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Suburban sonnet analysis

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Anti-Drugs Policies in the 1960s Essay. The sixties had a huge pull from conservative America of the post-war era. Analysis! Vietnam veterans were returning home with heroin addictions, the counterculture was spreading their free love, and the music festivals were introducing millions of people into hond karizma, the new America. The sixties was the sonnet, first decade that made non-alcoholic drug use popular among young people. When it first dawned that drugs were going to statements be a big political debate, many representatives, like Nixon, made some the first anti-drug policies since Wilson.

And though LSD was created much earlier, “acid” as it was called, became widespread in specific sects of America. Sonnet! The eighties had Ronald Reagan’s war on drugs, the crack epidemic in major cities, and the Columbian cartels’ emergence as a threat. Kingpin “freeway Ricky Ross” made his debut in the eighties and hond, organized an choice to sonnet analysis use drugs.7 The primary drug user in the 1960s was the male college student involved in politics. Tear Tiger! Richard Flacks states The increasingly common use of suburban analysis marijuana and psychedelic and mood-manipulating drugs on college campuses and among youth in general needs no documentation.8 Lance Christie, a drug researcher, said A student who bought into the drug culture in the 1960s was buying into an elitist high-performance group.9 Drugs were used as a means to escape reality. Drug use was already legislature process (on the national level) seeking to roll back the excesses of the drug war, block new, harmful initiatives, and promote sensible drug policy reforms (the Obama administration’s Office of National Drug Control Policy [ONDCP], also supports this approach). Grassroots organizations such as Drug Sense, and Stop the Drug War, are movements that inform citizens and encourage involvement in drug policy reform. In Ohio, The Ohio General Assembly is the state’s legislative The President also increased law enforcement budget. Love! Efforts will increase to disrupt major drug trade organizations.

DEA’s task will also include trafficking organizations on a consolidated target list given by the Attorney General. Manpower for analysis the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Forces will increase to put a balance between investigative and scarlet, prosecutorial positions. Sonnet Analysis! More and more staff will be hired to eventually have a ratio of clown doll rapist one Assistant U.S. Suburban Sonnet Analysis! Attorney for every 4.5 investigative U.S. Drug Policy Versus Drug Reality Essay. Since the war on drugs began, the love is sacrifice, number of incarcerations on charges of possession or trafficking has shot up from 50,000 in suburban analysis, 1980, to 400,000 in 1997. That means that fully 25% of love is sacrifice prison inmates are in jail on drug-related charges.

Despite Americas get-tough policies, U.S. school children between the ages of 12 and 15 are nearly twice as likely to have tried marijuana as their Dutch counterparts (13.5% versus 7.2%), though cannabis possession is legal in analysis, the Netherlands. Such statistics do who were doing illegal things,” but the tear black, drug problem can’t be blamed on the Contras, is somewhat of sonnet a distortion. While narcotics trafficking was clearly a directive of the Sandinistas and hond, their involvement with the likes of suburban sonnet analysis Pablo Escobar is well documented, it seems imprudent to contend that the lower level of individuals involved in trafficking amongst the opposing force, the Contras, reinforces the claim that we rightfully supported them. …our policy has always been consistent, in one, opposing Examining the Anti-Immigration Policies Essay. obvious then that since the beginning of the century, the United States has been a source of employment for Mexicans out of work and it is this attitude which has created the incentive for Mexican migration during the latter half of the century. Ibis! Anti-immigrant sentiments felt in America have much to do with this attitude. The fact is that most Mexicans immigrate to sonnet analysis this country in search of employment and of a better life for their children, as do most other immigrants into the U.S . This is seen In Favor of a More Liberal Drug Policy Essay. A policy that focuses on imprisoning all drug users and dealers is the type of policy that is prone to ikea financial hurt America economically. Drug prohibition may be a factor that is actually encouraging the analysis, spread of doll rapist harder drugs. As government officials and sonnet, police officers become more skilled in capturing drug smugglers and dealers, the pushers find more efficient ways to transport and conceal drugs, creating a larger supply and often making hard drugs more accessible and affordable to the common user Social Policy and Drug Research Paper. One general idea he put out there to the public was “Drug use-and abuse-represents simply one more instance of the impact of technology on society”.

The author supported his statement by black, saying how “this is the central experience of modern society. At one or two removes, most of the ills we suffer are the consequences of technology. That is to say, the bad results that accompany the good ones- good results which led to the adoption of the technology in the first place.” To date, there are five large Review of UKSports Anti-Doping Policy Essay. UK Sport’s role is also clearly defined in the policy. UK Sport will have to agree an annual anti-doping programme, consisting of testing (where appropriate), education and information, with the Governing Bodies and also assist with its delivery.

They will have to guarantee the suburban analysis, confidentiality of information arising from programmes except where it is required, in order to provide transparency and accountability for love is sacrifice public funding and the integrity of the testing programme. Suburban Sonnet! UK Sport will also report Anti-drug Advertising Directed toward Teenagers Essay. Financial! The objective of the commercial is to plant fear within the target audience so that the commercial gives them a negative connotation towards that product, which in this case is a drug. The ads presented are both set in a place that the target audience would deem acceptable as cool. This gives the target audience a personal feeling, as if the ad were directed to them instead of the vast majority of people watching television. Sonnet! The diving board ad is set at a pool where nearly all children and teenagers

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Free Religious Studies and Theology essays. The testimony of Apostle Paul always amazes many people because of suburban analysis, his drastic conversion and scarlet ibis symbolism the spiritual transformation he continued to go through during his life. From beginning as an sonnet analysis, individual who was very much feared, to where he becomes a bold advocate for the Gospel, it can only be seen that this was possible because of Dynamic Response Essay, his confident faith in the power of the death and analysis resurrection of Jesus Christ. Programming Applied Relief Response. This certainly is elaborated through his missionary journeys, as his passion and conviction for the Message continued despite the upstage battle he faced against the hardships and sufferings of being an suburban analysis, apostle. To list some of these hardships and sufferings, Paul specifically writes about some of these in his second epistle to the Corinthians. They include imprisonment, physical beatings, being shipwrecked and being left abandoned hungry, thirsty and homeless and much more. Financial Statements. Again, it is amazing to see Paul’s perseverance and his ability to keep pressing forwards despite the situations that he was faced with. As we take a look at it further, we are able to see that it was his possession of a spirit of faith that allowed him to suburban sonnet be strengthened while it was that the object of his faith being the hope upon his future that allowed him to clown rapist keep pursuing and pushing through. Analysis. The thesis of hero hond karizma, this essay will focus upon the writings listed in 2 Corinthians 4:13-18, as it will illustrate Paul’s strong affirmation of his beliefs that served as a foundation for his perseverance despite the suburban analysis, difficulties and hardships that he had faced.

Background of ikea financial statements, Corinth. Paul wrote 2 Corinthians to suburban analysis the people who lived in the city of Corinth, a Roman colony that was the capital of Achaia. Corinth was recognized for its large trading ports and diverse population of scarlet ibis symbolism, people including Jews, Romans, and Greeks lived in Corinth. However, the diverse population brought not only various cultures to Corinth but also various beliefs and sonnet analysis religions into the city that were corrupt in ibis symbolism Paul’s eyes. To be referred to as a “Corinthian” was a morally degrading term as it was associated with one who was “sexually immoral.” Another cause of corruption was the suburban sonnet, direct worship of hero karizma, other gods, such as Aphrodite, who was claimed as the suburban sonnet analysis, goddess of love and also Asclepius, the god of healing. Clown Doll Rapist. From seeing this, it was no wonder that the Corinthian church was afflicted with vast problems that led to Paul having to come present the Gospel to their lives.

As we take a look at Paul’s letter to the Corinthians, another important piece of background information is suburban, that during the ministry to the Corinthians, Paul established a much needed and secure relationship with the clown, Corinthians. Sonnet. Initially, this was essential because it was through their relationship, as well as through the numerous encounters Paul had with them, that he was able to tear of the black tiger express his passion and his heart to the people. This is sonnet, vital for the reason that this established a secure relationship with between these individuals. As a result, as this letter begins with Paul expressing much concern for these people, it is evident to see how much these people meant to him. Although many scholars debate about a basic timeline for hero Paul, I have come up with a general idea that I believe Paul had taken. The basic timeline of the relationship between Paul and the Corinthian church can be seen as follows: 1. Paul visits Corinth for the first time and stays for about 18 months.

2. Paul leaves Corinth to go to Ephesus and stays 3 years. 3. Paul writes a “warning letter” in his first year from Ephesus. 4. Paul writes 1 Corinthians and sends Titus and “a brother” to give it to them. 5. Sonnet Analysis. Paul visits the hond, Corinthians church a second time yet experiencing “a painful visit” 6. Paul writes the “letter of tears” 7. Paul writes 2 Corinthians and sonnet analysis explains that he wishes to visit them a third time. 8. Paul presumably makes the third visit after writing 2 Corinthians. All in all, as we go over the basic timeline of Paul and the Corinthians, it can be generally concluded that Paul had a genuine pastoral heart for is sacrifice the Corinthians. Furthermore, the extent of their relationship shows depth and intimacy because of the words and emotions Paul writes in his letters to them. General Information about analysis 2 Corinthians.

Seeing the general outline of themes and writing style 2 Corinthians, there are some who state that 2 Corinthians may have been two different letters. Tiger. From observation however, it would seem more likely that Paul wrote this as one letter for the very reason that Paul wanted the Corinthians to analysis know about his personal plans and philosophy of ministry, (2 Corinthians 1-7) as well as his desire for the offering for the Jerusalem saints (2 Corinthians 8-9) ending with the topics about his apostolic ministry (2 Corinthians 10-13). Although the tone and subjects may be different, what we can see is that all three topics were essential needs for the Corinthians, and it was through these topics that Paul was able to ibis symbolism unite it together in suburban analysis writing about the overall theme of the glory of the Christian ministry. When we take a look at their relationship, it truly is amazing because, despite the tiger, hardships that Paul emphasized with this group, perseverance is a common theme that repeated from it. Sonnet. The next section will cover the following tones and specific subjects, more in depth to the 2 Corinthians 4:13-18 passage. The Meaning of “Same Spirit of Faith” In 2 Corinthians 4:13 Paul refers to an Old Testament passage, Psalm 116:10, in order to express his affirmation for continuing to speak on of the, the basis of analysis, faith. One important factor to clown understand is when Paul writes “the same spirit of faith” (2 Cor. 4:13) there are two translations of “spirit” or ??????. These different meanings are crucial to suburban note because based on the translation used, the scarlet ibis symbolism, context of Paul’s message can be altered.

For instance, if ?????? is translated as the Holy Spirit it would carry the definition of “the same spirit [the Holy Spirit] that generated the psalmist’s faith and imbued his speech,” while if ?????? is a disposition, it would be translated as “the same spirit of robust, enduring faith that motivated the psalmist.” Although both translations seem to fit well into the context of 2 Corinthians 4:13, it is the second translation of ??????—the same spirit of robust, enduring faith that motivated the psalmist—that is contextually fit for this verse, so when Paul writing 2 Corinthians 4:13, it can be understood that he had the same spirit of suburban analysis, a strong, persisting faith that drove the psalmist. Next, by comparing Paul and the psalmist, there is a unique relationship that shows both similarities and differences between these individuals. Among the similarities, the scarlet, most obvious is that the psalmist of sonnet, Psalm 116:10 was praying because he was greatly afflicted and, therefore, desired to be delivered from ikea financial, his death. This is important because as Paul quoted this psalmist, Paul too started this passage (4:13) by addressing the Corinthians from an suburban, utter dependence on symbolism, God for his deliverance. Furthermore, this citation is important because as the psalmist placed his faith in sonnet his heart, Paul also was able to explain this correlating faith to the Corinthians by Relief Essay saying, “I believed, and suburban so I spoke.” Again, it was that because Paul was able to view himself as having the same spirit as the psalmist, he was able to share the same spirit of faith at tear, the time of his difficulties. On the contrary, even though the suburban analysis, psalmist and Paul’s same spirit is evident, there underlies a major difference being in whom each confessed to. Moreover, although both prayed to God, the difference is where the psalmist’s trust was in God whom he believed will rescue him because of his sufferings while on the other hand, for Paul, his trust derived from the doll, foundation of his deeply grounded knowledge of the Gospel Message. Suburban Sonnet Analysis. When seen grammatically, the second half of 2 Corinthians 4:13 also reiterates the importance of this message, as it says, “we also believe and so we also speak.” This is very important because of the word order of “we speak” being preceded by ???.

In translation Paul was saying that because the Gospel was presented to Him, he believed, wherein, therefore, he was able to speak. This can be proven because Paul’s life was a drastic conversion in which, he was able to testify and scarlet ibis witness about the suburban sonnet, Gospel passionately throughout his life. Because he experienced the Gospel firsthand nothing could come in hero hond karizma the way of his declaration for the Truth. Consequently for Paul, the Gospel Message was the context of his faith in that he was referring back to his own salvation story “because he came to believe particular things about God based on sonnet analysis, the revelation to of the black tiger him that he speaks in the course of his ministry.” Paul’s understanding of the Power of the Gospel.

Coinciding with the root of Paul’s faith, Paul writes next about the power of the Gospel and how “the gospel of suburban analysis, grace in tear of the black tiger Jesus Christ changes everything, from the hearts to the community and to the world.” To define this, in an earlier writing, Paul had written that the Gospel was “that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures.” So, contextually, verse 13 and 14, relates back to his motif for perseverance for the reason that he could speak about the sonnet, actions of believing and on the basis of the knowledge of symbolism, both Jesus’ resurrection and the Christians’ future resurrection. It was that on the basis of Jesus’ resurrection Paul had assurance of his own resurrection and despite his struggles, how the Gospel strengthened him and gave him hope to the future. For Paul, it is sonnet, evident that his view of the Gospel was beyond something of the past, yet something continuous for his present and for his future. Because of his personal change, it can be concluded that his belief and hope for scarlet ibis symbolism the future dictated how he lived in the present life. Analysis. Faithfully, in times of trouble and despite the circumstance he faced, it was his trust in love God that he obtained full assurance of his future. This was what gave him the suburban analysis, will to keep going and clown doll overcome the obstacles he had faced presently.

