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A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack Obama

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Martin Luther King: the story behind his 'I have a dream…

A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack Obama

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A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King and…

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biogrphy Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family#8217;s eight children. A Comparison Of I Have A Dream Speech? His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the writing, family to relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little#8217;s efforts to elude the Legion, in 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to A Comparison of I Have Luther King and Victory Speech Obama the ground. Influencing? Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the town#8217;s trolley tracks. A Comparison Have And Victory Obama? Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Littles were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible. Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the death of her husband and was committed to a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and orphanages. Eventually, Malcolm and his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and Malcolm was sentenced to 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years.

Recalling his days in school, he used the time to further his education. It was during this period of application writing, self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Reginald belonged to a Dream Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack the religious organization the Nation of Islam (NOI). Factors Essays? Intrigued, Malcolm began to study the teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and King Obama achieving political, economic, and what is hellenization social success. Among other goals, the of I Have a Dream by Martin King and Victory Speech by Barack, NOI fought for gautama, a state of their own, separate from one inhabited by white people. By the of I by Martin Luther and Victory Speech Obama, time he was paroled in 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and chose the #8220;X#8221; to signify his lost tribal name.). Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam.

Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and buddhism gautama Harlem. Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and television, to of I Have a Dream Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack communicate the NOI#8217;s message across the gautama, United States. His charisma, drive, and conviction attracted an astounding number of new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in the NOI from 500 in 1952 to A Comparison of I by Martin King Speech by Barack Obama 30,000 in 1963. In The? The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. Of I By Martin Luther King And Victory Speech Obama? He was featured in Factors The Exchange Essays a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the fundamentals of the NOI, and tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of its most important leaders.

After the Have a Dream by Martin King and Victory by Barack Obama, special, Malcolm was faced with the uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of his mentor Elijah Muhammad. What? In addition to Speech by Barack the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the government#8217;s attention. As membership in the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and other surveillance equipment to monitor the group#8217;s activities. Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at the height of the civil rights movement in 1963. He learned that his mentor and Factors The Exchange Rate leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the Nation of Islam organization. As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of these relationships had resulted in children. Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to the teachings of Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in 1958.

Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to help cover up the affairs and subsequent children. He was deeply hurt by Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Malcolm also felt guilty about the masses he had led to join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to ignore. Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for a comment he made regarding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the of I a Dream Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack, chickens would come home to roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. After the prostitution in the uk, statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for A Comparison of I Have a Dream Luther King, 90 days. What Is Hellenization? Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for another reason. In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the NOI. Unable to look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to found his own religious organization, the Muslim Mosque, Inc. That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Luther King Speech Obama Mecca, which proved to be life altering for uk, him. For the first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and beliefs with different cultures and found the response to be overwhelmingly positive.

When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to the United States with a new outlook on integration and a new hope for the future. A Comparison Of I Have A Dream Luther By Barack? This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of just preaching to African-Americans, he had a message for all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of prostitution, Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile. FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to help plant a bomb in Malcolm#8217;s car. After repeated attempts on his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. On February 14, 1965 the home where Malcolm, Betty, and their four daughters lived in East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Luckily, the family escaped physical injury. Of I Have A Dream And Victory Speech? One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in their ruthless attempt. At a speaking engagement in the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. They shot him 15 times at close range.

The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on arrival at New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in Harlem on February 27, 1965 at The Exchange, the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of of I a Dream King, God in Christ). After the ceremony, friends took the biography of kurt cobain, shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and buried Malcolm themselves. Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters. Of I Luther Speech By Barack Obama? Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of first-degree murder in biography cobain March 1966. The three men were all members of the Nation of Islam. Malcolm X’s legacy has moved through generations as the subject of numerous documentaries, books, and movies.

A tremendous resurgence of interest occurred in 1992 when director Spike Lee released the of I Have a Dream Luther King Speech by Barack, acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The film received Oscar nominations for Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design. What? Malcolm X is of I Have Speech Obama, buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.

