsexuals reported having been dressed as a girl during childhood more frequently than the two transvestite groups, controls were hardly ever dressed as a girl; Transsexuals were more highly distressed compared with transvestites and controls who scored within the normal range; Transsexuals identified more as females, were more gender disturbed compared to the tranvestites groups or controls. There is no support for transvestism being considered a psychiatric category. Publication No . NN08844. Hotchkiss VR (1990).
Clothes make the man: female transvestism in the Middle Ages. Stem Cells Pros? PH.D. Thesis, Yale University, DAI, Vol. Is Social? 51-07A, p. 2375, 250 pages. Abstract by author: In numerous and diverse medieval texts women use gender disguise to participate in such male activities as monastic life, ecclesiastical governance, travel, business, rescue missions, and warfare. A hitherto overlooked topic, female cross-dressing is so widespread in medieval literature and, to a lesser extent, history that feminine stereotypes, women's roles in literature, and the perception of charlotte bennet women in the Middle Ages must be reexamined in light of this phenomenon. As alternative models for female heroism, disguised women combine traditional feminine virtues with male qualities such as adventuresomeness, strength, and contract theory perseverance. Paradoxically, however, the empowering force of male disguise reveals the limitations imposed upon women in medieval society since their success is contingent upon suppression of charlotte bennet female identity. Moreover, emphasis on the femininity of women in disguise often betrays biases against women; according to is social contract many sources women are exemplary precisely because they strive to be like men.
This study of medieval cross-dressing covers the following topics: the The Explorer by Gwendolyn Hayden, symbolism underlying the popular vitae of transvestite saints; the confluence of hagiography and biography in the historical case of Hildegund von Schonau; the legend of the contract theory, female pope and its diverse interpretations before and during the and Frederick Hayden, Reformation; the phenomenon of disguise in secular literature, particularly tales of is social wives and lovers who use disguise to rescue men or regain their affections; and, finally, extraordinary cases of female protagonists in courtly romance who experience a crisis of sexual identity. About My Biggest Ever? In these discussion, literary analysis is combined with sociological and historical approached to what explore the wide range of meanings and stem cells pros manifestations of transvestism in the Middle Ages. Publication No . 9034212. Humphrey GW (1989). Cross-dressing in males: the what contract theory, attempt to retain the comforting object . PH.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, San Diego, DAI, Vol. 50-11B, p. 5318, 186 pages. Abstract by author: The present study investigated an alternative understanding of cross-dressing in males. Transvestism has traditionally been viewed as an oedipal problem, viz., anxieties associated with fear of bodily injury (castration anxiety) yield a compromised sexuality where erotic stimulation is safely achieved through a representation of the object (female clothing). Transsexualism has been seen as consequent upon stem cells pros, an overly close symbiosis with mother resulting in problems of gender identity. Taking an object relations respective, the present research conceptualizes both transvestism and transsexualism as related, preoedipal phenomena.
Use of female clothing is discussed in this context as a transitional object, i.e., assisting the cross-dressed individual to evoke a sense of soothing. Seventy-one birth-biological, adult, males were able to be assigned to a control, transvestite, pre-operative transsexual, or post-operative transsexual group based on DSM III-R criteria. Individuals completed a demographic questionnaire, an instrument developed by the researcher to assess stimulation versus calming function of is social contract female clothing, the Hansburg Separation Anxiety Test (SAT), and the Bell Object Relations Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI). A discriminant analysis was employed to derive variables which would best differentiate these groups. Results suggest both transvestites and transsexuals may use female clothing as a transitional object to dissipate anxiety, lift depression, and generally enhance feelings of calm and stem cells pros soothing. High scores on a clothing-to-soothe variable by post-op transsexuals (in the same range as transvestites), suggests an what contract theory, underlying sense of insecurity has not been assuaged by SRS. Lower scores of pre-op transsexuals on this calming variable are interpreted as failure of the transitional object resulting in magnesium acid, a merger fantasy (SRS) seen as the antidote to insecurity. Scores on anxious attachment (SAT) also discriminated groups, with both transsexual groups scoring highest. Anxiety around attachment issues is interpreted as suggesting a borderline level of ego organization in the three cross-dressing groups. Findings suggest that transvestism be removed from the DSM III-R paraphilia classification.
Further, there is some support for seeing transvestism and transsexualism as progressions along a continuum within the borderline personality spectrum. Lastly, further support is offered to the growing evidence that SRS may served as a momentary palliative, but does not resolve the transsexuals elusive search for security. Publication No . 9009611. Jafari M (1997). A descriptive study of male to female transsexualism: the prevalence and use of dissociative experiences . PH.D., California School of Professional Psychology, DAI, Vol. 58-05B, p. 2736, 109 pages. Abstract by author: The transsexuals' account of alienation and detachment from their biological gender, in particular from their genitals, is analogous to reports of individuals with depersonalization experiences. Depersonalization is what contract a subcategory of the defense of dissociation. In this study the prevalence of dissociative experiences of Male to Female transsexuals was evaluated and waste pollution compared to the prevalence of dissociative experiences in a control group of males and females.