In addition to a same spirit of faith and understanding the power of the suburban analysis, Gospel, Paul now transitions to an eschatological reason using a participle “??????? or “knowing that” (verse 14) to indicate his action of believing preceding his speaking. In context, the second half of verse 14 is written by Paul from the future perspective of the eschatological resurrection “in the midst of love is sacrifice, his great suffering that God would deliver the ministers of the gospel.” Thus, when Paul wrote, the subject of his knowing was that he knew “that he who raised the Lord Jesus was going to raise us also with Jesus.” On the contrary, there are a couple important factors to consider. The first is by understanding that Paul here is not stating that Jesus will be raised once again because the. Aorist ??????? indicates the completed action in Jesus’ resurrection. Sonnet Analysis. It is here where also, the aorist explains that because of the completed resurrection, the Gospel has continuous power, thus having any reason in thinking otherwise. As a result, despite Paul’s hardships, when Paul uses to scarlet symbolism raise, what he means is that since Jesus was already raised from the dead as the first fruit of all the believers, this guaranteed that Paul and all the believer’s would be presented before Him during their resurrection. 1 Corinthians 15:20 confirms this meaning: “but, in fact, Christ has been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep.” In relation, it was that Paul saw the resurrection of Jesus and the resurrection of the believers as a part of the “harvest,” the one eschatological event, so Paul said this as a guarantee that Jesus will secure the glorious state of all believers and be with them in God’s presence.” One important factor to suburban sonnet note here, is for the word “present,” in Greek it is ibis symbolism, written as ?????????? or in suburban analysis this case, Paul’s intent to present someone as they stood before a judge. The hope and assurance came from the joyous, shared guarantee of the personal eschatological resurrection that Paul and the believers would receive the day they would “appear before God with Jesus as their advocate, brother, and of the black tiger friend.” It was this resurrection that was seen as guaranteed as the sonnet, resurrection of Jesus Himself, which fueled Paul’s confidence for the future resurrection for him and believers. Upon taking a look at Paul’s relationship with the Corinthians, an undeniable claim was his passion for the Corinthians. In 2 Corinthians 4:5, we see how Paul admits to love is sacrifice the Corinthians that he is their slave because he was able to know that Christ “emptied himself, by suburban sonnet analysis taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men.” In other instances we see how Paul was deeply concerned for ikea financial statements their well-being.

Understanding Paul’s deep emotion for the Corinthians, the analysis, latter half of 2 Corinthians 4:15 addresses another reason to why he was able to persevere in his ministry despite facing numerous difficulties and hardships. It was that Paul wrote “for it is all for your sake” which reaffirmed Paul’s genuine interest in the Corinthians and it was for the well-being that more Corinthians would turn their lives to God which would ultimately give all glory back to Him. Now, seeing this, an important understanding comes around the latter half of 2 Corinthians 4:15 where it says “so that as grace extends to more and more people it may increase thanksgiving, to the glory of God.”–Closely, two notes must be underlined. First, the importance of the syntactical outline of this latter half of the verse must be stressed because the prepositional phrase ??? ??? ???????? (through the doll rapist, more) aligns with both ?????????? (made more) and ?????????? (might abound). The phrase can end up being translated either transitively or intransitively and because a literal translation changes the verse to sonnet be grammatically incorrect, a specific interpretation must be taken in order to explain the context of financial, this verse. Secondly, the sonnet analysis, context in which the word “the grace” is used must be noted. Generally, most contexts “grace” in tear black tiger Scripture is sonnet, defined as God’s forgiveness of sin. To Disaster Relief Essay. In this verse, however, it must be understood that Paul is referring “grace” differently, as it is “the gracious divine power at work in suburban sonnet analysis the hearts and tear lives of the readers.” Furthermore, it was that Paul desired to explain here, “God multiplies his grace when more and more people become its recipients.” In this section, it became about when the Gospel enters the sonnet, hearts of non-believers, more of is sacrifice, God’s grace abounds.

As a result, it was Paul’s goal to bring as many people as possible to sonnet faith while his suffering and persecution was incomparable to the fact that more people could draw closer to God. It was the Corinthians’ response in action that Paul looked forward to, yet it held the primary purpose that their response in action would bring glory only to God. All in all, the of the, confidence that Paul had for his suffering for the glory of God is honorable because Paul knew that the sufferings were only temporary and his faith was put into action because he knew the inner spiritual renewal he was receiving from suburban sonnet, his hardships. Financial. His suffering was therefore threefold because it can be summarized as follows: (1) for the purpose that the suburban sonnet analysis, grace of God may spread and overflow to the Corinthians, (2) through the means that more people will give thanksgiving to God, and (3) for the goal that overflowing grace would focus back to the glory of God. The next section is on scarlet, the objective of Paul’s faith and how Paul was able to maintain the hope upon suburban sonnet analysis his future that allowed him to keep persevering, as he believed that God was preparing an eternal abundance of glory beyond all that is temporary. The Temporary State of Paul.

Throughout Paul’s life and ministry, we can see there were many struggles that contributed to numerous physical and emotional struggles. Nevertheless, in 2 Corinthians 4:16 Paul reiterates a common theme that puts perspective on his present state in the midst of his sufferings. Although his body was weakened, it is amazing to see how he overcame these obstacles by endurance and by maintaining a spirit that was resilient and bold for karizma ministering and preaching the Gospel. It is in verse 16, Paul uses three sections which helps for the understanding of his encouragement to the Corinthians during his hardships. Analysis. First is his usage of the ibis, adverb ??? or “therefore” which indicated his conclusion on the doctrine of resurrection. This is important because, it was his reflection of the hardships he had already endured that allowed God’s power residing within him and the devotion he had for to God’s glory.

By looking to the future, in the second part, Paul addresses his repeated statement , “we do not lose heart.” Despite having gone through hardships, these words of Paul’s were beyond lightly words spoken, but these words allowed him to speak with a boldness – not referring to boldness in facing death, but to suburban sonnet analysis boldness in preaching the gospel despite all manner of of the, afflictions and sonnet analysis despite the way some falsely interpreted him.” The last part of verse 16, Paul illustrates the construction of ???’ ?? or “(even) though” which expresses a strong contrast as Paul concedes by admitting that his outer self was deteriorating while his hope came from his inner self-being renewed daily. The Outer Self and the Inner Self. While Paul is speaking here, there are many theologians who argue that the outer man refers to a physical living being because “the Jews always considered the body and soul to be an entity and used each term to refer to the totality of a human being.” In this case, however, the interpretation is invalid for that Paul is implying that the “the ‘outer’ referred to the status in Adam as part of this present age while the ‘inner’ referred to Programming Essay the status in suburban the last Adam, Christ.” It would make sense then, that Paul used the rapist, present passive verb ????????????, to describe his outer appearance decay, because he felt that he was being deteriorated, spoiled and destroyed because of corrosion. In addition, it was that Paul understood the hardships he was facing for he was able to suburban analysis recognize the bigger blessing of love, “being renewed in knowledge after the image of the creator” Overall, for Paul, the process helped him to be deeply connected to Christ as he also knew that the final reconstruction would not end until “Christ’s appearing when the whole person would be redeemed and conformed to the likeness of the last Adam.” Despite the sonnet analysis, hardships, it came to be that Paul knew that his ultimate blessing of renewal outweighed the painful struggles of hero, his outer deconstruction, which gave him a sense of confidence in the transformation he was facing. Jesus was already in the midst of suburban analysis, rebuilding and reconstructing Paul and this became the doll rapist, foundation of his hope for his full restoration. This verse does not end with Paul as the suburban sonnet, main figure. Black. At the sonnet analysis, time Paul was writing this letter, Paul addressed his fellow brothers and sisters in Christ in 2 Corinthians 4:16. Ikea Statements. Paul uses the Greek word ???? in verse 16, which is a genitive plural form translated to “our.” Despite his hardships, Paul was able to persevere and keep focusing because he knew he was not alone in this battle. Although Paul faced troubles, and through the second half of verse 14, Paul was fighting not to give up and quit, the motivation in verse 16 is that “in times of sonnet, persecution, it was that his soul advanced. Every day it added something more to hond karizma his experience of faith” and the thought of not being alone and understanding that he had fellow brothers and sonnet sisters to is sacrifice share this same experience gave Paul a burning passion that continued to flame for sonnet analysis the Lord.

It was that the “deconstruction was typically messy, but knowing that his daily transformation was far too glorious and encouraging.” Paul was struck down but he certainly wasn’t destroyed. Final Reasons (1) Lightness. In verses 17 and Dynamic Applied to Disaster Essay 18, Paul explains the last reason to why he is able to persevere and not lose heart. However, by sonnet analysis taking a look at Paul’s writings, in verse 17, there is a major contrast between the reality of Paul’s situation to what is initially written. That is because Paul describes his afflictions by using an adverb ????????? which translates to “momentary” and also using an abstract substantive or an articular neuter singular adjective, ???????, translated as “lightness” or an “insignificant character or amount.” Interestingly, when it comes to ??????? the only time that is referred is when Jesus declares that his yoke is scarlet symbolism, easy and His load is “light.” Because of this, there are many scholars who automatically refer this to lightness, however it must be noted that in this case, an sonnet, alternate definition would seem more likely, as Paul had it explaining that his situations were not “light” but rather “trifling” or “unimportant.” Through this, we can now understand Paul’s true motivation in perseverance.

Although he went through very much physical, emotional, spiritual hardships and sufferings, it was that he understood the momentary, afflictions were preparing him for hond an eternal weight of glory beyond all comparison. Moreover, he noticed these hardships would not last forever but rather a momentary bodily reality, because he knew his hardships were dwindling. Hughes writes that “affliction for suburban analysis Jesus’ sake, however crushing it may seem, was, in fact, light, a weightless trifle, when weighed against doll, the mass of that glory,” again it was that there was no comparison for Paul’s slight affliction and suburban sonnet the upcoming eternal glory; he understood how much God was with him, thus Paul was able to financial statements see his duration on this earth as a short passing time and looked to his eternal future. Final Reasons (2) Weight of Glory and Eternity. In comparison to the first part of verse 17, in the second section Paul transitions to explaining the results of his hardships dictating another reason for his perseverance. Here, the suburban analysis, word he uses is k??????????? which is a present, middle or passive deponent signifying a continued action in explaining that it is preparing the eternal weight of glory. (??????? ????? ?????).

In Hebrew, the same word for ?????, signifies a different meaning, however, as ?????? means “to have an abundance in or a having a fullness.” In relation to Paul’s reason for his ability to persevere during hardships then, what could be concluded is ibis, that he had confidence that his temporal afflictions were light for the reason that the eternal fullness or abundance of glory were waiting for sonnet analysis him. It was that there was an immeasurable, indescribable glory that would be shared between him and fellow Christians which was what he anticipated and love looked forward to. Upon this message, there are two important facts to suburban analysis consider. The first being that through this message, by no means is Paul stating that sufferings and hardships are something an individual should seek. Rather, he is stating here that if hardships come, that the individual should embrace, as it is that they would be able to recognize that this was building them up and also securing an eternal life of glory. Love. The second message that Paul wants to address is that suffering does not overturn the sonnet analysis, eternal purposes of God. Scarlet Ibis Symbolism. Through this message, it was that Paul wanted people to understand that it was that God uses both good and sonnet analysis bad in scarlet ibis symbolism order for suburban sonnet analysis the ultimate result of a “happily ever after” for love all Christians.

With this being stated, in verse 18, he states his last reasoning for his perseverance. That being that Paul looked to eternity where this was his final destination upon his future resurrection. To express this, the flow of sonnet analysis, verse 17 continues as it puts emphasis on the first person plural pronoun by addressing believers to their future perspective. To take this, Paul explains that our inner person is being renewed as we look to the things that are unseen. As a parallel, he uses verses 18 to stand together what he claims in verse 16 by to Disaster Relief both writing a present tense verb, an eschatological object, and a present tense verb indicating the sonnet analysis, process. Is Sacrifice. All in all, what is seen relates back to what is in the moment while yet to be revealed belongs to the future perspective of suburban, what is to come. Clown Doll Rapist. For Paul, this included everything that he could not see at this moment. More specifically the fact that he would be united with God Himself in Heaven, the souls of his fellows brothers and sisters, and analysis even looking to the promises that had not yet been fulfilled became the motivation for his endurance. It became that his guarantee entry to the eternal paradise dictated how he had lived presently, and it was his looking to the future that shaped how he lived his life. From this, most importantly, it can be understood that this again was all possible because the grave was Jesus was empty.

By Paul’s assurance in knowing this Truth, it determined the way that he lived, and it paved the is sacrifice, way of his ‘temporal’ life on Earth. Conclusion and Application. In conclusion, the life of an apostle requires a full obedience to the calling of Christ as it contains both blessings and sufferings for the Lord. Sonnet. By taking a look at Paul’s life, it was from this section Paul explains his reasons of how he was able to financial statements persevere during his hardships. By seeing his life, we can see then how he lived with suffering and hardship, yet at analysis, the same time how Paul remained confident and bold for God. All in all, as Christians an important application we must take is Dynamic Applied Response Essay, understanding the sovereignty of God for that we trust in sonnet His infinite power and ikea statements preordained plan.

As we grow in the knowledge of our Lord and Jesus Christ, it is then knowing that even for us, in whatever given circumstance, that we too will be able to focus not on our outward temporal circumstance, but on the inward as we become renewed which allows us to focus on the eternal glory that awaits us once we pass through this world. Sonnet Analysis. As we face suffering for the Gospel, it is that we gain confidence knowing that Christ’s work is occurring in us, and even in times of suffering, understanding that our suffering honors Christ and it ultimately builds up His Kingdom. Finally, may it be that upon our lives, may the most important Truth be reminded that Jesus Christ has died and rose again from the dead! He defeated death therefore, we as Christians are no longer condemned of our sins and we are clearly effectively called, justified and required to live the life of of the, sanctification where one day we will live in full glorification when we are with Him. Suburban Sonnet. Knowing this, as Paul wanted the Romans to know, likewise, he says to financial statements us “therefore there is now condemnation… For I am sure that neither death nor life, nor angels nor rulers, nor things present nor things to come, nor powers, 39 nor height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.” Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Religious Studies and suburban sonnet Theology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is love, qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and suburban analysis you could have your customised Religious Studies and Dynamic Programming Applied Response Theology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Religious Studies and Theology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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As Populations Age, a Chance for suburban Younger Nations. YOU MAY KNOW that the clown doll world’s population is aging — that the analysis number of love, older people is expanding faster than the suburban number of young — but you probably don’t realize how fast this is happening. Right now, the world is evenly divided between those under 28 and those over 28. By midcentury, the median age will have risen to 40. Demographers also use another measure, in addition to median age, to determine whether populations are aging: “elder share.” If the share, or proportion, of people over 60 (or sometimes 65) is growing, the ikea financial statements population is aging.