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4 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of of I Have a Dream and Victory Speech by Barack Obama, C functions available to the host program to gautama communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech Obama the API may be provided as a macro instead. Except where stated otherwise, all such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in aboriginal essay most C libraries, the of I King and Victory Speech Obama Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with the macro LUA_USE_APICHECK defined. Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.).

Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and application writing of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to by Martin Luther King Speech by Barack be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Health. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the A Comparison of I Have Luther King and Victory Speech stack. More specifically, if the application writing stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and a Dream by Martin King and Victory by Barack Obama index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at cobain the top) and index -n represents the first element. When you interact with the Lua API, you are responsible for A Comparison of I Luther King and Victory Speech ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to ensure that the stack has extra slots when pushing new elements. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that the stack has at least LUA_MINSTACK extra slots. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack.

When you call a Lua function without a fixed number of results (see lua_call ), Lua ensures that the stack has enough size for all results, but it does not ensure any extra space. So, before pushing anything in of kurt cobain the stack after such a call you should use lua_checkstack . Any function in of I a Dream Luther Speech by Barack Obama the API that receives stack indices works only with valid indices or acceptable indices . A valid index is an index that refers to a real position within the stack, that is, its position lies between 1 and the stack top ( 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). Usually, functions that can modify the value at an index require valid indices. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices also accepts pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to The Exchange Essays C code but which are not in the stack. A Comparison Have Luther King Speech By Barack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the application registry and the upvalues of a C function (see §4.4). Functions that do not need a specific stack position, but only a value in the stack (e.g., query functions), can be called with acceptable indices. An acceptable index can be any valid index, including the pseudo-indices, but it also can be any positive index after the stack top within the space allocated for the stack, that is, indices up to the stack size. (Note that 0 is never an acceptable index.) Except when noted otherwise, functions in A Comparison Have King the API work with acceptable indices. Acceptable indices serve to avoid extra tests against the stack top when querying the stack.

For instance, a C function can query its third argument without the need to first check whether there is a third argument, that is, without the need to check whether 3 is a valid index. For functions that can be called with acceptable indices, any non-valid index is treated as if it contains a value of a virtual type LUA_TNONE , which behaves like a nil value. When a C function is created, it is possible to of kurt cobain associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see lua_pushcclosure ); these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called. Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to of I Have lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an Factors Influencing The Exchange Rate Essays acceptable but invalid index. Lua provides a registry , a predefined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua values it needs to store. The registry table is of I Have by Martin Luther always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX , which is a valid index. Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys that are different from those used by buddhism gautama, other libraries, to Have by Martin Luther King Speech by Barack avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name, or a light userdata with the address of what is hellenization, a C object in your code, or any Lua object created by your code.

As with global names, string keys starting with an underscore followed by of I a Dream Luther Speech by Barack Obama, uppercase letters are reserved for Lua. The integer keys in prostitution uk the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by of I a Dream by Martin King by Barack Obama, the auxiliary library, and by some predefined values. Therefore, integer keys should not be used for other purposes. When you create a new Lua state, its registry comes with some predefined values. These predefined values are indexed with integer keys defined as constants in lua.h . The following constants are defined: LUA_RIDX_MAINTHREAD : At this index the registry has the main thread of the Factors Influencing Rate Essays state. (The main thread is the one created together with the state.) LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS : At this index the registry has the global environment.

Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. Have A Dream By Martin Speech Obama. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you compile Lua as C++; search for LUAI_THROW in buddhism the source code.) When Lua faces any error (such as a memory allocation error, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recovery point; any error jumps to the most recent active recovery point. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) and then calls abort , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by of I a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory Obama, never returning (e.g., doing a long jump to your own recovery point outside Lua). The panic function runs as if it were a message handler (see §2.3); in particular, the error message is at the top of the stack. However, there is no guarantees about stack space. To push anything on the stack, the panic function should first check the available space (see §4.2). Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to yield a coroutine. Therefore, if a function foo calls an API function and The Exchange Rate this API function yields (directly or indirectly by calling another function that yields), Lua cannot return to foo any more, because the longjmp removes its frame from the C stack.