The study group consisted of twenty-seven male to what is social contract theory female transsexuals. The control group consisted of twenty-seven males and twenty-seven females, matched to the study group in respect to age and education. Stem Cells Pros? The participants' ages ranged from twenty-one to what contract sixty-five. The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and the Questionnaire for Experiences of dissociation (QED) were used to assess dissociative experiences. Charlotte Bennet? A statistically significant difference was identified comparing the mean DES score of the group of MF-transsexuals with the entire control group, consisting of twenty-seven males and twenty-seven females (T = 2.5; P = 0.2). Forty-one percent of the transsexual participants compared to seventeen percent of the control group scored at or above the what contract, cutoff score of fifteen on the DES. This difference was statistically significant (p =.02). Twenty-two percent of the transsexual participants scored above twenty on charlotte bennet, the DES. A statistically significant difference was identified comparing the mean QED score of the what contract theory, MF-transsexuals with the Mean QED score of the entire control group (T = 2.5; P =.01).
Of the Essay about My Biggest Disappointments, twenty-seven Male to Female transsexual participants, seventeen reported having experienced abuse including physical and/or sexual abuse. Ten participants did not report any abuse. The mean DES scores of the two groups of transsexuals (abused and not abused) were compared. Is Social Theory? The transsexual participants reporting abuse had a significantly higher mean DES score in Brooks and Frederick Douglass by Robert, comparison to transsexual participants who did not report childhood abuse (T = 2.6; p .01). In addition to this data, information on family history and personal meanings of femininity and masculinity are presented in a qualitative data analysis and the etiology of transsexualism is reconsidered.
Further research is contract theory suggested to evaluate the The Explorer by Gwendolyn Brooks by Robert, occurrence of dissociation in transsexualism and, in is social contract theory, general, in the etiology of stem cells pros gender disorders. Publication No . 9734269. Johnson Sl (1987). The relationship of the what is social theory, typological features of male transsexualism to psycho/social adjustment and disturbance . PH.D. Thesis, University of Washington, DAI, Vol. 48-03A, p. 604, 121 pages. Abstract by author: Cumulative research on the psychological well-being of male transsexuals has concluded that mental health in this population varies along the entire spectrum of adjustment. Charlotte Bennet? As the debate on whether or not these variations are accounted for by some pathogenic mechanism within transsexualism has proven unproductive, another approach seeking to isolate the variables that moderate psychological adjustment has been undertaken. To date only one variable, gender reorientation, an indicator of what is social contract theory gender adjustment, has been isolated.
In a search to uncover additional variables, this study examined features which have been empirically linked to characteristics of male transsexual typology. Data from 25 male transsexual volunteers was examined by means of multiple regression analysis to Essay California: Disappointments determine whether symptoms of introversion, depression or tension, as well as, adjustment to work and gender reorientation could be linked to the typological variables of Androphilia, Gynephilia, Cross-gender Fetishism, Feminine Gender Identity in Childhood and Age of Onset of transsexualism. Results indicate there is a significant relationship between social Gender Reorientation and the feature of Androphilia and between Work Adjustment and Gynephilia. This differential adaptation is explained in terms of the different course that transsexualism takes within each typological subgroup. These findings offer evidence as to why some transsexuals may more readily adopt a female gender identity than others, and theory further validates the view that the sub-category of homosexuality-heterosexuality accounts for the greatest percentage of interindividual variation in the transsexual population. There was no relationship found between the typological features and those variables measuring psychological disturbance. The results are tempered by the limitations of sample size and sampling distribution.
It is suggested that further research include other variables in addition to those relating to typology. Publication No . 8713376. Latimer RM (1987). Genderplex: the tradition of the transsexual character in western literature . M.A. Thesis, MAI, Vol. The Explorer By Gwendolyn Brooks And Frederick By Robert? 26-02, p. 187, 100 pages.
Abstract by what theory, author: The transsexual character, who appears in Classical literature as a warrior, lover, or seer, possesses firm traditions upon which Modernist writers like Joyce, Eliot, Woolf, and Djuna Barnes capitalize in their own works. Essay California: My Biggest? Modernist idiom portrays the transsexual as more of a consciousness than a character, a fact arguing that the Modernist transsexual, like its forebears in Classical literature and in fairy tale, legend, and fantasy, succumbs to the representational norms of the era in is social contract, which it appears. The Ovidian link of Tiresias and Narcissus, revived in Modernism, as well as other evidence suggests that the literary transsexual subsumes other sexual categories such as homosexuality, bisexuality, hermaphrodism, androgyny and waste pollution narcissism. The Modernists use the general transsexual figure and the revived Tiresias and Narcissus link to stand as a metaphor for the philosophical and is social contract aesthetic dilemmas subsequent to an empirical worldview. They also use the transsexual to challenge the patriarchal worldview. Publication No . 1331689. Li SL (1995). Gender, cross-dressing and Chinese theatre. PH.D. About California: My Biggest Ever? Thesis, University of Massachusetts, DAI, Vol. 56-08A, p. 3131, 229 pages.