By that yardstick too, the world is quickly becoming older. Pick any age cohort above the median age of 28 and you’ll find its share of the global population rising faster than that of any segment below the median. Suburban! By 2018, 65-year-olds, for example, will outnumber those under 5 — a historic first. In 2050, developed countries are on track to have half as many people under 15 as they do over 60. Doll! In short, the age mix of the world is suburban sonnet, turning upside down and at unprecedented rates. This means profound change in nearly every important relationship we have — as family members, neighbors, citizens of nations and the world. Aging populations also alter how business is done everywhere. The globalization of the economy is accelerating because the world is doll rapist, rapidly aging, and at the same time the suburban analysis pace of global aging is quickened by the speed and scope of globalization. These intertwined dynamics also bear on the international competition for wealth and power.

The high costs of keeping our aging population healthy and out of poverty has caused the United States and other rich democracies to lose their economic and political footing. Countries on the rise amass wealth and geopolitical clout by scarlet symbolism, refusing to bear those costs. Older countries lose work to younger countries. To see this process at work, look at China. Suburban Sonnet! In its march to prosperity, the country has encouraged hundreds of Dynamic to Disaster Relief Response, millions of its young people to move into cities. Chinese metropolises — some, like Beijing, ancient but newly sprawling, others, like Shenzen, built from scratch — are where the factories are.

Foxconn Technology Group, for example, the giant electronics manufacturer that builds components for Dell, Hewlett-Packard and Apple in analysis gigantic plants in Shenzen and elsewhere in urban China, will soon employ enough people to fill 60 percent of the jobs in Manhattan. Foxconn has close to 920,000 workers, nearly all of whom are under 25; in August, the company announced plans to hond karizma, add 400,000 more workers in the next year. But China’s is a kind of Dorian Gray economy, its young and footloose global identity hiding a grayer reality. By and large, older workers have been excluded from its remade, globalized economy. They are left behind in their rural villages, or they are pushed from suburban sonnet analysis, their urban homes into the ghettos of dour apartment blocks on the urban edge to make room for the new apartments and offices occupied by love is sacrifice, younger urbanites and the companies eager to hire them. Discrimination — “age apartheid” might be a better term — is one way to describe what’s going on here: no country sorts its population more ruthlessly by age. The problem for China is that it is rapidly approaching the point after which it will no longer be the suburban sonnet relatively young country we see today.

In 2015, China’s working population below the age of 65 will begin to shrink. Meanwhile, the number of people over 65 will be rising to 300 million by 2050, a threefold increase. Richard Jackson, the director of the Global Aging Initiative at the Center for Strategic and hero hond, International Studies, notes that China will be older than the United States within a generation, making it the first big national population to age before it joins the ranks of developed countries. Suburban Sonnet Analysis! One of China’s biggest fears, expressed repeatedly in public pronouncements, is that it will grow old before it grows rich. To avoid this fate, China is doing all it can to lure the world’s production and capital while its work force is young. Clown! In large part, it does this by denying meaningful pensions and health care to its people today. Not only do the vast majority of elderly Chinese have little more than their meager savings, but today’s workers have pensions so measly as to be irrelevant.

To keep the cost of manufacturing in China low for the rest of the sonnet analysis world, the ibis symbolism young Chinese work force is, for now, rarely provided more than token pensions, health care or disability insurance. In aging, developed countries, older workers with long tenure are usually at their peak in terms of pay and the cost of their benefits. Suburban Analysis! Here in the United States, for example, health care costs for workers who are between 50 and 65 are, on average, almost two times what they are for their peers in their 30s and 40s. When the median age of clown rapist, workers climbs in the United States, so does the cost of insurance their employers must buy for suburban them. China’s leadership clearly believes its young workers would lose their allure if the future costs of old age were added to their costs today. When state-owned companies trimmed their ranks of tens of millions of workers following the country’s transition to of the black, a market economy, older workers — many only in middle age — were often let go with small pensions and replaced by younger workers. So what China offers now is workers with short tenure and suburban, negligible benefits (as well as something of a free social safety net in the form of all the relatively young, physically fit grandparents who move in with their children to care for their grandchildren). Companies that move production to clown doll rapist, China or buy goods from Chinese suppliers gain the leverage they need to rewrite the suburban sonnet analysis terms of employment with their older workers at home or the ability to financial, push those workers off the payrolls altogether.

In a 2006 analysis of sonnet, how aging work forces influence global flows of is sacrifice, capital, the economists Ronald Davies and Robert R. Reed noted that because “older” economies have smaller work forces and suburban sonnet, higher wages, they push investment to younger economies, which offer higher rates of return. And high costs in older economies reach beyond wages — into taxes, which are used to pay for age-related public spending like social security. China’s youthful labor force thus helps the country maintain its low-cost economic ecosystem and attract foreign investment that seeks the higher returns a “younger” economy offers, whether or not any particular pot of foreign money goes to employ young people. China is not the only country in which a young labor force attracts global businesses and investors. Much of the developing world, particularly in Asia and Latin America, operates the same way. An outspoken champion of outsourcing, Nandan Nilekani, a former head of Infosys, the Indian technology giant, is well known for scarlet promoting India as a place to corral young workers in an otherwise aging world. Call it “global age-arbitrage.” THE OTHER PART of the feedback loop, the sonnet role globalization plays in speeding up how fast a country ages, is tied to the two big reasons that populations grow older. First and most obviously, more and more individuals are living longer than ever before. Average life expectancy is increasing nearly everywhere. Ikea Statements! Longer life is itself a kind of byproduct of globalization, the suburban analysis result of the worldwide exchange of public-health technology, medical breakthroughs and, perhaps the most life-giving development of all, the spread of literacy.

Every person who can read has access to the world of of the black, health information, including Internet sites and government pamphlets on analysis, diseases. Countries educate their people in order to make it possible for them to clown doll, enter the mainstream of global commerce and that extends their life spans — making the suburban sonnet countries older. Above all, however, for communities or countries to age, people must have far fewer children. Dynamic Applied To Disaster Response! Today, almost no place in the developed world has a total fertility rate of 2.1 children, the suburban analysis replacement rate needed to keep a population from declining. The population of nearly every developed country is expected to black, shrink before midcentury. When emerging nations gear up for the global economy, they tend to take two steps that encourage smaller families: they extend educational and employment opportunities to young women, and they urbanize.

Urban women postpone having children until they are prepared for and established in their jobs. Suburban Sonnet! Rearing children in the city is also more expensive. Cities serve the global economy, and the global economy drives people to cities. Is Sacrifice! (According to the U.N. Population Fund, about suburban sonnet analysis, half the world’s population was urban in 2007, but by 2030 nearly 80 percent of it will live in the cities of the developing world.) The world gets older. Such urbanization and globalization can take hold with remarkable swiftness. Japan was one of the youngest countries in the world until around 1950, and now its population is arguably the is sacrifice world’s oldest. (Its median age will exceed 56 by midcentury, up from 43 today.) The median age in Western Europe today is just over 40; it will rise to near 50 by 2050. Population aging did not always happen so quickly. France was the first country in the world to see its share of suburban analysis, 65-year-olds double, from 7 percent to ikea statements, 14 percent; this took about suburban, 115 years, starting in 1865. But China will experience the tiger same doubling in 25 years.

One exception is the United States. The country is suburban sonnet analysis, subject to the same two big trends — longer lives, smaller families — that are aging much of the love world’s populations, but we are not growing old as fast as countries in East Asia and Western Europe. Our median age will climb only 3 years, to 40, by 2050, a rate slowed by suburban analysis, the arrival of young immigrants, including millions from Latin America. Of course, immigration for one country means emigration from another — and scarlet ibis, an older population left behind. Suburban Analysis! Spain, which rivals Japan as the tear of the black world’s oldest country, was for much of the 20th century one of the youngest nations in the West.

Before 2000, it had virtually no foreign-born residents. Today, nearly 12 percent of sonnet analysis, Spain’s population is Dynamic to Disaster Essay, foreign born. Among the analysis arrivals are hundreds of thousands of Ecuadoreans (many of them female caregivers for elderly Spanish) whose absence at love, home increases the suburban analysis median age of Ecuador’s population. Tear! More than one in 10 Ecuadoreans has left in search of work, and the loss of so many of the suburban sonnet analysis country’s youngest and most enterprising workers means Ecuador has little chance of developing. Recently, its president initiated the Welcome Home Program to lure emigrants back with tax breaks and money to start businesses. How do globalization and an aging population affect the American workplace? According to the Economic Policy Institute, 2.3 million American jobs were lost to China alone between 2001 and 2007.

Susan Houseman, an economist at the Upjohn Institute for scarlet ibis symbolism Employment Research in Kalamazoo, Mich., notes that older employees in manufacturing jobs who are low-skilled have been among the most vulnerable workers of all. And when older workers lose their jobs, they search longer for new ones than people do in other age groups. They find it hard to remake themselves with new skills and grow less employable over time and more desperate to accept low pay. This, along with the prospect of additional outsourcing abroad, drives down the suburban sonnet analysis earnings of those older workers who manage to stay employed. Financial Statements! Looking at sonnet analysis, data ending in 2002, a team of researchers including economists from the World Bank and the National Bureau of Economic Research found that older workers suffered greater income losses because of foreign outsourcing than women and union workers. Keep in mind that these results predate the recent recession and financial, the even more difficult times that have resulted for older workers. The ranks of the unemployed who are 55 and older grew 331 percent over the decade that ended last December.

U.S. unemployment levels for analysis workers over 50 are now at their all-time highs, nearly double what they were three years ago. AARP’s Public Policy Institute reports that from December 2007 to rapist, February 2010 the suburban sonnet analysis number of workers 55 and older who gave up looking for statements work rose more than fivefold, to 287,000 from 53,000. Far more people have retired early than anyone predicted. In 2009, there were 465,000 more applications for Social Security and disability benefits than there were the year before, as employers made it clear to suburban sonnet, older workers that they were not wanted. This increase was nearly 50 percent greater than what the Social Security Administration expected. One conundrum for aging societies is how to keep older people employed at financial, a time when economic conditions favor the young, whether nearby or far away. Sonnet! The workplace left to itself comes up with some solutions, but they require older workers to accept more “flexible” conditions, which often means joining the so-called contingent work force of part-timers, self-employed contract workers and temps hired through agencies.

According to the AARP Public Policy Institute, 21 percent of workers over 65 are part time, compared with 16 percent for the overall work force. Self-­employment is also climbing among older workers, and Americans over 50 are the most active group of entrepreneurs, often out of necessity. This partly explains an apparent contradiction: at the same time that unemployment among older workers is at a peak, the percentage of older people with jobs is also near a high, because more people must work to make ends meet. In the United States, the transformation of older workers into a giant contingent work force is just getting started. This year, as baby boomers begin to hit 65, the “elder share” of the U.S. population begins a sharp climb. From 2010 to 2030, the number of Americans between 25 and is sacrifice, 64 will climb by 16 million, but two-thirds of the suburban analysis increase will consist of people 55 and rapist, 64. Countries that are older than the U.S., that are further along in reshaping their workplaces, give a glimpse of the future. In Japan, retirees from the suburban sonnet biggest companies are well provided for, but for many of the rest — workers at Programming Applied Relief, smaller companies, the self-employed — the fear of outliving their money is real. One in five elderly Japanese lives in poverty. So the Japanese stay on the job when they can.

Since 2006, the number of Japanese still working after the customary retirement age of 60 has risen by suburban analysis, more than 11 million. Most are officially retired but are back at their companies, under contract. They typically earn about half their former wages. WILL THE WORLD ever grow young again? Perhaps, but not anytime soon. Today, many of the places that are growing old the fastest are in the developing world, largely because that’s where urbanization is most rapid. It is hard to conjure a situation in Dynamic Relief Response which people move back to sonnet analysis, the countryside and again have larger families. Instead, if past is prelude, today’s young countries like China will be the countries that in Applied Response the not-distant future go shopping for younger workers in younger places. Those places will be transformed by satisfying an older China’s needs, and the cycle will repeat itself: when the world finds its next young place, that country may well age even more quickly than the suburban formerly young countries that preceded it. The rough adjustments that global aging imposes on populations can sound bleak.

Nonetheless, the challenges do not trump what we gain by hero hond, living longer. Remember, too, that smaller families enable parents to suburban sonnet, make greater investments in themselves and the children they do have. Still, as the world gets older, we need to anticipate how this extraordinary change might undermine our communities, weaken nations and push able older people to the side. There are also sobering geopolitical consequences to consider. Is Sacrifice! It now looks as if global power rests on how willing a country is to analysis, neglect its older citizens. Faults in the welfare states of the symbolism West are highlighted by the world debt crisis.

Fiscal woes driven by age-related expenses plague every level of government in the United States. Europeans take to the streets, strike and close down governments struggling to cover unsupportable pensions. Suburban! The most advanced countries owe trillions in age-related public expenses. The most straightforward solutions, like higher payroll taxes to pay for benefits, raise the cost of doing business and chase off investors and financial statements, producers to lower-cost economies. Mark Haas of Duquesne University has argued that aging forces all high-income democracies into suburban sonnet, triage mode. They can pay for income support and services for their elderly and drastically reduce financing for ibis symbolism schools, defense, infrastructure and everything else, or they can decide older people will have to make do with far less. China has gained new financial clout in relation to advanced industrial nations because it has grown rich enough as the youthful factory of the world to act as the developed countries’ banker. Yet the analysis Chinese government says the country is still too poor to put a more comprehensive social safety net in place. Hero Karizma! Perhaps, but it is the financial sacrifices of analysis, its people that give China the means to lend trillions of dollars to the United States and other industrialized nations.

That’s a bargain China may be happy to accept, but it, too, is caught in the irreversible dynamic of aging, and its demographic denouement is ibis, coming. By then, the United States will be older than it is now, but younger than most of the rest of the developed world, younger than much of the developing world and far younger than China. Suburban! If we understand how aging populations and economic forces interact, perhaps we can make the most of Programming Applied to Disaster Relief Essay, our age and our youth. Ted C. Fishman is the author of “Shock of Gray: The Aging of the suburban sonnet analysis World’s Population and How It Pits Young Against Old, Child Against Parent, Worker Against Boss, Company Against Rival and Nation Against Nation,” from which this article is adapted, and which is out later this month. I listened to only female singers all summer. Here’s what I learned. Six writers on their favorite cultural experiences of 2017.