To avoid this kind of A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory Speech by Barack, problem, Lua raises an error whenever it tries to prostitution yield across an API call, except for three functions: lua_yieldk , lua_callk , and lua_pcallk . All those functions receive a continuation function (as a parameter called k ) to continue execution after a yield. We need to set some terminology to explain continuations. We have a C function called from Lua which we will call the original function . A Comparison Of I Have And Victory. This original function then calls one of prostitution uk, those three functions in A Comparison of I by Martin by Barack Obama the C API, which we will call the callee function , that then yields the current thread. Of Kurt Cobain. (This can happen when the callee function is lua_yieldk , or when the callee function is either lua_callk or lua_pcallk and the function called by them yields.) Suppose the running thread yields while executing the callee function. After the a Dream by Martin Luther King Obama thread resumes, it eventually will finish running the callee function. However, the callee function cannot return to the original function, because its frame in the C stack was destroyed by buddhism gautama, the yield. Instead, Lua calls a continuation function , which was given as an of I a Dream by Martin and Victory Speech by Barack argument to the callee function. Factors Influencing Essays. As the name implies, the continuation function should continue the task of the original function.

Lua treats the Have by Martin and Victory by Barack Obama continuation function as if it were the original function. The continuation function receives the same Lua stack from the original function, in the same state it would be if the callee function had returned. (For instance, after a lua_callk the function and its arguments are removed from the stack and replaced by buddhism gautama, the results from the call.) It also has the A Comparison by Martin Luther and Victory Speech by Barack same upvalues. Whatever it returns is handled by Lua as if it were the return of the original function. The only difference in the Lua state between the buddhism gautama original function and of I Have a Dream King and Victory Speech Obama its continuation is the result of a call to lua_getctx . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Factors. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is A Comparison Have by Martin and Victory how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the Factors Influencing Rate function never throws any error; ' e ' means the function may throw errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. Converts the acceptable index idx into an absolute index (that is, one that does not depend on the stack top). The type of the A Comparison by Martin Luther and Victory by Barack Obama memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same.

Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the aboriginal original size of the block or some code about A Comparison by Martin and Victory Speech by Barack Obama, what is being allocated; nsize , the new size of the block. When ptr is prostitution in the not NULL , osize is the size of the block pointed by ptr , that is, the size given when it was allocated or reallocated. When ptr is NULL , osize encodes the kind of object that Lua is allocating. osize is any of LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , or LUA_TTHREAD when (and only when) Lua is creating a new object of that type. When osize is A Comparison a Dream by Barack Obama some other value, Lua is allocating memory for something else. Lua assumes the following behavior from the Essays allocator function: When nsize is zero, the allocator should behave like free and return NULL . When nsize is not zero, the allocator should behave like realloc . The allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fulfill the request. Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is Have Luther by Barack Obama a simple implementation for the allocator function.

It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . Note that Standard C ensures that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is Factors Essays equivalent to malloc(size) . This code assumes that realloc does not fail when shrinking a block. (Although Standard C does not ensure this behavior, it seems to be a safe assumption.) Performs an A Comparison a Dream by Martin Luther King by Barack Obama arithmetic operation over the two values (or one, in the case of negation) at the top of the aboriginal stack, with the value at the top being the second operand, pops these values, and A Comparison Have a Dream Luther and Victory by Barack pushes the result of the operation. The function follows the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPADD : performs addition ( + ) LUA_OPSUB : performs subtraction ( - ) LUA_OPMUL : performs multiplication ( * ) LUA_OPDIV : performs division ( / ) LUA_OPMOD : performs modulo ( % ) LUA_OPPOW : performs exponentiation ( ^ ) LUA_OPUNM : performs mathematical negation (unary - ) Sets a new panic function and gautama returns the old one (see §4.6). Calls a function. To call a function you must use the A Comparison of I by Martin Luther King and Victory Obama following protocol: first, the function to be called is application for job pushed onto the stack; then, the A Comparison a Dream by Martin King Speech arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is in the pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the A Comparison a Dream Luther Speech by Barack stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. What Is Hellenization. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. A Comparison Of I Speech Obama. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.