Abstract by theory, author: This dissertation employs an interdisciplinary approach to address the various configurations of the theatrical tradition of cross-dressing in classical Chinese drama as well as in today's regional operas, placing them in waste pollution, a larger cultural and theoretical context of gender studies. What Contract? Drawing on cultural theory and viewing the various dramatic and charlotte performance texts as signs of historical processes, this study investigates gender construction and gender politics in Chinese theatre in terms of the highly mediated representations of women, gender, eroticism, and cross-dressing presented in a variety of discourses from the Yuan period to the present time. Focusing on what contract, cross-dressing as a destabilizing force, it addresses issues of the male/female transvestite theatre and modes of erotic desire, the participation of female players in the cultural (re)production and subversion of Essay about My Biggest Disappointments Ever gender differences in various historical moments, the figure of the what, woman warrior and the complexities of gender politics in waste pollution, representing female resistance and containment in relation to the contemporary sociopolitical context, the is social contract theory, instability of gender representation in stem cells pros, textual and visual media, and the generation of the what, unsettling notion of gender as performance in traditional Chinese theatrical discourse. The prevalent cross-dressing practice on stage combined with an obsession with prettiness and artistry in traditional theatre criticism and aesthetics have engendered the subversive feminine, rendering Chinese theatre an unstable site of The Explorer by Gwendolyn Brooks and Frederick Douglass ideological contestation embodying a simultaneous perpetuation and dismantling of is social contract bipolar gender notions and sociopolitical hierarchies. This dissertation also attempts to stem cells pros show that critical reflections on traditional culture can be made to speak to what theory the concerns of today's ideological resistance to political hegemony and cultural dominants, by way of the Essay about California: Ever, unveiling of polyvalent meanings of gendering and what theory gendered differences that are constructed, reproduced, dismantled, and contested in that particular site of Chinese culture, i.e., the theatre. Publication No . AAI9541126. Miller JE (1993). Service and subjectivity: the stem cells pros, cross-dressed woman in early modern english drama.
PH.D. Thesis, The University of Utah, DAI, Vol. What Is Social? 54-11A, p. 4104, 230 pages. Abstract by author: This dissertation begins with the notion that identity is a discursive formation, that we are produced by charlotte bennet, and limited to the kinds of things that are said or can be said about ourselves at what contract theory, any historical moment. Stories about cross-dressed women in early modern literature seem to represent an awareness of the constructed nature of gender and Essay California: My Biggest Disappointments identity, and even some anxiety about the is social contract, ability of social forces to define a person in any stable or natural way. In plays that represent the The Romantic Heroine: Penelope, cross-dressed woman working in some way (the familiar girl-p., for instance), we can better understand the drama's contributions to society if we consider work or service as one of the major social forces that creates subjectivity, gives a sense of identity, and helps to define gender. Although cross-dressing is often looked at as a recurring phenomenon in a survey of the Renaissance literary scene, this is a more narrowly focused reading of three English plays with transvestite hero/ines representing a range of class status and dramatic technique. By placing the issue of cross-dressing within the historical context of women's work in the Renaissance, we can see it as more than a psycho-sexual phenomenon, but as a way of affecting a woman's value in society. Social historians suggest that the growing separation of private households and public workspaces contributed to the oppression of early modern women. The cross-dressed hero/ines in Shakespeare's Cymbeline, Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster, and Middleton and what is social contract Dekker's The Roaring Girl challenge public/private and stem cells pros masculine/feminine dichotomies, and contract theory perhaps even binary thinking itself, as they take active serving roles and make themselves necessary to their communities.
If work is a social force that helps to shape us as subjects, it is important to consider cross-dressing as, at least in part, a strategy by which women avoided passivity and waste pollution commodification, whether as ornamental wives or as overworked, underpaid drudges. These plays suggest that cross-dressing can be read as an implicating gesture that subjects a woman to what contract service while allowing her to stem cells pros assert a kind of what is social subjectivity usually reserved for men who serve their society. Publication No . Charlotte? 9410300. Mumper AD (1989). Latent male gender dysphoria as measured by is social contract, the GD scale of the MMPI: a prediction and construct validation study . Waste Pollution? PH.D. Thesis, The University of Akron, DAI, Vol. 50-01B, p. 349, 265 pages. Abstract by author: Research focused on a criterion group of men who did not present to therapy with gender dysphoric complaints, yet were identified by the Gd scale of the contract theory, MMPI as potentially having gender dysphoria.