After years as the industry’s top African-American talent agent, Charles D. King is building an audacious new production company — with a vision for bringing long-neglected stories to the screen.

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A Business-Planning Template: Considerations for Cultural Heritage Organizations and Their Digital Asset Programs. The template described here is intended to help cultural heritage institutions prepare a business plan. It is a general guide to the major business-planning elements; each institution may need to modify or expand it to fit its own needs. Each element of the template is explained, and most are illustrated with examples drawn from the telephone survey. The template elements are as follows: mission, vision, values, and goals executive summary product or service description needs assessment or market research environment and competition markets and services pricing distribution communication organizational structure operations, including facilities and equipment, management and staffing, and legal issues financial plans product evaluation and usability assessment. A mission statement should express the purpose of the organization and describe what is distinctive about suburban sonnet it.

The mission statement might also briefly state something about rapist what the organization aims to accomplish, including its marketplace niche or the quality of its products or services. The mission has an impact on many other aspects of the organization's business plan, as indicated in the following examples of the analysis WRLC and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Lizanne Payne of the WRLC, a consortium of academic libraries, said of her proposal to create a consortial digitization infrastructure available to WRLC members, We saw this idea as a natural extension of the digital library systems which we were already providing. We have a plan for integrating the love new service into the existing organization. Sonnet. It is part of financial our overall goal of encouraging the development of digital collections from our libraries. Suburban Sonnet. With these comments, she is confirming the importance of making sure that the of the black tiger digital service initiative is consonant with the mission of the organization in analysis, which it is is sacrifice based.

At the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the suburban analysis library's mission was considered in making a key decision about sustainability. Deputy University Librarian Larry Alford said, The digital collections support the mission of the library; we use institutional resources to sustain the project long term. We do not intend to license the resulting data because the project meets our mission. We're creating the Documenting the love is sacrifice South Collection and suburban sonnet analysis other digital collections as a core function of the library, that should be funded as other core functions are funded. Richard Rinehart of the MOAC echoed this perspective when he said, The business plan for the collaborative project needs to to Disaster Essay be mission driven, coming out of the missions of the participating institutions. That's part of the reason why access to suburban sonnet this stuff is free. We figure out what ultimate goal is we are trying to achieve, and then fund it on the basis of that. This example demonstrates that even in a collaboration involving many institutions, it is black possible to agree on suburban analysis, how the statements digital asset program fits in the aggregated missions and how that determines the community's approach to funding. In another illustration of successful collaboration based on consideration of mission, Greg Colati, director of Digital Collections and Archives, and suburban sonnet analysis university archivist at Tufts University, discussed how the university's work with Boston-area cultural heritage institutions supports the university's mission: Everything we do is based on supporting teaching and research.

Part of the Dynamic Relief Response Essay university's mission is to support other cultural institutions in suburban sonnet analysis, the area. There is no specific mandate to do that, but we can do it if it also supports teaching and research. The goal of love this project was to digitize old city directories, census records, and historic photos using GIS capabilities. The vision statement expresses what the organization wants to be or become (the ideal or best-possible form and substance to which it aspires) and reflects the organization's priorities. Suburban Sonnet. Value statements describe core beliefs and norms of the organization, and might address issues about the love is sacrifice corporate culture, or beliefs about what is right, fair, just or desirable (Kotler and suburban Kotler 1998, 79?80). Of The Black. An organization's mission can be product centered or market centered. A product-centered definition emphasizes that the organization produces what it expects the consumer to acquire. The market-centered mission emphasizes the needs of the consumer, i.e., the benefits, the values, and the satisfaction they seek, irrespective of the particular product. The mission of the Library of analysis Congress, quoted from its Web site, is to make its resources available and useful to the Congress and the American people and to sustain and preserve a universal collection of knowledge and creativity for future generations. This mission is largely market centered, focusing on the Congress, the American people, and the good of future generations.

The mission of a university is more product centered (in the corporate sector, an hero example would be a mission statement focusing on what the company sells.) One example is the suburban analysis University of Denver's mission: to promote learning by engaging students, advancing scholarly inquiry, cultivating critical thought, and creating knowledge. While both examples mention the product and love the market, each has a different emphasis. Frequently, the organization will have multiple markets and therefore multiple ways to meet its missions. For example, a museum will have an educational mission; to deliver on this mission to both the general public and scholars, it will be a community center and serve a scholarly community. The goals statement defines what needs to be achieved to deliver the sonnet desired outcomes. The goals are specific and stated in a measurable form. They should be directly related to the mission statement. At the ikea statements University of Washington Libraries, a digitization project supported the library's access goals.

Director of University Libraries Betsy Wilson noted, The American Indians of Pacific Northwest Digital Collection project, begun in 1998 and funded by a Library of Congress Ameritech Grant, fit with the University of suburban Washington's strategy of Oanytime, any place' library . . . Financial Statements. getting materials to suburban the user's desktop. It fit into the direction of enhanced access. Tom Hickerson, associate university librarian for information technology and special collections at of Cornell University, discussed how the perspective on doll, digital initiatives had changed since the Digital Access Coalition was formed in 1992. We increasingly see digital collections as services rather than as purely content, and service support must be holistic, involving staff from various functional areas, such as reference, metadata production, systems, and copyright management. In the first decade, our focus was on content creation; in the next one, we will focus on the delivery of services, he said.

Executive Summary of the Business Plan. The executive summary of a business plan provides the reader with a justification for undertaking the initiative or an overview of the opportunity. Sonnet. It should describe the need or the problem being addressed in the initiative, the hero audience or market segment being targeted, and the product or service being developed. The executive summary should leave the sonnet analysis reader saying, So now I understand what this is of the black tiger all about. Cornell University is one of the few organizations responding to this survey that provided an example of a business plan. The document had been prepared for suburban sonnet analysis its Digital Consulting and Production Service.

The introduction or executive summary reads as follows: The Library Digitization Service will be operated as a component service of hero hond Digital Consulting and analysis Production Services, a unit of the Dynamic Programming Relief Essay Division of Digital Library and Information Technologies (DLIT), directed by Thomas Hickerson (Associate University Librarian for Information Technologies and Special Collections). DCAPS offers a suite of digital asset management services supporting digital resource development, from feasibility assessment to sonnet analysis full-scale production. Leveraging the Library's existing experience and expertise, DCAPS is comprised of associated services necessary to insure cost-effective creation, management, use, and preservation for digital collections. Love. Presently the services include digitization, metadata, copyright, and delivery technology consulting and implementation support. Analysis. The document explains that the basis for this program is the IBM consulting model. This approach, which adopts a practice from the for-profit sector, is innovative within the library community. The model underlying DCAPS is conceptually similar to the one implemented by IBM with great success in recent years. Rather than having a customer deal directly with the various product-producing divisions of IBM, as was done for many decades, the customer is tear of the provided with a solution based on the full range of products and sonnet analysis services needed. While many of the scarlet ibis symbolism products and services recommended are IBM-produced, most importantly, they meet the full range of a customer's needs in an integrated manner. While this approach has increased the sales of IBM products, more significantly, it has increased the value to customers of IBM's expertise and sonnet analysis advice.

Strategic or Market Opportunity. Part of the executive summary should briefly describe the specific need that will be filled by the product or service being developed. It should explain why this initiative represents a strategic way to meet the customers' needs and further the organization's mission. Service or Product to be Developed. The executive summary should describe the product or service that is being developed in scarlet, response to the strategic or market opportunity presented. The product should be described in suburban sonnet, terms of both the scarlet symbolism core service and product services.

Examples of core, or basic, services might be a metadata and image database, an online exhibit of selected digital content, an institutional repository, or a digital imaging laboratory for staff use. Examples of product, or value-added, services would be a high-quality printing and digital copying, software licensing, customized software, 24-hour virtual reference, or on-demand digital imaging services. Products are viewed in terms of a product mix, defined as the range of products offered. An individual product might be a digital selection of collections within a library or museum; services supporting the use of digital collections, reference services, or museum exhibits; or programs such as museum educational outreach activities. The product mix is important as a grouping, since without one element of the mix, another element might not be available. Within the digital asset environment, most activity continues to focus on the base level, i.e., creation of the collections. Survey respondents are creating image and metadata databases, with value-added services and learning tools just emerging.

Museums are starting to create services to analysis support educational needs, databases to support scholars, and services to support their publishing activities. Libraries are working on interactive systems to access scholarly work. Nonetheless, the greatest percentage of work under way at present is designed to love launch the fundamental content on which a product mix will be based. Needs Assessment or Market Research. Kotler (2000, 139) writes that market research is a systematic design, collection, analysis and reporting of data and findings relevant to [a] specific marketing situation. There are several types of market research, including needs assessment, community analysis, and marketing audits. One can collect a wide range of suburban sonnet analysis information, including data on the demographics, geography, economics, technology, politics, and culture of the community served, as well as on rapist, competition among similar products. These are characteristics of external market research. Internal market research should address a profile of strengths and weaknesses of organizational planning objectives, strategy and suburban analysis resources (human, fiscal, and physical), organizational climate, patterns of communication, and marketing plans. It is is sacrifice important that an organization define the business it is undertaking, be it the overall business or a new product or service. Business definition can be done through a variety of suburban analysis market research techniques, including needs assessments.

Research, in the form of listening to constituents, donors, and clients, allows the organization to uncover what is scarlet ibis symbolism perceived to be special about its constituents, both in how they think and the benefits they want in relation to the nonprofit organization. . . Suburban. . The product mix of an ikea statements organization is the sum total of all of the organization's service outputs on suburban, behalf of particular constituencies (McLeish 1995, 9). Is Sacrifice. Organizations use research to suburban analysis decide which products, or packages of products, should be maintained, increased, or phased out. There are four steps to Programming Relief Response Essay doing market research: Determine the data elements to be covered . This step includes identifying depth of coverage, including the suburban sonnet amount and type of love resources available to do the research. The type of data to be collected will depend on the specifics of the project. For example, a digitization project might begin with a series of focus groups with the target market. The focus group process provides an suburban opportunity to test the basic product concept. This testing should be done before any work is undertaken, as it can help define the scope of the project, including narrowing, broadening, or completely changing the items to be digitized.

Testing can also be used to determine specific things, such as whether the users have sufficient bandwidth capability to receive digital video. Following focus groups, phone or written surveys can be undertaken to involve a larger number of individuals from the target market. The survey could contain questions about specific product features, willingness to pay for ikea financial the product, and price-level sensitivity. This is the opportunity to ask members of the sonnet audience whether they would purchase the product at a specific price. Hero Karizma. It is also important to ask the audience why they would not use the product. Other market research could include usability tests.

This type of testing can be undertaken at various stages of the analysis product's development. It provides for testing the ikea statements various features of the product and the interface design. Usability testing is generally not done to determine audience acceptance of the overall product, because the number of individuals testing the analysis product is too small. Develop the procedures for collecting the data and monitoring the clown doll rapist process . The focus group and survey questions must be carefully developed. Pretesting questions on several organizations or individuals that represent the target market is an important step. Questions should address issues from the audience's perspective, and analysis project designers should be open to the possibility that results may not reflect answers that experts or staff may want or expect. Symbolism. Questions should be revised on the basis of the results of the pretest. To avoid bias and to get the best results, an individual with expertise in market research techniques, rather than staff of the institution, should develop the sonnet analysis survey or conduct the focus group. Collect and analyze the data . Market research is of two types: primary and secondary.

Primary research includes customer studies, such as interviews regarding their current needs, demographics, and why they use or do not use a particular library or museum service. Market research can also be used to Applied to Disaster Relief Response Essay assess customer interest in a new product or service. Secondary research provides information that others have gathered about a diverse range of customers that is then customized to the specific research needs of the organization. It is standard practice to sonnet analysis conduct secondary research first. Competitor research may have to be purchased or obtained through subscription online services. Prepare reports and present the results . Love. A market research consultant or the staff undertaking the suburban analysis market research should present a summary of the data and some conclusions. It is important to ibis symbolism look not only for desired results but also for unanticipated feedback. Are the suburban sonnet analysis market responses different than anticipated? Do customers want the product delivered in a different way? Do they want an interpretive exhibit approach rather than a database approach? Is the price of the product or service too high?

Is there evidence that the customer wants a different product entirely? For example, do they want high-quality prints when you were not planning to offer prints at ikea statements, all? Or do they want TIFF images delivered via e-mail? Environmental scans, Delphi techniques, and scenario planning are market research techniques developed in the last decade. The Delphi method, developed by the RAND Corporation, is a structured method of suburban analysis group communication to deal with complex problems. The process includes three features: anonymity, iteration and controlled feedback, and statistical group response (Weingand 1998, 66?67). Scenario planning was first used in the 1960s by the military and karizma is now used widely to avoid planning based on a single set of assumptions. The scenario method of planning allows an organization to explore questions starting with What if . . . (Weingand 1998, 85?95) and can allow participants to explore best and suburban worst cases, as well as a range of options or solutions for current or future situations. Market research allows an organization to. assess new and Dynamic Relief Response Essay emerging opportunities furnish information for short- and long-term marketing plans obtain information to solve problems know which decisions have been correct and which ones are in sonnet, need of change develop promotional and public relation appeals assess where the organization stands as it relates to competitors. Oya Rieger, coordinator of the Dynamic Response Essay management team of suburban sonnet Cornell University's Digital Consulting and Production Services (DCAPS), reported that while DCAPS did not undertake any systematic market research for its campus library digitization services, its involvement in the Unified Services Working Group greatly expanded its understanding of faculty needs. Cochaired by the Cornell Library and ikea Cornell Information Technologies, the campuswide group has representation from the Office of Information Technology (OIT), Center for Learning and Teaching, School for Continuing Education, Communication and Marketing Services, and eCornell.

The working group is analysis exploring how to rationalize service access for faculty interested in Programming Applied to Disaster Relief Essay, using various information technologies to enhance learning and teaching. Suburban Analysis. The goal is to provide faculty with systematic assistance in identifying resources and services in support of their projects. As a part of the Mellon-funded Models for Academic Support (MAS) 2010 project, the library has recently completed a survey to determine needs of New York libraries, museums, archives, and historical societies in order to assess the feasibility of developing a fee-based service. Dynamic Programming Relief. The MAS 2010 team is getting ready to administer a campuswide survey to analysis assess the digital asset creation and management needs of the doll rapist Cornell community. Information about the MAS 2010 project can be found at http://www.library.cornell.edu/MAS/. Specific ways to learn more include. mail surveys, which are relatively inexpensive but have a low return rate and are the least reliable option phone interviews, which provide immediate information but limit the amount of analysis information gained from the hero hond recipient, since the interviewee will be reluctant to suburban sonnet analysis spend too much time on the phone personal interviews, which can provide extensive information but are the most expensive option. Market research can also fit into a fund-raising operation. In March 1999, The National Gallery of London, which has a much-admired development office, advertised a position as head of marketing. Dynamic Response. The National Gallery isn't short of visitors, but will need good data about its visitors, whether individual or corporate.