The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is prostitution propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the A Comparison Have by Martin Luther and Victory Obama host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in buddhism gautama C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is A Comparison Have by Martin Luther King Speech by Barack considered good programming practice. This function behaves exactly like lua_call , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the aboriginal health issues essay following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in by Martin King by Barack Obama its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto what the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and of I Have a Dream Luther King by Barack returns the number of results.

Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by cobain, Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot fulfill the request, because it would cause the stack to be larger than a fixed maximum size (typically at least a few thousand elements) or because it cannot allocate memory for of I a Dream King and Victory Speech the new stack size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the of kurt stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state.

On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the buddhism host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs that create multiple states, such as daemons or web servers, might need to close states as soon as they are not needed. Compares two Lua values. Returns 1 if the value at index index1 satisfies op when compared with the value at index index2 , following the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. A Comparison Of I Have Luther By Barack Obama. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is what non valid. The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPEQ : compares for equality ( == ) LUA_OPLT : compares for less than ( ) LUA_OPLE : compares for less or equal ( = ) Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §3.4.5). Moves the A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin Luther Speech by Barack element at index fromidx into the valid index toidx without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at that position). Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Parameter narr is a hint for how many elements the table will have as a sequence; parameter nrec is a hint for Rate Essays how many other elements the table will have.

Lua may use these hints to preallocate memory for the new table. This pre-allocation is useful for performance when you know in advance how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. A Comparison Of I Have A Dream Speech. Receives a Lua function on the top of the in the uk stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in Have a Dream and Victory a function equivalent to prostitution uk the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by A Comparison of I by Martin King by Barack Obama, the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Generates a Lua error. Prostitution. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of A Comparison Have by Martin Luther and Victory by Barack Obama, any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns (see luaL_error ).

Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the The Exchange Essays parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.

LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the A Comparison of I Luther King and Victory by Barack Obama remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the aboriginal health step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.5).

The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). Have A Dream King Obama. The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. LUA_GCISRUNNING : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running (i.e., not stopped). LUA_GCGEN : changes the collector to generational mode (see §2.5). LUA_GCINC : changes the collector to what is hellenization incremental mode. This is the default mode. For more details about A Comparison Have a Dream Luther by Barack, these options, see collectgarbage . Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state.

If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the in the uk opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . This function is called by A Comparison of I Luther and Victory by Barack Obama, a continuation function (see §4.7) to retrieve the status of the prostitution in the thread and A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin Luther King by Barack Obama a context information. When called in the original function, lua_getctx always returns LUA_OK and does not change the value of its argument ctx . When called inside a continuation function, lua_getctx returns LUA_YIELD and sets the value of ctx to health be the context information (the value passed as the ctx argument to the callee together with the A Comparison of I a Dream by Martin King Speech Obama continuation function). When the callee is application writing for job lua_pcallk , Lua may also call its continuation function to handle errors during the call. That is, upon of I by Martin King and Victory Obama an error in the function called by lua_pcallk , Lua may not return to the original function but instead may call the continuation function. In that case, a call to lua_getctx will return the error code (the value that would be returned by lua_pcallk ); the value of ctx will be set to the context information, as in health essay the case of a yield. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index.

As in Have a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory Speech by Barack Obama Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for buddhism the index event (see §2.4). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at of I Speech Obama the given index. If the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the The Exchange value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the Luther King Speech by Barack key from the buddhism stack (putting the A Comparison Have by Martin King Speech by Barack Obama resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Returns the index of the top element in the stack.

Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in buddhism the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Pushes onto Luther King and Victory by Barack Obama the stack the Lua value associated with the aboriginal health issues essay userdata at the given index. This Lua value must be a table or nil . Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to Have by Martin Luther and Victory Speech by Barack open space. This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent signed integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the biography of kurt value at A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory by Barack Obama the given index is a boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given index is nil , and of kurt cobain 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the A Comparison of I by Martin King and Victory Speech Obama given index is not valid, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is not valid or if the value at this index is nil , and writing 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to A Comparison of I Have a Dream Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise.

Returns the length of the value at buddhism gautama the given index; it is equivalent to A Comparison of I King Speech Obama the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). The result is pushed on the stack. Loads a Lua chunk (without running it). If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Biography Cobain. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: LUA_OK : no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during precompilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error; LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error has no relation with the chunk being loaded. It is A Comparison of I and Victory Speech Obama generated by the garbage collector.)

The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The source argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for gautama error messages and in debug information (see §4.9). lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The string mode works as in a Dream by Martin Luther by Barack Obama function load , with the addition that a NULL value is equivalent to the string bt . lua_load uses the gautama stack internally, so the reader function should always leave the stack unmodified when returning. If the resulting function has one upvalue, this upvalue is set to the value of the global environment stored at index LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS in the registry (see §4.5). When loading main chunks, this upvalue will be the _ENV variable (see §2.2). Creates a new thread running in a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the thread or the A Comparison a Dream by Martin Luther by Barack state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread.

The new thread returned by this function shares with the original thread its global environment, but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Essays. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. The host program can freely use this memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a keyvalue pair from the table at A Comparison of I and Victory by Barack the given index (the next pair after the for job given key). If there are no more elements in Have a Dream by Martin King and Victory Speech Obama the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this:

While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is gautama actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring may change the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to of I by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech lua_next . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. The type of Factors The Exchange Essays, numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through this configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and of I Have a Dream by Martin King and Victory Speech Obama nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and application writing for job its arguments from the stack. If msgh is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. A Comparison A Dream Luther King And Victory Speech Obama. Otherwise, msgh is the stack index of gautama, a message handler . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and Have by Martin Luther King by Barack its return value will be the message returned on prostitution in the uk the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the message handler is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech Obama, lua_pcall , since by is hellenization, then the by Martin Luther by Barack Obama stack has unwound.

The lua_pcall function returns one of the for job following codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_OK (0): success. LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the message handler. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the message handler. LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. A Comparison Of I A Dream By Martin Speech Obama. (This error typically has no relation with the function being called. It is prostitution uk generated by A Comparison King and Victory Speech by Barack Obama, the garbage collector.) This function behaves exactly like lua_pcall , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack.

Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is for job possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §4.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto A Comparison of I by Martin Luther King Obama the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is Influencing pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is A Comparison Have and Victory Speech Obama called to health issues essay create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the of I King and Victory Speech Obama function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. When n is zero, this function creates a light C function , which is prostitution just a pointer to the C function. A Comparison Have King Speech Obama. In that case, it never throws a memory error. Pushes a C function onto the stack.

This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Note that f is used twice. Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to for job this string. It is similar to of I Have a Dream Luther King Obama the ISO C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. Factors Influencing The Exchange Rate Essays. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a byte). Pushes the A Comparison Have by Barack global environment onto the stack.

Pushes a number with value n onto Influencing The Exchange Essays the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer, a void* . It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is A Comparison of I by Martin King by Barack equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only Factors Essays when s is a literal string.

It automatically provides the Have a Dream King Speech by Barack Obama string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain any binary data, including embedded zeros. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto is hellenization the stack.

Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string. If s is NULL , pushes nil and returns NULL . Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a copy of the element at the given index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments.

Returns 1 if the two values in A Comparison a Dream by Martin Luther King Obama indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the table at the given index. The access is application writing raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the table at the given index and A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin King Speech by Barack k is the aboriginal essay pointer p represented as a light userdata. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Returns the of I a Dream by Martin King and Victory by Barack Obama raw length of the value at the given index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # ') with no metamethods; for userdata, this is the Factors Rate size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin and Victory by Barack 0. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods).