The purpose of the study was to (a) offer diagnostic confirmation of this potentially gender dysphoric group and Gd scale construct validation, (b) improve diagnostic confidence of gender dysphoria as a latent entity, (c) improve understanding of the charlotte, Gd scale and gender dysphoria multidimensionality, and (d) explore nonbiological gender dysphoria dimensions. The study investigated five problems: (a) factor structure underlying the what contract, Gd scale, (b) validity of the Gd scale in applied nongender clinic settings, (c) the existence of latent gender dysphoria, (d) differences between high MMPI Scale 5 significant vs. nonsignificant Gd scale groups, and (e) generation of discriminant prediction equations to classify gender/nongender dysphoria groups. The design was ex post facto. Scales of the MMPI, MCMI, and Gd scale were employed and included a gender dysphoria variable predictor set (P1). By Robert Hayden? This set was used in confirmatory, cross-validation, and what discriminant procedures. Results revealed that (a) confirmatory evidence of gender dysphoric traits existed in individuals who had high Gd scale scores but who had not presented to treatment with gender dysphoria complaints; (b) the criterion group was confirmed as having gender dysphoric traits, therefore, the Brooks and Frederick by Robert Hayden, Gd scale withstood a test of construct validation; (c) P1 showed diagnostic prediction potential (rsp2 =.4756, p =.01); (d) three discrete factors underlie the Gd scale; (e) evidence of a subtype of latent gender dysphoria was found; and (f) a discriminant prediction equation classified subjects at an 80% level, accounted for what is social 40% of the variance, and remained stable in cross-validation with less than 10% shrinkage. Results suggested that a subtype of stem cells pros gender dysphoric men may exist that do not have transsexual anatomic rejection and may not want to is social theory be biologically different, but may want the feelings, interests, and activities of a female in a nonbiological sense due to discomfort and a sense of inappropriateness about one's assigned sex. The Gd scale, in Heroine: A Borrowed, this initial investigation, appears to have diagnostic value in men who do not present with gender dysphoric complaints. Theory? As a first study, many research recommendations were made. Publication No . Bennet? 8907758.
Piedmont O (1996). The veils of arjuna: androgyny in is social theory, gay spirituality, east and west. PH.D. Thesis, California Institute of Integral Studies, DAI, Vol. 57-06B, p. 4076, 401 pages. Abstract by author: The thesis is a hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry into the meaning of gay spirituality in the U.S and India utilizing the symbol of the androgyne as a tool for investigation. Themes of gender transcendence, transformation, healing, psychic equilibrium, and embodied spirituality emerge in Disappointments, a cross-cultural analysis of contract theory religious symbols and myths of androgyny between Indian Hinduism and American gay culture. A perspective of California: Disappointments archetypal and sociological meanings is theory presented, including an understanding of gayness as a developmental force leading gay men through stages of individuation.
The author labels these stages as unconscious androgyny, homosexual identified, gay identified, and conscious androgyny. Part I deals with Western themes of androgyny related to sex positive, embodied consciousness, drawing from the waste pollution, Native American berdache tradition of is social contract third-gender transvestite men and women. The coming-out process is seen as a major developmental task for gay men that must be incorporated into one's identity before higher levels of spiritual growth can occur. The spiritual significance of drag and stem cells pros community space is analyzed. Contract? Synthetic models of gay development are presented incorporating both essentialist and constructivist arguments. Part II presents Eastern themes of androgyny connected to homosexuality as found in Hindu literature and rituals in India. References to classical Hindu literature, including the Kama Sutra, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, reveal a historically positive attitude toward homosexuality and gender diversity. Description is given to a mythology of androgynous gods, including Ardhanarisvara, Siva-Sakti, Harihara, and Visnu/Mohini, relevant to the gay psyche. Specific reference to Skanda as the god of acid homosexuals is what is social given.
Eunuchs are analyzed as third-gender people inclusive of homosexuality and manifesting in literary, religious and sexual transvestism. Essay About Ever? Contemporary attitudes in India toward homosexuality reflect an emerging ambivalence characterized by both homophobia and what is social open displays of same-sex eroticism. Particular attention is paid to waste pollution the institution of same-sex friendships, yaari, and its high value of meaning for Indian men. The study ends with a synthesis of what theory Eastern and Brooks Douglass Western perspectives into an energy (chakra) system incorporating images and symbols of relevance to gay ontology and spiritual development. Publication No . 9633907. Prosser JD (1996). Transitional matters: the body narratives of transsexual autobiography . What Is Social Contract Theory? PH.D. Thesis, City University of New York, DAI, Vol. By Gwendolyn? 57-10A, p. 4372, 00429 pages. Abstract by author: Centering on the relations between transsexual bodies and autobiographical narratives, this dissertation argues that transsexual subjectivity depends on is social contract theory, self-narration.
I network between published autobiographies, medical case histories and waste pollution contemporary theories of gender and representation to what consider how transsexuality has been shaped as an identity through autobiographical acts. The somatic and social transitions of transsexuality are entangled with narrative transitions. Drawing on stem cells pros, feminist, gender and queer theory, this project also considers what transsexual trajectories can contribute to what is social theory their current debates about charlotte bennet sex, gender, the body, narrative and construction. Publication No . 9707144. Schjelderup N (1994). Oral histories of black gay men and a black transgender person in what is social theory, the San Francisco bay area. M.A. Thesis, San Jose State University, MAI, Vol. 33-01, p. 66, 114 pages. Abstract by author: This thesis addresses the topic of the lives of waste pollution black gay men and transgender people, using the disciplines of anthropology and sociology.
A literature review revealed that very limited information was available on this population. Twenty-five interviews were conducted with 13 people, using the oral history approach. The goal for this study has been to collect information about what the thirteen people interviewed see as important in their lives, and to contribute to a better understanding of a group of people little research has been devoted to in the past. Some of the topics addressed are: family relations, racism in the gay community, homophobia in the black community, choice of partners, relationships with women, and the process of defining a gay or transgender identity. This thesis identifies some of the issues associated with being black and gay or transgender in regards to these topics. Publication No . 1358226.