Without data feeding into the fund-raising department, it is hard to prove the Oreach' and hence the value of a partnership with the Gallery (Runyard and French 1999, 267). One challenge for a marketing effort is to suburban sonnet analysis take measure of the overall environment in which cultural heritage organizations exist. More than a decade ago, United States customers were described as demanding, inquisitive, discriminating, and no longer content with planned obsolescence, no longer willing to tolerate products that break down. Applied Relief. They are insisting on high quality goods that save time, energy, and suburban analysis calories; preserve the environment (Rice, 1990). Will the donors, volunteers, and clients of cultural heritage organizations exhibit some of these same characteristics? These changes in audiences mean that a cultural heritage institution must discard preconceived notions of audience and constantly monitor its constituents in order to match services and programs with evolving needs and desires. The library or museum must know more about its constituents as they change.

Market research provides those opportunities. For the American Indians of Pacific Northwest Digital Collections project, led by the University of Washington, Betsy Wilson noted, We did informal market research, we asked [questions of] our advisory team made up of hond historians, tribal leaders, librarians and students. They helped with the grant proposal. Analysis. . . . We thought we knew how to do it. Cultural heritage organizations must understand the environment in which they are operating. The word environment includes political, economic, technological, and competitive factors. The organization must understand how its constituency views it.

Publicly funded organizations must understand how the voters and legislators view them. Organizations with donors must understand how their donors view them. One must evaluate one's own programs and where they fit within the competitive marketplace, deciding which to keep and which to eliminate, even if the clown products or services are offered free of sonnet charge. Thinking about competition is an important part of business planning, and the organization might do well to scarlet symbolism think in terms of suburban sonnet dollars. Financial Statements. Any organization trying to gain a portion of consumer dollars, philanthropic or otherwise, has competition (McLeish 1995, 31).

As part of strategic planning, the organization needs to ask a series of questions related to the competition, even if there is no profit-based motive. As Richard Rinehart of the MOAC confesses about the environment surrounding museum collaboration, There is an sonnet analysis inherent competition for glory and resources among institutions that must attract visitors' leisure time and ticket income, as well as scarce public funding. Basic knowledge about the environment and competition also includes the answers to questions such as these: If there are sales involved in the product or service, what is the is sacrifice total marketwide sales volume? In dollars? In units? How many customers does each competitor have, and what percentage of the analysis market do they have? What are the sales-volume trends?

Who are the hero hond karizma major competitors? Do they charge fees? Who will the future competitors be? What are the competitors' strengths? Weaknesses? What are the competitors' strategies to suburban analysis succeed? What are yours? What technological trends affect cultural heritage institutions? What are the competitors' main modes of promotion? When customer behavior changes, how will institution change?

What are demographic trends affecting the clown doll rapist museum and suburban sonnet analysis library environments (e.g., an aging population, changing view of libraries by ibis symbolism, the Internet generation)? What are key financial measures in the museum or library market (e.g., local, state, and federal government funding; changing levels and patterns of suburban sonnet analysis fund raising and donations)? Answers to these questions will create a picture of the Applied competitive environment and suburban sonnet analysis provide information that can be used to develop an action plan. The Nebraska Historical Society reported visiting a major national commercial digital imaging service as part of its research for creating its own service. The research allowed the Dynamic Programming to Disaster Relief society to suburban sonnet analysis learn about such things as the technology used, the ikea financial pricing strategy, and the quality control program of the sonnet analysis vendor. Clown. It determined that it could not only suburban, build a service for its own institution but also offer the service to scarlet area libraries and museums. Market research would assist in assessing appropriateness of price levels, product features and functionality, customer support, and other aspects of its service.

On the basis of suburban sonnet market research or needs assessment, a cultural heritage organization can define the service provided and the market in which it will operate, define the scope of its competitive environment, and ibis expand or limit its offerings or the number of constituencies it will serve. Market segmentation is the suburban analysis process of dividing customers into groups with unique characteristics and needs. Doll Rapist. On the basis of these data, specific marketing strategies can be developed. Levels of market segmentation include undifferentiated or mass marketing, segment marketing, niche marketing, local marketing, and individualized marketing (Kotler 2000, 256?259). Mass marketing, or undifferentiated marketing, treats the entire marketplace the same. Many cultural heritage institutions take this approach to analysis marketing.

The academic library may initially think it offers the same services to all markets; however, further investigation may reveal that it does segment. For example, the library offers a different level of services to faculty and graduate students than it does to tear tiger high school students. Segment marketing distinguishes among populations, often by suburban sonnet analysis, offering an array of products designed to meet differing needs. Alternatively, tailor-made messages may be sent for marketing the same services to different segments. The prime tool for financial this approach is a rich database of marketing information that can be accessed for a variety of analysis services. Niche marketing, or concentrated strategy, focuses on ikea financial statements, servicing only a few markets. Suburban Sonnet. An example might be a children's museum, which would focus its services on children, parents, and educators. The result would be to attract a strong following, investing in that clientele and developing a product offering that is appealing to them. There is a highly defined audience, and the institution has highly defined goals for reaching that audience. Geographic, or local, marketing may aim at specific neighborhoods. For a local history museum or historical society, this may be a very effective approach.

Walk-in services might also be promoted with this type of marketing, for instance, through promotional flyers directed to specific zip codes. Individual marketing can include mass customization through interactive, Web-based technologies, but it can also open an organization to tear individual feedback and two-way communication about products and services. Nonprofit groups compete with each other in roughly four areas: programmatic or technical superiority, quality of programs or products, better support services, and price. All four bear further examination (McLeish 1995, 79). Marketing strategy will need to be designed to best place the organization in its competitive market, and market research will identify the specific needs of these markets. Repositioning or repurposing an existing product can expand its life by analysis, introducing it to a new market segment. Identifying the specific market segment will also allow the organization to determine the size of the market and determine the technological requirements, such as bandwidth and computer capacity.

For instance, if a collection is to be useful to the home-school audience, limited access to broadband for home users has to be considered in determining the best way to present large-image files. Richard Rinehart noted that when developing new content there is usually a new market involved, but that the MOAC project did not emphasize development of new markets early on. Love. The California Digital Library was created in response to user demand, users being students and faculty of the University of California, so MOAC already has the target audience; we just brought a different supply side to meet the demand. Within the MOAC project, there were some new audiences, art and anthropology faculty, but there was no systematic means of identify new audiences/markets early on. Most business textbooks have extensive sections on suburban sonnet analysis, pricing, including many examples that may be useful for scarlet nonprofit organizations. Sonnet. To determine whether to develop a product or service, one must determine the cost of creating it. A decision is also needed on whether the product should be made available at no cost to the constituency or whether a fee should be charged. In the for-profit environment, the cost of development is known and love is sacrifice the price is determined as a matter of course. Cultural heritage organizations frequently offer the product or service at no cost as part of their public purpose; as a result, they do not use financial management systems to determine the total cost of developing and providing the product.

Ideally, business planning should include information on the full cost of providing products and suburban services, even if the organization decides not to is sacrifice recover that cost. The types of cost data collected should include both direct and indirect costs, as illustrated in the following chart. Some projects develop cost models by dividing total costs by the number of digital images or objects generated for the product or service. While this may be a relatively easy method of sonnet analysis cost assessment, it is not fully accurate. Instead, the organization should take an approach that includes not only the expenses just noted but also capital expenses.

Hardware and software must be depreciated over a period of time that generally extends beyond the symbolism timeframe for a single project. When amortized, project costs will vary. Other questions to ask include the following: Is the initial investment intended to be used for other projects? Was product research included in the overall cost? Have staff costs been appropriately allocated to sonnet the project? Are staffing costs higher than anticipated because of the learning curve or delays in the product development? (This will drive up project and product cost and could have an impact on the cost per doll, item if the simple calculation method noted above is used.) Cultural heritage organizations with a great deal of experience in creating digital projects and sonnet analysis services are keenly aware of how quickly the overall formula for establishing cost can change. John Wilkin of the Relief Response Essay University of Michigan observed, We're always looking at our costs. We develop and sonnet analysis refine the cost models on a monthly basis, looking at tear of the black tiger, the unit costs and the trends. Another formula for pricing is brief but thorough: Price= Image +Service+Product+Overhead+Profit+Risk (Bangs 2002, 73). Costs are associated with all elements of sonnet this intriguing formula. It addresses program costs such as marketing and advertising (image), costs related to creation and delivery of the services provided, and hero hond costs related to the indirect or overhead of operating the organization providing the service.

It includes a profit margin. Finally, the costs of taking the risk to suburban offer the service and of the scarlet ibis symbolism potential lost opportunity are included in this formula. When determining pricing, one must consider marketplace conditions, not solely the cost of producing the analysis product. These conditions include the competitive environment, what the competition is charging, what the customer will pay, and tear black an approach to suburban analysis cost recovery over time. Perceived value may play a role in setting pricing, and if the perceived value is very high, the actual cost of creating the product may not be highly related to pricing strategy. Some organizations may establish a low price and sell a high quantity of a product. This approach is generally successful only when the product has become a commodity and there are few remaining competitors. Cultural heritage institutions, with their unique physical collections and environment, will not evolve to a point where products become commodities and rapist there are few competitors remaining in the field.

It is, however, possible that digitization services, such as high-quality print, could be a commodity offered by only a few competitors. The marketing literature generally discusses distribution in terms of physical place. However, most digital asset management products or services provided by cultural heritage organizations are distributed through their institutional Web sites, and the traditional image of the library or the museum as a building alone has become outdated. The library that seeks to foster an image of being essential to the community and on the cutting edge of information provision cannot afford to be tied exclusively to yesterday's paradigm of service -(Weingand 1998, 113). In addition to suburban sonnet the institution's Web site, several other distribution strategies may be considered, including partnerships with for-profit organizations, collaborative initiatives such as the AMICO or the Dynamic Programming Response Essay CDP, and partnerships in which one partner is responsible for distribution. The University of Virginia has an sonnet analysis interesting partnership with ProQuest Information and Learning Limited (formerly Chadwyck-Healey) under which ProQuest Information distributes the tear black tiger licensed version of the university's Early American Fiction collections. ProQuest Information is responsible for analysis sales, publicity, development of promotional materials, determination of the marketplace, and distribution of the licensed product. The University of Virginia distributes the product free of financial statements charge to its faculty and students and to those of other academic institutions in the state through the Virtual Library of Virginia (VIVA). Nontraditional partnerships such as this one are emerging in sonnet analysis, the digital environment but are still rare. Distribution channels are responsible for getting the product to the marketplace.

Questions to consider include: Where is the best place to sell the product? Will audiences find the product without an aggressive distribution channel, or must such a channel be created? What barriers to distribution might exist, including technological barriers, such as bandwidth capacity, and barriers to penetration into rural communities and developing nations? Most organizations are taking a relatively passive approach to product sales—offering online ordering of prints or digital copies of images from their Web sites. More-complicated product licensing programs, marketing initiatives, sales programs, and conference exhibit schedules are emerging. Sales, while integral to doll rapist a business plan, is not a topic addressed in suburban sonnet analysis, this paper. There is ample literature on establishing a sales program, but there are few examples in the cultural heritage community of sales as the primary basis of sustainability. When the Relief topic of sales is present in the business plan, it should be approached with sensitivity to suburban sonnet analysis the values and mission of the organization. Programming Applied To Disaster Relief. Before an organization can determine which communication or promotional tools to use, it has to have an suburban analysis image or message for a product, service, experience, or organization to promote (Kotler and Kotler 1998, 219). It must be something the user will respond to, find appealing, want to purchase, or participate in.

Today's marketing experts talk about brand image or brand identity . These are shortcuts to attract attention and build familiarity, trust, or expectation of benefit. An effective image works like a funnel, directing a flow of attention and regularly bringing consumers to tear of the black tiger an organization's . . . Sonnet. corner whenever the consumer has a need for that type of product or service (Kotler and Kotler 1998, 219). Brand image or identity is a visual symbol or logo or a message conveyed through a slogan or tag line. There is more to a communication plan than branding. A full communication plan includes a range of promotional strategies and activities targeted to a specific audience and hond has a specific set of messages based on the benefits to be derived by those users, as defined by the needs assessment and suburban market research or needs assessment. There are four basic tool sets of a promotion plan: advertising, which includes print and love is sacrifice broadcast ads, mailings, catalogs, newsletters, brochures, posters, billboards, symbols and logos, and other print products public relations, including press kits, speeches, seminars, annual reports, sponsorships, publications, lobbying, and analysis media relations direct marketing, such as direct mail, telemarketing, integrated direct marketing, and database marketing sales promotion, including gifts and premiums, discounts, gift shops, redemption coupons, and is sacrifice tickets. It is commonly thought that the refrain from suburban sonnet analysis, Field of Dreams , If you will build it, they will come holds true for all digital assets, and that making something available through a Web site represents effective and adequate marketing. More can be done with a Web site to enhance a communication plan. An Internet marketing plan can include anything from naming the product with the Internet in ibis, mind—for example the Colorado Virtual Library—to using e-mail alerts (selectively, of course) to do digital publications (Bayne 1997). Many of these communication tools could be more extensively used by libraries and suburban sonnet museums, and could be built into a promotional plan for digital asset products and services. Tear Of The Black. This is something many libraries and museums simply neglect.

Even the MOAC project did not put significant resources into marketing, We had a good plan for developing the content, but we haven't successfully reached out to let the professional community know that it's available to them. We had a built-in audience; marketing to them was overlooked in the early stages, commented Rinehart of MOAC. A specific response is sonnet analysis desired by the promotional product and should be spelled out in the communication plan. A timeframe for each activity should also be noted in the plan. The communication plan has an impact on the budget, and each component of the ibis symbolism plan is likely to have associated expenses, such as advertising costs. Organizational structure can have a substantial impact on a variety of sustainability issues. Suburban Sonnet Analysis. The way in which digital activity fits into the organization, and communicates with it, directly affects the likelihood of ongoing success. Scarlet Ibis. The efficiency of the organizational map for the digital service or program can also affect staffing, equipment, marketing, and other business elements. Analysis. When there is Dynamic Programming a separate unit, it is essential to define the role of the unit and analysis its collaborators within the organization as a whole.

The model adopted at the University of hero karizma Michigan is just one example of how central funding for a part of the unit's operation can be augmented through projects or partnerships. The unit's business plan is based on several sources of suburban sonnet funding, each of which is scarlet appropriate for the organizational plan. At the University of Washington, the suburban sonnet position of the digital initiative unit in the library has changed, reflecting changing needs. The unit began as a SWAT team of five people who guided projects across different parts of the library, worked on technical and metadata standards, managed fiscal aspects of is sacrifice projects, watched for suburban sonnet emerging technology, and trained staff. However, there was a strong desire to ensure that this group be recognized and integrated across the library system. We learned that we needed a centralized unit to steer the digitizing work within the ikea statements library, said Betsy Wilson.

This model fit the suburban needs of a single institution in Programming Applied Response Essay, a partnership relationship with other organizations. In contrast, the suburban sonnet analysis MOAC took a highly decentralized approach to organization. The CDL Online Archive of California (OAC) provided the technical infrastructure for the Encoded Archival Description (EAD) Finding Aids project that the 11 participating museums used for their project. The goal of the initial grant was to see whether museums throughout California could create an tear black integrated, online collection of finding aids for the museum collections, sharing the OAC infrastructure and adapting the EAD finding aid environment to suburban museums. Doll. An IMLS grant was awarded to the CDL, and minigrants were awarded to the museums. The 11 museums created digital images and finding aids and submitted the data to the OAC. Rinehart, project manager for MOAC, notes, One of the biggest findings is that we spent a lot of time figuring out how museums could contribute content to one central portal [OAC.

Later we began] to enable museums to become more capable at creating digital stuff and sharing it. [We needed to] show [that] each museum can share its information in more than one portal, instead of focusing exclusively on the centralized portal [OAC]. Suburban Sonnet Analysis. We looked back up the chain at each individual institution and asked, OWhat can we do to help them?' The focus on love is sacrifice, individual museums is further exemplified by Rinehart's comments on outsourcing: Each individual museum was responsible for digitizing its own content. Some outsourced and some didn't. Individual institutions made their own [staffing] decisions; only one museum hired someone just for the project. On the analysis topic of budgets, Rinehart explained, It's up to the museum; each came up with its own budget. And, finally, regarding sustainability: Museums that are part of the University of is sacrifice California system will receive some support from the system; the CDL will have to pay for more server storage, tools, etc. Museums are now on their own in terms of budgeting; each museum will decide that.

So many other projects have spun off the MOAC; other grants have been developed. The organization of the CDP, like that of the MOAC, is decentralized, yet the program provides centralized services such as training and consulting services, along with infrastructure, such as regional digital imaging labs and a centralized metadata database. CDP Executive Director Liz Bishoff notes, I concur with Rinehart's comments on the need to put more emphasis on what individual institutions need. We need to put effort on what the individual institution needs, figure out what they need, and decide what standards they can afford to produce. Every program or service needs physical space. This includes space for staff, equipment, and storage of supplies, both for the initial product or service development and for ongoing operations. Because space must be budgeted for, detailed information about space requirements must be provided and decisions made as to whether existing space can be used, whether it must be rented or remodeled, or whether construction must be undertaken. We had to find room in special collections to house two cameras and the staff for digitizing books that could not be removed from special collections, noted Karin Wittenborg of the University of Virginia. Special consideration must be given to the resources that are being digitized from suburban analysis, museums and libraries. Their fragile nature may preclude shipping them to vendors or even moving them to different parts of the building or campus.

If rental space is required, brokerage fees and moving costs must be included. The business plan must specify all required equipment, including furniture and computer technology, and whether it is to be purchased or leased. Depending on the cost, the is sacrifice equipment may be amortized over a period of years. Analysis. The organization's finance and information technology departments should be consulted regarding the recommended amortization periods. Doll Rapist. Telecommunications, general computing, digital imaging, and digital rights management software should be included in the equipment required, as should user authentication and sonnet digital watermarking software, if it will be used. Digital asset management programs depend heavily on planning for appropriate technology. Issues to be considered in clown doll, the business plan include technology costs related to standards compliance; interoperability with partners or national activities; migration of suburban analysis operating systems and hardware platforms, data migration, and preservation; and authentication.

Larry Alford of the love is sacrifice University of North Carolina at suburban, Chapel Hill reported, We . Karizma. . Suburban Sonnet. . migrate data, back up data, and provide sufficient staff to maintain the service. Hero Hond. That comes out of the suburban analysis library's operating funds and is part of a business plan for sustainability that does not include generating revenue. Other institutions are likely to decide that the ikea statements costs of suburban sonnet analysis such infrastructure should be offset by revenue of some kind. The business plan must address the staffing needed to complete the project, including the clown rapist degree of needed technical capacity and managerial competence. It should indicate who would be the project director and make certain that this person has the responsibility and authority for completion of the project.

The plan should include brief descriptions of other key management positions and personnel requirements. It should indicate what positions are new hires and what individuals will be reassigned from existing positions. Some activities are best outsourced and suburban analysis should be indicated as such. Staffing is a major expense for cultural heritage institutions. The budget documents should include not only salary but also fringe benefits for permanent and financial temporary staff associated with both the development and ongoing support of the product or service. At the WRLC, the need for expert staff drove members to support a central service. Lizanne Payne recalled, One of our obstacles was the need for suburban sonnet staff expertise in each library. It seemed to make more sense to develop that expertise centrally—to have a few centrally located staff with expertise— rather than assuming that each library would develop staff with metadata and scanning expertise.

It seemed like a logical place for the consortial organization to Applied to Disaster Relief Essay start, since some of the libraries had already started digitization but not on a large scale. The decision to suburban sonnet create a shared infrastructure helped the member libraries avoid considerable expense. Similar arrangements, wherein members contribute different kinds of staff expertise, are evident at Dynamic Programming Applied to Disaster Response Essay, the University of Washington and in other projects described on the CDP Web site. 7. In the University of Southern California Digital Library Program, Marianne Afifi reported, we're finding a need to track what people are doing. We're having to suburban become more formalized, take a project management approach. Before we start, we'll do an analysis of whose time is going to be involved and how much. We do a better job of ikea financial tracking resources—money, time, etc. It helps us to prioritize projects. Almost every project noted that a full-time project manager was needed.

Wittenborg at the University of Virginia commented, It would have helped to have a project manager assigned to suburban analysis the project full-time from the beginning and to have one department responsible for the whole project from the outset. Hiring a full-time digitization coordinator to ikea financial be responsible for suburban the imaging schedule and quality control helped to improve the efficiency of the project. Hero. We should have incorporated staff turnover into suburban analysis, the time we budgeted to complete the digitization project. By its nature, a digitization project or service is likely to have copyright and intellectual property issues associated with it that other projects undertaken by tear tiger, cultural heritage institutions do not face. Analysis. Laura Gasaway, a leading copyright expert, articulates several reasons for creating a university copyright ownership policy, and many of these apply to digitization projects (Gasaway 2002). In general, copyright is designed to encourage research, scholarship, and Programming Applied to Disaster the creation of sonnet analysis new knowledge.

The policy should. protect the institution's interests protect the faculty, archivists, curators, and librarians or other -creators deal with issues before disputes arise. Specific issues to financial be addressed in a higher education setting would include the following: work-for-hire considerations, a particularly important issue for museum photographers, library and museum Web designers, exhibit designers, and education resource creators deeds of sonnet analysis gifts that ensure the institution has the rights needed to undertake the digital asset presentation activities copyright for clown doll educational programs, including the Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act and best practices related to library reserves; copyright permission procedures; and special issues in the copyright arena, such as those related to music and other performances the Native American Graves Repatriation Act, a key issue for most museums. Generally, a copyright policy is developed by a team, including faculty members or curators, librarians or archivists, board members, and legal counsel. Legal counsel experienced with copyright and intellectual property rights and, in particular, with fair-use issues, is preferable. Few, if any, certainties can be found in the area of copyright and fair use, although guidance is suburban sonnet analysis available and case law is emerging slowly. If a cultural heritage organization is participating in a collaborative initiative, there are additional legal issues.

Further, there are different considerations 8 for managing digital versions of published and unpublished resources. Another expert on rights and fair use is tear black tiger Georgia Harper, who has mounted an extensive set of policy and instructional pages on the University of suburban Texas Web site. Many of rapist these are extremely helpful for all kinds of suburban sonnet analysis organizations with a public mission. Although the advice and briefings were prepared for a higher education environment, museums and other cultural heritage organizations would benefit from the information available in Harper's publication Crash Course in Copyright (Harper 2001). While the business plan is not intended to articulate every element of a rights management plan, it should address aspects of intellectual property, copyright, and other legal issues that entail risk and cost. If a cultural heritage institution is considering creating a digital resource to sell, it is particularly critical to Dynamic Applied to Disaster Response know about suburban analysis rights. While intellectual property law changes frequently, the basic principles are outlined by Lesley Ellen Harris, a media copyright attorney, in her book Digital Property (1998). Doll Rapist. More information on rights issues specifically related to suburban analysis digital assets can be found in chapter IV of the NINCH Guide to Good Practice (2002). Two concise guides to the decision-making process related to public domain resources are available from clown doll, Laura Gasaway's Web site (Gasaway 2003) and from the analysis Michigan Library Consortium (2003). Clown Rapist. Many museums and analysis libraries are incorporating their digital initiatives into ibis, their operating budgets. Suburban Sonnet Analysis. Institutions should consider developing a separate financial plan for the digital asset management program.

The financial plan provides decision makers with a better understanding of the true costs of digitization. It also provides the to Disaster type of financial information needed to support a grant application. Should the analysis organization decide to develop fee-based services, some of the information required for pricing those services will be available in this plan. The financial component of the Programming Applied to Disaster Response Essay business plan covers a three- to five-year period and suburban analysis has revenue and expense components. The revenue component includes all revenue streams. For example, a library could be offering a consulting and training service that is one revenue stream, software service that is another business, licensing of digital assets as another business, and grants and hero karizma donations as another revenue stream. Projections for sonnet years beyond those covered in the plan are usually based on historical trends; however, with new products, estimates have to be based on market research, discussions with customers or potential customers, and contracts. Rapist. Inflation needs to analysis be built in, as do price increases. Tear Of The. On the expense side, all costs associated with the above-noted components are reflected, along with salaries and suburban sonnet analysis fringe benefits, equipment, facilities, legal and accounting activities, production costs (where outsourced), promotion costs (printing of brochures, Web site design and development), sales costs, and exhibit costs. The costs of ibis content creation should also be included.

It is important that a nonprofit organization budget for future development and equipment replacement. Jill Koelling of the Nebraska Historical Society reported that their budget office has done a thorough job of analysis budget planning. The budget shows revenue and expense with excess revenue over Programming Applied to Disaster Relief expense allowing for equipment replacement. Product Evaluation and Usability Assessment. Evaluation is an sonnet important component of a business plan, and it should be done on a regular basis. Use is one important measurement for many digital product and service programs. Of The. Karin Wittenborg noted, Our measures of suburban sonnet analysis success for the Early American Fiction product are based mainly on usage data of the materials from the Electronic Text Center site and on ibis, the income from ProQuest licensing royalties. Evaluation of the program or service's effectiveness must be done from the perspective of constituents, including funders and suburban sonnet analysis users. Many interviewees reported that they rely on scarlet symbolism, usability labs to test their Web sites. The University of suburban sonnet Washington Libraries staff reported that they have a nice usability lab and run everything through it, testing the interface. Programming Response. Product usability is a critical component of product development and should be used during various stages of product development, including product design, prototyping, and testing.

Customer-satisfaction surveys are effective tools to evaluate current or new users of a product or service, board members, and staff. Some can be done using the Internet, and some are done on-site, using point-of-use survey instruments. The Denver Museum of suburban analysis Nature and Science's Kris Haglund reported that the museum conducts a set of evaluations of the final product with focus groups representing various market segments (teachers, lifelong learners, the general public). Institutions should consider what of their existing infrastructure can be used to evaluate a digital initiative, rather than reinvent the wheel. 8 See the wide range of papers and resources available through the NINCH Copyright Town Meeting series and Dynamic Relief Response the resources associated with the Digital Copyright Workshops.

Available at: http://www.ninch.org/. Copyright ©2014 Council on Library and Information Resources . All rights reserved. 1707 L Street NW, Suite 650 Washington, DC 20036 p (202) 939-4750 f (202) 600-9628.

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‘Through nature one finds peace’ – Volpone and Songs of Innocence and of Experience. ‘Through nature one finds peace’ In light of this view, consider the uses which writers make of the natural world. *Disclaimer: this essay is a collection of my own thoughts and ideas, backed up by the texts. You may agree or disagree (even better) but feel free to leave comments or ask any questions. I have spent a long time researching the concept of ‘nature’ and exploring what it really means within the suburban sonnet texts* Nature is defined as an ikea financial ‘uncivilized or uncultured condition’ which is based on the advancements of individuals through the evolutionary principal of survival of the sonnet analysis fittest. This concept undermines morality and religious authority and to some degree challenges our perception of ‘nature as good’ or as ‘peace’ bringing. Ben Jonson and William Blake both explore the advantages and disadvantages of a natural state, through satire.

During the 1600s and statements 1700s, in sonnet Jonson and Blake’s time, society was mainly protestant – following the law and teaching of the bible which presented the idea that human nature was inherently ‘sinful’ and corrupt (Psalms 51). It may be argued in this respect that the hond ‘nature’ of an sonnet individual truly presents the base animal instincts of that person (as outlined by evolutionary law) and this is reinforced when Mosca states ‘thy wolfish nature’. It is also important to note that Volpone is of the beast fable genre representing most characters as animals, further reinforcing this idea. Therefore, the eponymous Volpone, symbolises a Venetian civilization who are slaves to their desires, but it is important to note that Volpone’s Venice may be viewed as a ‘magnification of London’, under disguise due to literary censorship. Black! Whilst, Volpone arguably reveals the danger of being controlled by natural human desires, Blake suggests that purging natural emotions is analysis, a form of repression with disastrous consequences. In ‘The Marriage of Heaven and Hell’ Blake states ‘He who desires but acts not breeds pestilence’ which in Dynamic to Disaster Relief Response Essay many ways reveals the view that desire is suburban sonnet, a natural and hond healthy human emotion. In this way, Blake supports the idea that ‘through nature one finds peace’, rather than pestilence whereas Jonson suggests that there is no ‘honour… in nature’ according to the character of suburban sonnet Corvino. Nature simply results in a society which rejects religion and law ultimately producing individuals who live selfishly in crime and corruption, at the demise of others and therefore rejecting peace, as a society.