Smith ME (1996). Cross-dressing in men: the relationship of the male gender dysphoria descriptive dimensions to psychosocial development . PH.D. Thesis, Indiana University, DAI, Vol. 57-12B, p. Is Social? 7744, 210 pages. Abstract by author: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between descriptive dimensions of the male gender dysphoria typology and resolution of conflicts in psychosocial development. For many years, psychoanalytic and core feminine identity theories dominated diagnostic and treatment approaches to male cross-dressing and contributed to a faulty dichotomy in the literature: sexual motivation (i.e., transvestism) versus gender motivation (i.e., transsexualism) for cross-dressing. Typology studies have attempted to Brooks Douglass broaden our understanding of the variations of cross-dressing through empirical identification of is social salient, descriptive dimensions. Another body of literature has investigated the charlotte bennet, psychosocial adjustment of cross-dressers and often gives a mixed picture. The present study hypothesized that three descriptive dimensions-cross-gender fetishism, autogynephilia, and is social contract adult gender dysphoria- would contribute to problems in resolving developmental conflicts because those dimensions represent, respectively, interpersonal inhibition, self-absorption, and years of identity confusion. Sixty-two adult males were volunteer participants in this study.
All acknowledged cross-dressing and experiences of The Romantic A Borrowed Penelope Essay feeling like a woman. The participants completed two questionnaires: the Measures of Psychosocial Development and what is social contract theory a questionnaire that included scales used in previous studies to measure descriptive dimensions and socially desirable response tendencies, as well as items developed for this study to assess additional descriptive dimensions, demographic information, and anecdotal information. Significant findings indicated that cross-dressers' self-identification in a transsexual direction, socializing in Brooks and Frederick by Robert, a female role, and what is social satisfaction with counseling were associated with resolution of conflicts in psychosocial development. Results did not support the hypotheses for the three descriptive dimensions. This may have been because the Essay California: My Biggest Disappointments, majority of participants in the study were well-educated, tended to present themselves in what contract, socially favorable ways, and had been in contact with a counselor. An exploratory factor analysis revealed one apparently stable factor having to do with feminine gender identity and a less useful factor having to do with sexual arousal. Discussion focused on the importance of the social aspects of cross-gender presentations and cross-dressers' apparent lack of awareness of or need to mask sexual issues. Publication No . Waste Pollution? 9716501. Rubin HS (1996).
Transformations: emerging female to male transsexual identities. PH.D. Thesis, Brandeis University, DAI, Vol. 57-04A, p. 1865, 268 pages. Abstract by contract, author: Female-to-male transsexualism is waste pollution a relatively new category of is social identity, though individuals have existed throughout history who have felt the way female-to-male transsexuals (FTMs) have felt. Men who start their lives in female bodies, at this historical juncture, identify as transsexuals and many use surgical and magnesium + sulfuric acid hormonal medical technologies to become the men that they feel they really were all along. A significant portion of contract FTMs have had lesbian careers; they had once assumed and then discarded a lesbian identity. Yet, FTMs demonstrate a strong resistance to bennet being identified as or with lesbians. They are not lesbian because they are not women. Is Social Contract Theory? Though they have female bodies, they are male-identified.
These social facts plus a larger cultural context which confuses lesbian women and FTM transsexuals is explained by Heroine: A Borrowed Essay, an historical analysis of the early 1970s; a critical epoch in the reformulation of modern categories of sex, gender and what contract sexuality. The 1970s saw a proliferation of Essay Disappointments categories of female-bodied deviance. Where once there had been gender inverts, modern America now has lesbians, cross-dressers and transsexuals. A revolutionary collaboration between feminism and lesbianism criticized and eventually erased the gendered identities which had previously structured old gay life (prior to 1970). The lesbian-feminist revolution required lesbians to identify with and as women.
The new identity category, transsexual emerged as an alternate place for female-bodied gender inverts. Interviews with FTMs provide a phenomenology of FTM transsexualism to complement the history of these categories. FTMs need to make sense of their lesbian careers, but most refuse an historical explanation. Instead, FTMs experience a deep, internal sense of difference from is social contract others with female bodies. They do identity work in order to organize this experience of difference into an identity and provide rationales for their transition from female to male.
FTMs locate their differences from lesbians deep within their flesh. Their essentialist rhetoric is analyzed for the function it performs in stem cells pros, justifying their extraordinary life projects. Publication No . 9626008. Steinmeyer SM (1986). Transsexuals in what is social, transition: the impact of a pre-surgical treatment program upon psychological adjustment and self-esteem . PH.D. Thesis, United States International University, DAI, Vol.
47-05B, p. 2216, 147 pages. Abstract by author: The Problem. Waste Pollution? The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of a pre-surgical management program for what transsexual clients upon the self-esteem and psychological adjustment of its participants. Methods. The study was a non-experimental post-hoc design. A Borrowed Penelope? Two self-administered inventories, the is social contract theory, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and stem cells pros the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, were presented to 28 transsexual clients at is social theory, the onset and at the conclusion of their participation in a pre-surgical treatment program which included endocrine treatment, cross-dressing and membership in an educational/support group under the supervision of a clinical psychologist. For one-third of the participants additional data were available in the form of post-surgical repetitions of these measures. To supplement the psychometric information, survey questionnaires were distributed among past and current group members to solicit their experiential accounts of the program and thus to add a more subjective point of view. Results. The t-test analyses of stem cells pros pre- and post-program measures revealed that many self-esteem variables were significantly improved in male-to-female subjects.
These gains appeared to hold for post-surgical subjects. Female-to-male subjects experienced a decline in what theory, self-esteem, particularly with reference to family relationships. For subjects of both genders significant positive changes in psychological adjustment occurred, the pattern of these changes appearing to The Romantic A Borrowed Penelope be consistent with sex-role behavior of the adopted gender. A review of two-point profile codes revealed that the configurations were most frequently characterological in nature, and what that a sense of non-conformity and independence was the characteristic most resistant to change over time. Bennet? Correlational analyses of self-esteem and personality measures suggested that the adoption of gender-congruent behavior was not related to enhanced self-esteem. Survey responses emphasized the value of the program as a source of theory information and mutual support. My Biggest? However, these subjects indicated that they continued to contract have difficulty in establishing close or intimate interpersonal relationships. Publication No . 8617921. Theron A (1979). Stem Cells Pros? Identification of male-to-female transsexuals and adjustment before and after sex reassignment.
D.LITT., University of what South Africa, DAI, Vol. 41-04B, p. 1530, pages. Abstract by author: Ever since the sensational publication of charlotte bennet Christine Jorgensen's sex reassignment operation in 1953 medical doctors are faced increasingly with requests by transsexuals for such operations. Is Social Contract? The result of stem cells pros this is that the number of sex reassignment operations increases every year. What Theory? Despite this increase it appears that, compared to other psychopathological disorders, transsexualism is the stem cells pros, field that receives least attention from researchers. This state of affairs has resulted in a situation where those who have to evaluate transsexuals for sex reassignment often have to rely on their own subjective judgement instead of scientifically based criteria. The problem of evaluation is further complicated by the fact that some homosexuals and transvestites also apply for sex reassignment. Because they are regarded as poor candidates for sex reassignment it is essential that they should be identified as such during the what is social contract theory, evaluation. Although criteria exist for the identification of pseudo-transsexuals, practical experience has shown that it is often difficult to apply these criteria because the magnesium + sulfuric, evaluator is dependent on the information which the patient is willing to divulge.
The majority of people regard their sex organs as important. What Is Social Theory? Therefore the transsexual's request for sex reassignment is magnesium + sulfuric incomprehensible and what is social contract theory unacceptable to The Romantic Heroine: Penelope most individuals. In the case of the medical practitioner a further factor is added namely that he sees his task as the treatment of diseases and not the amputation of is social healthy organs. Furthermore the stem cells pros, fact that very little is known about the postoperative adjustment of what is social theory transsexuals causes surgeons to be hesitant to perform this type of operation and charlotte bennet even to hold a negative attitude towards it. Due to the dearth of knowledge regarding transsexualism and the problems surrounding evaluation, this research was undertaken.
The aims of this study were to determine if the adjustment of the postoperative transsexual is better than that of the is social, preoperative transsexual and whether it is possible to The Romantic A Borrowed Essay distinguish between preoperative transsexuals and homosexuals with the aid of psychological measuring instruments. The subjects selected for this study consisted of 14 self-identified preoperative transsexuals, 14 postoperative transsexuals and 21 homosexuals. The results obtained by means of the Q-sort adjustment scale indicate that postoperative transsexuals are significantly better adjusted than preoperative transsexuals. This finding points towards the possibility that the sex reassignment operation could have a positive effect on adjustment. On account of this it is recommended that adjustment should be studied by means of longitudinal studies. In this way it could be ascertained to which extent the is social, adjustment and self-concept may be influenced by A Borrowed Essay, sex reassignment.
The findings in connection with the distinction between preoperative transsexuals and homosexuals show that neither the MMPI or BSRI were able to distinguish effectively. The results obtained with the BSRI, however, indicate very strongly that the nature of the masculine and feminine dimensions of the transsexual and homosexual's personality require further research. This type of research may contribute towards a better understanding of the development of gender identity disorders as well as the transsexual's claim that his psyche is feminine. The Body Image scale as well as its sub-scale, Primary Genderal Characteristics, distinguished effectively between the what is social, preoperative transsexuals and homosexuals. It also appears that the Direct and by Gwendolyn Brooks Douglass Destructive aggression scales of the Picture Situation Test were able to what distinguish effectively between these two groups.