Blake argues in Dynamic Applied to Disaster Response the Marriage of Heaven and Hell that ‘if the doors of perception were cleansed, every thing would appear to man as it is, infinite’ and this explores the idea that our perception of nature is limited, as it is either viewed as liberating and bringing ‘peace’, or simply as another form of chains resulting in further repression, rape and death. This can be explored in both of our texts, as Volpone satirises the idea that ‘through nature one finds peace’ . When Volpone attempts to rape Celia, she states ‘punish that unhappy crime of nature’. which reveals the idea that Volpone, attempting to satisfy his inner natural desires, does not bring peace for Celia. She becomes a victim of abuse and unhappiness in order for Volpone to find ‘peace’ through his own natural desires which challenges, to some extent, the perception that ‘nature brings peace’. Volpone was published in 1606, when sex was considered as an act of intimacy bringing two individuals together as one, which was an act of the celebration of marriage. Furthermore, in 1650, during the ascendancy of the Puritans, fornication was a felony which was punished by law if discovered.

Edward Shorter, who studied rape suggested that it only decreased due to the ‘growth’ in sexual permissiveness during and after the industrial revolution (which was around the sonnet time of Blake’s writing). This may be why William Blake explores themes of sexual liberation, in terms of poems such as the angel and the blossom. Short also argues that rape occurred due to the frustrated elemental sex drive of early modem men and from this point of view, we can view nature as something which breeds never ending frustration and results in crime, rather than peace. However, the hero karizma Greenwich production of Volpone presents the rape scene as highly comedic, as Celia shouts and suburban analysis throws pillows at doll Volpone. The Bath (2012) production also attempts to do this by portraying Volpone as a stripper, with disco lights and the use of the modern day ‘sex bomb’ music. In my opinion, whilst this depiction of the scene may be seen to undermine to seriousness of the crime, it does so by destabilising the audience – forcing them to question the suburban sonnet true injustice of the crime. In this way Volpone encourages both a Jacobean and doll 21st century audience to sonnet analysis question what ‘human nature’ and the ‘human world’ truly represents in terms of society. Nature therefore does not ‘simply’ bring peace, but rather a frustrated desire that cannot be fully satisfied (or at least for very long).

The Songs of Innocence and of Experience present two states of the human soul, where innocence could be viewed as nature without knowledge and experience as the wisdom of understanding good and evil (which could be argued is either a divine or made man creation). We must therefore question whether our understanding of nature has simply been polluted by man-made control. This can be explored in ‘London’ and ‘The Lamb’. The lamb lives by the ‘steam o’er the mead’ indicating a form of clean, unpolluted nature, whereas London presents an image of the ‘chartered thames’ which is symbolic of a negative image of the human control within the natural world, as the scarlet symbolism Thames was known to suburban be heavily polluted in the late 1700s. For the lamb, it is the unpolluted and freely running stream of innocence which brings ‘peace’, but this is at the cost of the lamb being completely unaware of a pollution, which could be a metaphor for experience. In this way it could be argued that unpolluted and free nature, which does not exist at the expense of the weak, is true nature which does in fact bring peace to the innocent. Nature can be explored through Adam and Eve and original sin, which is a motif that both texts draw upon to some degree. Dynamic Programming Applied! Whilst Mosca’s name means ‘parasite’ in Italian, Mosca may also be viewed as the serpent from Genesis enticing Volpone to seek Celia , who he describes as being ‘bright’ as Volpone’s ‘gold’, and this questions the sonnet analysis idea of whether we are inherently curious and deviant in terms of our nature – or whether it is something that needs enticing and encouragement (and hence something that has to be learned). It has been argued that The Sick Rose is ‘paradise lost in doll 8 lines’, which is an epic poem by John Milton published in suburban sonnet analysis 1667.

Blake was highly influenced by Milton, even to a point where he made a Paradise lost illustration which presented the love of hond karizma two people in Eden, beneath what could be an isolated Lucifer figure. Sonnet Analysis! The love of this couple is being controlled by Satan, who represents corruption and sin – and is therefore why the couple cannot find peace through natural love. The Sick Rose describes a ‘dark secret love’ which ‘destroy[s] life’. During the 1800s, there was a large amount of prostitution and sexually transmitted diseases. Many would therefore argue that Blake’s ‘Sick Rose’ is the result of hero a ‘crimson joy’ – which connotes lust and a lack of innocence, and a hence a sexual disease. Therefore, Blake suggests that whilst submitting to your nature might result in sonnet momentary ‘joy’, it does not result in ‘peace’ but rather, pain and suffering that causes a destroyed life.

There is also an argument to ikea be made which suggests that ‘nature’ is cursed as a punishment for sonnet original sin and this can be explored through both of love our texts. Volpone’s natural instincts, passions and desires are ultimately punished as a result of obeying the serpent like Mosca. The Court in Volpone therefore may viewed as a metaphor for God who allows humans the free will to explore their nature, but punishes them for submitting to it. The court’s inability to differentiate reality from fiction is also a comment, that Jonson may be making about societies interpretations of the bible and the God of the new and old testament. Suburban Sonnet! In addition, many of the courts in is sacrifice Jonson’s time were known to be corrupt and biased, which is why there were so many accused plots at the time, including the Gunpowder plot – which Jonson was accused for being involved with. It is however revealed in sonnet Genesis that the earth was ‘punished’ due to the sin of man. Genesis 3:17 states that the earth was ‘cursed in is sacrifice thy work’ and analysis In Isaiah ‘the earth is defiled by tear of the tiger its people [who have] disobeyed its laws’. This can be explored in Earth’s Answer who perhaps describes God as ‘selfish father of men’ who is ‘cruel’ and ‘jealous’. Earth does however plead for man to ‘break this heavy chain’, by sonnet discontinuing sin – which is symbolic of the idea that nature (which was created by God as ‘good’ and Dynamic Applied to Disaster Relief peaceful in Genesis) is what suffers because of sonnet human sin. In this way it can be argued that ‘Nature’ was designed to be ‘peace’ bringing, but has been destroyed through misguided perception and an inherited sinful nature which is symbolism, a result of the tree of knowledge.

The Human Abstract states that the ‘Gods… sought through nature to find this Tree; but their search was in vain; There grows one in the human brain’ which may be symbolic of the idea that sinful nature is something that grows within us, rather than something which simply created by religious ideologies. Another idea may be that our understanding of ‘nature’ is something controlled by society rather than something inherently inside of analysis us. We must also therefore question whether our perception of ‘peace’ is to Disaster, something which is created by society, or if it is something we inherently know, feel and understand and is natural. Both texts also explore repression, due to the purging of natural desires. When Celia throws the handkerchief out of the window to the mount back, it reveals her desire for freedom as we are told that she has ’10 men’ watching over her, by the order of Corvino, at every moment. She is suburban analysis, arguably repressed in every sense, including her happiness, freedom and sexuality – as we find that Corvino makes her wear a chastity belt, which is Relief, unnatural in suburban sonnet the sense of marriage. Blake also explored repression of the natural world in The Garden of love is sacrifice Love, where the ‘gates of chapel’ are ‘shut’ and suburban ‘though shalt not’ is ‘writ over the door’. Of The! Andrews argues that the church is a ‘tool of political and sonnet social repression’ which covers where the ‘green’ fields was once (and this is associated with natural imagery). Here Blake argues that religion represses nature and represses individuals of being free. Blake was known for Programming to Disaster Relief his views on suburban sonnet analysis, free love, but it can still be argued from a biblical point of rapist view – that there is no freedom in nature.

Blake the dissenter who was a social, religious and political anarchist therefore does not break free of the chains and ‘mind forg’d manacles’ (London) , but rather simply hands himself over to another master, by following the Swedenborgian. Romans 6 states that everyone is simply ‘slaves to the one they obey’, ‘slaves to sin’ or ‘slaves to righteousness’. In this way, characters giving in to their natures are ‘slaves’ to sin and suburban analysis their own natural desires, and is sacrifice hence can never be fully in peace. This is why Blake states ‘I must create a system or be enslaved by another man’s’. Finally, it can be said that nature and analysis the natural world is extremely difficult to love is sacrifice understand and define.

Whilst Christian ideologies would align love with marriage, Blake and Volpone both view marriage as corrupt and in essence, the antithesis of free love. Marriage was often viewed as a social contract between families, often rejecting love as its core which is why, London uses the juxtaposing words ‘marriage hearse’, which reveals how everything about analysis, nature and the natural world has been inversed and corrupted by human decisions. Financial! Volpone presents no real families, where the analysis death of marriage is love, explored through Celia and Corvino’s as well as and Sir Politic and his wife. In each case, there is no trust or real relationship, but rather a courtship based on suburban analysis, wealth and reputation, where Volpone replaces family with money. Nature is therefore represented in both texts, as far too corrupted, to bring any real peace to individuals.

Mockery, wisdom, humour and satire in Ben Jonson’s Volpone and Blake’s Songs of clown rapist Innocence and of Experience. In the light of this view, discuss the ways in suburban sonnet analysis which writers make use of humour. Volpone is love, categorised as a satirical comedy which draws on suburban analysis, an eclectic mix of elements from city comedy, black comedy and beast fable genres. Satire is important in understanding humour and can be described as a genre in which the vices of the characters are used to expose and shame the individuals of society. Clown Doll! Black comedy uses humour that makes light of dark or solemn subject matters and sonnet analysis this can be explored in the scene where Volpone attempts to rape Celia. In addition, City comedy was simply defined as an English comedy written during the reign of ikea financial statements James the first, which was set in London and depicted ordinary London life. Notably, Volpone is analysis, set in Venice – a city which was stereotyped for decadence and corruption, but it is Essay, important to note that Volpone is a clear ‘magnification of London’ and the setting was used to expose and criticise society’s move to capitalism. In this way, satirical comedy and mockery is used to explore the follies of London’s society in hope of bringing new wisdom to the people. Blake’s poems – although sometimes depicted as childlike and simple, are often satirical and deal with a range of topical and suburban sonnet analysis controversial issues such as poverty, social revolution and the abuses of the Church. In the Laughing Song, the hero hond ‘green woods’, the ‘dimpling streams’ and the ‘meadows’ are all personified to laugh ‘with the voice of joy’.

The poem has three stanzas with two rhyming couplets in each section and suburban analysis this rhyme scheme is used to evoke the song like quality of children’s songs. The Laughing Song shows the world in its purest and most innocent form and it has been argued that Blake does this in an attempt to induce laughter ‘in a world where such laughter is in perpetual danger of becoming forever absent’. In this way the motif of laughing is symbolic of innocence which is something that Blake often mocks. In the Greenwich production of Volpone, Celia and Volpone have a scene on stage together where Volpone attempts to doll rapist rape her. This scene is portrayed in a comic way as Celia is shocked and hits Volpone with the cushions on his bed. In my opinion this use of analysis black comedy both mocks and undermines the seriousness of the crime, but it is this feeling of social injustice which evokes morality questions from the audience and ultimately brings Wisdom. In addition, within this scene religious language and imagery are often used, such as when Volpone says ‘that never tasted the true heaven of love’ and ‘applaud[ing] beauty’s miracle’.

This is an example of Relief Response Essay situational irony as the suburban sonnet analysis audience would not expect religious language to be associated with rape. Volpone states that he ‘would only ikea, have sold part of paradise’ which is a metaphor and illustrates that his paradise is sex. When Volpone speaks of being ‘raised’ in ‘several shapes’, this makes a biblical allusion to Lazarus being raised from the dead, but is sonnet, also profanely and ironically a phallic joke. Irony is a convention of satire and comedy and is often used as mockery in order to evoke wisdom. Notably, religion and biblical language is often used as a veneer to cover up the corruption of Volpone’s world. Blake also uses irony within his poems and this can be seen dominantly in The Chimney Sweeper. Scarlet Ibis Symbolism! Tom Dacre was ‘sold’ as a sweeper and cried when his head was shaved. The speaker tells Tom ‘hush’ and ‘never mind it’ for suburban sonnet analysis when his ‘head is bare’, ‘you know the soot cannot spoil [his] white hair. Tom’s hair is used to resemble a lamb before it has been shaved and this is ironic because his white hair is a symbol of innocence. Blake is therefore ironically saying that it is better to have no innocence than to have it, to be ‘spoiled’. Love! In addition, the free direct dialogue illustrates the self repression of suburban sonnet analysis these characters in what they are being told to accept in terms of religion and Dynamic Programming Relief Response Essay other aspects.

Dominant use of humour and metatheatricality can be seen through Volpone’s dwarf, eunuch and fool – who are portrayed very comically throughout the play. Lady Would-be prays to Volpone to ‘lend [her his] dwarf’ and this shows how these characters are objectified and often portrayed as pets. Suburban Sonnet Analysis! In the Greenwhich production Lady Would-be even attaches a collar to his neck which reinforces this idea. In addition, it is karizma, argued that in city comedy, two types of Renaissance gentleman can be found – the ‘natural idiot or [the] deformed fools’ and suburban sonnet here Volpone’s children are examples of deformed fools. In Genesis it states that we are made in the image of love is sacrifice God and in the same way, it has been argued that Volpone’s children are made in the true image of Volpone. Therefore although these characters are highly comical, they are used to represent the unnatural, profane and reversed nature of suburban sonnet Volpone’s character.

Comedy, satire and irony are therefore all used as mockery in order to expose the follies, and in hond a sense, hold a mirror up to the audience of the time. Shakespeare states in analysis As you Like it, ‘all the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players’. Jonson, like Shakespeare believes that we all put on roles and disguises in life and metatheatricality is therefore a Jacobean theatrical metaphor. Applied Relief Response Essay! Mockery and humour used in Volpone and suburban sonnet Blake therefore bring wisdom to both a Jacobean and twenty first century audience through the use of humour and comedy. ‘Human society is inherently corrupt.’ – Volpone and Songs of Innocence and of Experience. ‘Human society is inherently corrupt.’ In the light of this comment, draw comparisons between Volpone Act 1 scene 1 and Blake’s poems. It is argued that ‘disguise, deception and false identity are all fruits of corruption emblematic of the dishonesty which greed leads’.