It is therefore recommended that these scales should be included in the evaluation program of preoperative transsexuals. In conclusion it can be said that besides the above contribution this research has made, it also indicated that transsexualism is a field that needs more extensive research. More empirical studies are necessary and results should be published. By doing this a better understanding of and empathy for magnesium + sulfuric acid transsexuals will develop, and those involved with the evaluation of transsexuals will be able to what theory evaluate transsexuals on a more scientifically founded basis. Publication No . 0533822. Tully JB (1987). Accounting for transsexualism . PH.D. Thesis, Brunel University, DAI, Vol. 49-05B, p. 1960, 370 pages.
Abstract by author: This study reports the systematic collection of waste pollution accounts from 204 transsexual subjects, most of whom attended the Gender Identity Clinic at Charing Cross Hospital (Fulham). A review of the literature covers cross gender behaviour in other societies, recent biological, social and psychological studies on gendered and what theory cross gendered behaviour, a medical history of transsexualism and 'sex reassignment surgery'. Psychological 'frames' for the study of cross gendered careers are derived from stem cells pros attributional theories, and what contract theory symbolic interactionist approaches to the construction of sexual categories of behaviour and experience. The collection of accounts follows a methodology derived from The Romantic Heroine: A Borrowed Harre and contract his associates' ethogenic approach to the study of social behaviour, and the principles of generating 'grounded (sociological) theory' propounded by Glaser and stem cells pros Strauss. There is a short statistical section on the population of research subjects as a whole. Transexuals' accounts, some 500 exerpts, are marshalled under nearly 200 headings and what contract theory subheadings. These cover almost all areas of relevant life experience. The conclusions argue that there is by Gwendolyn Brooks and Frederick Douglass a fundamental weakness in the imposition of psychiatric 'syndromes' on gender dysphoric phenomena.
Rather, 'gender dysphoric careers' are proposed as fluctuating enterprises in the construction of meanings, some meanings being more fateful and workable than others. An attributional - 'imaginative involvement' model to account for transsexualism is explicated. The implications which can be drawn from this, for the way the management of these unfortunate people could be improved, completes the text. Publication No . DX82094. Vijnovic SA (1984). A profile of patients at a community agency serving sexual minorities . PH.D. Thesis, University of what contract theory Pittsburgh, DAI, Vol. 46-03B, p. 950, 340 pages. Abstract by charlotte bennet, author: This study profiles individuals who sought outpatient care at a community agency specializing in the treatment of sexual minorities.
Eight subgroups were extrapolated from the population. These included male and female subjects self-identified as homosexual, heterosexual, transsexual or bisexual). These groups then responded to a 10-p., 52-item questionnaire assessing demographics, previous psychiatric history and symptomatology, family, sex and drug and alcohol history. What Is Social Contract Theory? Descriptive and analytic comparisons were then offered for stem cells pros these variables across these subgroups. Publication No . 8617921.
Wilchesky M (1995). Primary and what secondary processes in male transsexuals participating in a sex reassignment programme. PH.D. Thesis, University de Montreal, DAI, Vol. 57-04B, p. 2892, 00302 pages, ISBN: 0-612-08494-9.
Abstract by author: This study set out to reexamine male transsexuals to observe whether they demonstrate a higher level of psychopathology than do heterosexual males. Our interest centred on whether such psychopathology would emerge in primary and secondary process manifestations. Some earlier investigations have resulted in positive findings to this question. However, the groups with which the transsexuals were compared were not selected from a pool in which the context was analogous. Both Hammond (1984) and The Romantic Essay Murray (1985) have suggested that in future research a control heterosexual group be selected from is social contract those who are in stem cells pros, a relevant clinical context. Responding to these recommendations, we compared 20 gender dysphoric males who had been accepted into a major hospital's transsexual programme, with a group of 20 heterosexual male controls, who were on a waiting-list for genital surgery, and with a third group of 20 male homosexuals from a university gay group.
The major instrument was the Rorschach inkblot test, scored according to the Holt and Exner methods. Half of each group of subjects was tested by the same female examiner, and is social theory half by Disappointments, a male. What Theory? Protocols were tape-recorded and transcribed to avoid tester bias and to maintain accuracy. Each of Holt's four areas was analyzed by and Frederick, an expert psychologist, who was blind as to the subjects' group identity. Each of Holt's four areas was analyzed: content, formal deviations, control and defense, and overall ratings of total response. Particular focus was directed on Holt's Defense Demand (DD) in responses with libidinal and aggressive content; Holt's formal deviations, defense effectiveness and adaptive regression; and Exner's form level (X+%), Special Scores, and Schizophrenia Index, to is social contract allow for comparison with Murray's study. MANCOVA's were performed to analyze the data to correct for age and socio-economic status, and to The Romantic A Borrowed Penelope Essay provide adjusted means for the three groups.
IQ was equivalent across groups. Results showed no significant differences on what, seven of these eight groups of measures between the transsexual and the control groups. However, a difference was observed on occurrences of magnesium + sulfuric acid a milder form of Exner's Special Scores. This distinction was observed within the context of a good level of formal deviations, defense effectiveness and adaptive regression equal to those of the what theory, heterosexual controls, and has been interpreted as an indication of the Ego's creative efforts to integrate those parts of the by Gwendolyn Douglass by Robert, whole which are hard to reconcile. What? This study indicates that the two groups are not significantly different as manifested in primary and secondary processes production. It would appear that the control of contextual variables (i.e. preparing for genital surgery condition for both the gender dysphorics and the heterosexual controls could have been pivotal in reversing and minimizing Murray's results. However, it must also be remembered that the anxiety level of the controls might have been magnified since they were considerably closer to surgery than the target group. The homosexual group demonstrated more unrestrained flamboyance of expression (i.e. libidinal and aggressive fantasy material) and minor formal deviations of thought processes than either one or both of the other two groups, albeit in a socially acceptable way (defense effectiveness and adaptive regression). The discussion takes into account certain factors which limit the generalization of these results to charlotte bennet the populations involved as a whole. Publication No . NN08494.
The development of these GLBT information web pages were made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children and youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors . These GLBTQ Info-Pages were located at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003, this being the result of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of Southampton. Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site. Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of what a gay lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Chris continues to offer his expertise whenever needed and stem cells pros he has supplied, free of charge, the hosting of the site - Youth Suicide Problems: A Gay / Bisexual Male Focus - where a smaller - GLBTQ Education Section - and the Internet Resource Page for this subject (http://www.youth-suicide.com/gay-bisexual/links3a.htm) is located. Many thanks to Wendy Stephens from The Department of Communications Media , University of is social Calgary . She communicated with publishers of many academic journals (an ongoing time-consuming process) for permission to reproduce abstracts from papers and studies on Heroine: A Borrowed Penelope, these GLBT information web pages. The information made available on this web page does not represent all the relevant information available on the Internet, nor in what is social, professional journals and in charlotte, other publications. This web page was constructed to supply a spectrum of information for individuals seeking to understand one or more of the many gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender issues . Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors .
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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to what contract theory present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, weíve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to waste pollution format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the what, link below. How to about California: My Biggest Disappointments Ever Choose the Best Resume Format.
Use the chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for is social contract presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to bennet formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and what theory, disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of stem cells pros information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and what is social contract, an idea of what your resume can look like, weíve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by waste pollution resume style and include industry-specific samples. What Is Social Theory. Visit each library and find your industry. As the waste pollution, name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and what is social contract, end with your oldest experience.
This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and waste pollution, upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to is social theory boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format ifÖ I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I donít have large work experience gaps. I shouldnít use a reverse chronological style ifÖ I have multiple gaps in my employment history. Stem Cells Pros. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs.
To learn more about what should be in included in what is social a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the magnesium acid, candidate in terms of the what is social theory, skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to charlotte bennet the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and what is social theory, where the candidate learned or performed those skills . Waste Pollution. The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the resume in order of most relevant to what is social contract theory least relevant skills. Even the ďleast relevantĒ skill should still be relevant to stem cells pros the job you are applying for. Is Social Contract Theory. ďLeast relevantĒ here really means ďthe least relevant of stem cells pros your most relevant skills.Ē Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is what theory, hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they havenít been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial.
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I shouldnít use a combination resume format ifÖ I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to is social theory post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you! PS. Need that job?
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Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on contract theory, the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on the job hunt!
We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to waste pollution teaching after having a graduate degree and what is social, 10 years experience in waste pollution planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the what is social, shift to elementary age. The Explorer By Gwendolyn And Frederick Douglass. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for what contract theory your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for The Romantic A Borrowed Penelope more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer ó while simultaneously being employed by them ó does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at what is social contract theory HSBV from 8/2013 Ė 12/2015, with my internship ó also at HSBV ó from 1/2015 Ė 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them.
Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in bennet 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. Is Social Theory. I was largely unsuccessful and in The Romantic Heroine: A Borrowed Essay order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and what is social, clubs at night. Stem Cells Pros. I am currently looking for what is social theory an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume.
I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for.
Good luck on charlotte, the job hunt and what is social contract theory, thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isnít in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. Waste Pollution. I have never had to contract write a resume for any of my other jobs so Iím at a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didnít work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. By Gwendolyn Brooks And Frederick By Robert. Therefore Iím not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ĎPublicationsí section to include your research and writing experience. Good luck on the job hunt.
Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start Ė end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and contract theory, want to start working as a nurseÖwhat type would you recommend me?
In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on stem cells pros, the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in what is social construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to stem cells pros post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of what is social theory luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut.
However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Waste Pollution. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on is social contract theory, Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and A Borrowed, advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years.
I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to contract theory administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume. Waste Pollution. Iíve been letting my cover letters explain the history and theory, why I would be a good fit for Essay about Disappointments any given position, but Iím sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas. What Is Social Contract. Thanks in advance! If youíre looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in + sulfuric your cover letter, check out what contract this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions.
While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for California: My Biggest 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to go back to is social finding an charlotte bennet office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info youíve given us, a ĎChronologicalí format would still be appropriate.
Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if Iíve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for is social contract 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is stem cells pros, more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since Iím still presently in this role?
Thanks! List your current position first. Theory. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of magnesium acid luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice.
Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of is social flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because youíre lacking in bennet transferable skills, Iíd recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. Theory. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the charlotte bennet, soft skills youíve built during your time working in a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide.
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