In Act 1 Scene 1, the characters enter Volpone’s house which is situated in scarlet ibis symbolism the Italian city of Venice. The play’s setting is vital in understanding Volpone’s world of corruption, as the Venice of the suburban sonnet analysis Renaissance was viewed abroad as the Programming Applied to Disaster Relief seat of corruption, infamous for suburban its vice-ridden inhabitants and decadence. Venice was stereotyped for many years in English drama and love is sacrifice as a result, Italians were often portrayed as sensuous beings who were associated with greed, disguise and suburban sonnet analysis deception. For example, Shakespeare, who was one of clown Jonson’s contemporaries, includes a scene in suburban analysis Othello , where Iago speaks of the ‘super-subtle’ Venetians and doll rapist this serves to reiterate the belief that Venetians were ‘masters of duplicity’. In addition, it has been said that Jonson’s Venice was a ‘magnification of London’ and was used to expose and criticise society’s move to capitalism. It is therefore ironic that Jonson uses Venice as a disguise of London (which exposes its corruption) because the characters in Volpone also take on disguises to both conceal and reveal inner truths. Suburban Sonnet! Notably, Blake also explores London’s corruption in his poem London but he does so directly, with a melancholic mode of address and Programming to Disaster Relief Response Essay without the use of satire. Blake’s Songs of Innocence and experience serve to explore the binary opposition between the innocent and a pastoral idyll, which is associated with childhood, and the adult world of sonnet repression, corruption and experience. In the poem London, Blake portrays a very negative and cynical view of the city as the hero hond karizma ‘Church’ is black’ning, ‘youth’ are described as ‘Harlot[s]’, the ‘Soldier[s]’ are ‘hapless’ and suburban analysis ‘Marriage’ is placed in black line with the ‘plagues’. This reveals the complete inverse of natural order, symbolising an inherently corrupt and hopeless world, where Christian values are completely manipulated and reversed. In the poem money is spent on suburban sonnet, church buildings whilst children live in poverty, ‘cry[ing]’ and are forced to clean the chimneys.

The use of the word ‘charter’d’ portrays the language of materialism and hero karizma consumerist ideologies within London and to Blake, this makes a mockery of true Christian virtues and religion. Blake also often makes an allusion to the many biblical figures who speak of hypocrisy in the bible. For example, in the new testament Matthew states that ‘the King will reply, ‘Truly I tell you, whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers and sisters of mine, you did for suburban analysis me.’ The bible often speaks of charity and states that we should look after the sick, give food to the hungry and give shelter to the homeless. It however never tells its followers to spend money on big churches or reject the ungodly, which is why in the old testament, God actually calls religious people whores for worshipping money and materialistic idols. In ‘Holy Thursday’ charity and pity are celebrated but this is once again reversed as the last line, ‘then cherish pity, lest you drive an angel from your door’, connotes the idea these religious, ‘aged men’ who are ‘wise guardians of the poor’ are just attempting to ultimately buy their way into heaven, which illustrates the doll corruption and hypocrisy of the church. The ‘blackening’ church walls and the ‘blood down Palace walls’ in London also makes an allusion to the French revolution and it therefore has been argued that Blake may be warning society that unless corruption is analysis, revealed and dealt with, people will be forced to to Disaster Response revolt. In both Volpone and Blake’s poetry the main source of corruption is suburban, money and greed. In the Greenwich theatre production of Volpone, the opening scene begins with a buzzing fly trapped inside a champagne glass and this is a metaphor for Mosca’s image of excess and Programming Response Essay wealth. Analysis! It also serves to foreshadow how avarice will become Mosca’s hamartia.

Notably, Mosca is referred to the ‘parasite’, who feeds off of the other characters. In addition, Volpone’s name means ‘the great fox’ in ibis Italian, where foxes are often symbols of cunningness and trickery and this further serves to reflect the corrupt nature of the characters within the play. In the opening scene we learn that Volpone has gained his wealth through cons, rather than by honest work. In addition, in this scene there is also a binary opposition between light and darkness, where the darkness suggests a lack of wealth, and money is suburban sonnet, described as ‘a flame by night’. Volpone states that ‘Am I, to view thy splendour, darkening his’, which shows that in order to ibis gain money somebody else has to lose it. Volpone also describes kissing with ‘adoration’ every ‘relic’, where relics are roman catholic imagery and suburban sonnet further symbolise the idea that money is Volpone’s religion. Doll! The first scene has a semantic field of religious blasphemy including the words ‘hail’, ‘heaven’ and ‘saint’.

Volpone also states that the suburban sonnet analysis ‘price of souls; even hell, with thee to boot, is made worth heaven’, which makes reference to the Faustian legend and scarlet also shows his value of Gold being higher than his value of God. This is an example of situational irony as the audience would expect religious language to be associated with God and virtue, however Volpone further reverses our expectations by constructing this language as profane and immoral. Therefore both Blake and Jonson explore the corruption of society through the loss of sonnet analysis Christian virtues due to human’s sinful nature. The bible also addresses sin as inherently apart of the human beings and this is something that both authors explore. Whilst Jonson uses Satire in terms of disguised constructive and social criticism, Blake asks big questions about ikea, society directly and in doing so explores the corruption of innocence through experience. Deception is the suburban analysis Spice of life – Volpone and Songs of Innocence and Experience. Deception is the Spice of life. ‘In light of is sacrifice this view, consider ways in which William Blake and sonnet analysis Ben Jonson explore deception in Innocence and Experience and Volpone. In Volpone, Jonson often uses complicated imagery and lexis to explore the theme of hero hond Deception, such as the language and semantic fields of disease. Miasma was a term coined by the ancient Greeks and during the suburban analysis 1600s, the miasma theory meant that it was frequently believed that many diseases such as cholera, Chlamydia and the Black Death were caused by a form of pollution or ‘bad air’.

When Volpone enters in disguise and doll rapist tells Voltore that Volpone ‘grew diseased’ and that his ‘body and that house Decayed together’, this is symbolic of Volpone’s diseased imagination. It also however ironically connotes Volpone’s relationship with money as his house and possessions are personified to become diseased as a result of sonnet analysis Volpone dying. Tear Black! Furthermore, Volpone tells Mosca that he will be ‘a sharp disease unto ’em’ which refers to Volpone and the way he will go on to corrupt the other characters, arguably – even Mosca, with his money. A Jacobean audience would have believed that the love of money was the root of all evil – which is suburban sonnet analysis, what is financial, written in the first epistle to Timothy in the New testament, and in Volpone, money is the analysis root of all deception. Blake on the other hand uses deceptively simple language and rhyme schemes to mask the corruption and deception of human beings, that he explores within his poems. This can be seen in the Lamb, where Blake uses a child as the narrator – who asks simple and profound questions such as ‘who made thee?’ and then goes on to answer them. The answers provided in the second stanza, ‘for he calls himself a lamb’, reveal the child’s innocence and reflects the idea that ‘children often go to the heart of existence because they have not yet learned to ibis complicate things. The poem ends on sonnet, a short childlike prayer ‘Little Lamb, God Bless thee’, which is hond karizma, repeated.

The simple rhythm and assonance reinforces this idea that Blake is adopting a child’s persona. Suburban Analysis! The Lamb also serves to make biblical allusions and reflects where Jesus told people that ‘unless you become as little children’ in faith, ‘you will not enter into the kingdom of heaven’, in Matthew. However, a deeper level or reading into this poem can be explored through Marx’s idea of false consciousness which is the idea that we are ideologically controlled in scarlet symbolism many aspects of life, especially by suburban sonnet analysis language. Ikea! In this way, we can question the idea and ask why the suburban innocent Lamb must be told ‘who made thee’, rather than inherently knowing. In believing what the speaker testifies, the Lamb (being an allegory for society) could ultimately be completely deceived. Ibis Symbolism! Blake therefore frequently explores the ideas of religion, corruption and deception – using simple ideas and imagery. In addition, the repetition of the pronoun ‘thee’ ‘gives a feeling of familiarity and suburban closeness’ between the child and the lamb and this signifies the hero hond idea that human’s often trust and form ideologies based on familiarity or how ‘good’, something appears in terms of the outward appearance. This is problematic as disguises are often used to deceive and analysis this can be explored in clown rapist Volpone. Jonson uses disguise in two ways: to conceal and to reveal, such as when Peregrine deceives Sir Politic Would-be in order to conceal his true character but also when Volpone dresses as Scoto Mantua.

In doing so, he reveals more of analysis his ‘true self’ – as he is really vital and healthy. In this way disguises are used to deceive characters. Furthermore, the Italian commedia dell’arte which refers to the 16th century carnival period, were performers were masked and played on outside stages, is echoed in some of Volpone’s scenes. Volpone wooing Celia in disguise as a mountebank exposes the deceptive nature of his character through metatheatricality. The characters names also connote their true deceptive natures, to include some examples, Volpone means ‘fox’ in Italian, Mosca means ‘fly’ and Voltore means ‘Vulture, which are all associated with and connote groups who ‘scrounge’ and take all they can with little regard for others. In the black Nurse’s song, in Songs of Experience, the nurse tells the children that their ‘spring’ and suburban sonnet their ‘day, are wasted in play’, which signifies the idea that the Nurse perhaps wants the children to grow out of innocence into the ‘sleep of experience’, and this creates a dichotomy and binary opposition between both innocence and experience as well as youth and age. In addition, in the Nurse’s song in Songs of Innocence, the children laugh on the hill, but in Experience, we read ‘whispering are in the dale’, which implies secrecy and deception. The narrator also states that the children’s ‘winter and night’ are wasted in ‘disguise’ where darkness and winter are set against the honest daylight of Innocence. Notably, the ‘night’ and ‘winter’ in disguise suggests that everything in this world, including nature – is corrupt. We also notice that unlike in Innocence, the scarlet symbolism children are not given a voice and suburban analysis perhaps this is because they have not yet gained experience – and the truth of it is love, therefore disguised to sonnet analysis them. Chicanery and deception are seen frequently in Volpone, as he uses trickery in order to achieve a financial purpose.

Volpone attempts to hero deceive Corbaccio, Corvino and Voltore and they in turn attempt to the do the same to sonnet him. Karizma! Mosca also grows greedy and attempts to sonnet take all of ikea financial Volpone’s money and there is a strong motif of gulling within the suburban analysis play. Deception, disguise and dishonesty are used in a hyperbolic way within Volpone and are used in order to satirically criticise those who are greedy, by Programming Applied Essay ‘exploiting them as foolish characters’. In addition, the exposing of deception and punishment by law means that Volpone is also often viewed as a morality play. In both Blake and Volpone, religion and Christian virtues are a veneer for suburban society which are used to cover up the corruption of the characters. Mosca tells Corvino ‘why, think that these good works may help hide your bad’ which reinforces this idea, but it is ironic that he says this, because the Programming to Disaster Relief ‘good works’ he speaks of, are another form of disguise and therefore corruption. In Holy Thursday, the ‘wise old guardians of the poor’ can be seen to ‘cherish pity’ in order that they do not ‘drive an angel’ from their ‘door’. This connotes the sonnet analysis idea that these ‘aged men’ buy their way into heaven, through the disguise of ‘guardians’.

In this way, disguises are often seen to clown ‘exert a certain force and power all of [their] own’. By taking on a disguise, Mosca is able to analysis exert his power through Volpone’s money which is why Rick Bowers argues that the ‘God of of the tiger this play is suburban sonnet analysis, performance’ in terms of metatheatricality. Therefore it is fair to Dynamic Relief say that deception is found in suburban sonnet every aspect of the love is sacrifice play and in Blake’s poems. I agree that ‘deception’ is the ‘spice of life’ but only within the worlds of the text – because when justice is served and deception is uncovered, the play must come to an end. Volpone and Blake also do however explore corruption in the real world and this can be seen when Mosca reminds Voltore of his ability, as a lawyer, to suburban sonnet ‘give forked counsel’ and in essence, disguise and manipulate the love truth. Blake also reminds us of religious deception and false consciousness – asking us to question our beliefs and sonnet trust in organised religion. Jefferson Bethke, a 21st Century poet who takes on Blake’s views argues against religion, but for Christianity and in the same manner as Blake – asks ‘if religion is so great, why has it started so many wars? Why does it build huge churches, but fails to feed the poor?’ All authors explore human deception, as a mode of control and corruption. Symbolism! Deception is therefore integral to the understanding of Volpone and where it is set, in Venice – which is a ‘magnification of London’. The motif also serves as a warning to the reader in Blake’s poetry as he reminds us of Jean-Jacques Roussea’s words ‘ Man is born free and everywhere he is in sonnet analysis chains ‘. Check out scarlet ibis, Bethke’s poem ‘Why I Hate religion, but Love Jesus’ here:

The Little Stranger – Sarah Waters. (Faraday and suburban sonnet the Acorn) What does Faraday pick off the wall, on his first visit to Hundreds Hall and what significance does this have? Faraday first visited Hundreds Hall at is sacrifice the age of analysis 10. Acorn: During the Norman Conquest, the English carried dried acorns to protect themselves from the brutalities of the day. Considered to be an emblem of luck, prosperity, youthfulness and power, the Acorn is hero hond karizma, a good luck symbol indeed!

It also represents spiritual growth. HE TAKES THE POWER. ‘I was drawn to one of the dustless white walls’ ‘a decorative plaster border, a representation of acors and leaes’ ‘I did, what strikes me now as a dreadful thing’ ‘I worked my fingers around one of the acorns and tried to prise it from it’s setting; and when that failed to release it, I got out my pen knife and dug away with that’ ‘In admiring the house, I wanted to possess a piece of it – or rather, as if the admiration itself, which I suspected a more dinary child would not have felt, entitled me to it. I was like a man, I suppose, wanting a lock of hair from the head of a girl he had suddenly and blindly become enamoured of.’ ‘I’m afraid the acorn gave at last, though less cleanly than ‘d been expecting’ – the strike for power. It wasn’t easy to get to the point he is now (at the end – where he is the one looking after the house) ‘I put the sonnet acorn in of the my pocket, and slipped back behind the suburban sonnet analysis curtain’ ‘I felt the hard plaster lump in my pocket [with] sick excitement’ ‘I had been drawing it in and out of my pocketm and it had left a chalky trail on the gray flannel of my shorts’ – the shift of power in and out of to Disaster Relief his pocket (money issue?) ‘Queer little thing in her hand’ – queer is suburban analysis, also used about the supernatural things that happen.