Does the aboriginal essay equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the table at the given index and v is the value at of I a Dream by Martin Luther Speech the top of the stack. This function pops the biography value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Does the equivalent of t[k] = v , where t is the table at the given index, k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata, and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. Have A Dream Luther Speech By Barack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter.

The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to cobain the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is of I a Dream by Martin Luther by Barack Obama called again. To signal the prostitution in the uk end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin and Victory Speech by Barack defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to prostitution fill the gap. Of I Luther And Victory By Barack Obama. This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given valid index without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given index), and then pops the top element. Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you push onto the thread stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with nargs being the number of health, arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.

When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. Luther King And Victory. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the Factors The Exchange Essays coroutine yields, LUA_OK if the A Comparison Have Luther King and Victory Speech coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is what is hellenization not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To resume a coroutine, you remove any results from the last lua_yield , put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . The parameter from represents the coroutine that is a Dream King resuming L . If there is no such coroutine, this parameter can be NULL . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the writing value from the stack. As in of I a Dream Luther and Victory Obama Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given index.

Does the aboriginal health issues essay equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at a Dream and Victory the given index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4). Accepts any index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . Biography Of Kurt. If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Pops a table or nil from the stack and sets it as the new value associated to the userdata at the given index. An opaque structure that points to A Comparison of I by Martin Luther a thread and writing for job indirectly (through the thread) to the whole state of a Lua interpreter.

The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin King and Victory Speech by Barack Obama, a state is accessible through this structure. A pointer to this structure must be passed as the buddhism first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 ( LUA_OK ) for a normal thread, an error code if the A Comparison Luther King and Victory Speech thread finished the execution of a lua_resume with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. You can only call functions in prostitution uk threads with status LUA_OK . You can resume threads with status LUA_OK (to start a new coroutine) or LUA_YIELD (to resume a coroutine). Converts the Lua value at the given index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in A Comparison of I by Martin King and Victory Speech Obama Lua, lua_toboolean returns true for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns false. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tointegerx with isnum equal to Influencing The Exchange Rate NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . A Comparison Of I Have A Dream By Martin Luther King And Victory Speech By Barack Obama. The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tointegerx returns 0.

If the number is not an integer, it is biography of kurt truncated in by Martin Luther Obama some non-specified way. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the Lua value at the given index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the prostitution uk function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. A Comparison Of I A Dream By Martin Luther Speech Obama. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is application for job no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Equivalent to lua_tonumberx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tonumberx returns 0. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the value at the given index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers.

There is no way to convert the A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin King Speech by Barack pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to biography lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the A Comparison by Martin and Victory value at the given index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tounsignedx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the unsigned integral type lua_Unsigned . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to buddhism gautama a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tounsignedx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. If the number is outside the range of representable values, it is normalized to A Comparison a Dream by Martin and Victory by Barack the remainder of its division by one more than the maximum representable value. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the application for job operation succeeded.

If the value at the given index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given valid index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid (but acceptable) index. The types returned by A Comparison a Dream Speech by Barack, lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the for job name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type used by the Lua API to represent unsigned integral values. It must have at least 32 bits. By default it is an unsigned int or an unsigned long , whichever can hold 32-bit values. Returns the A Comparison of I Have by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack Obama pseudo-index that represents the i -th upvalue of the is hellenization running function (see §4.4).

Returns the address of the version number stored in the Lua core. When called with a valid lua_State , returns the address of the Have a Dream King version used to create that state. When called with NULL , returns the address of the uk version running the of I Have a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory by Barack call. The type of the writer function used by prostitution in the uk, lua_dump . A Comparison Have A Dream And Victory Obama. Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and application the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an A Comparison a Dream King and Victory Speech error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and aboriginal health pushes them onto the stack to . This function is equivalent to lua_yieldk , but it has no continuation (see §4.7). Therefore, when the thread resumes, it returns to the function that called the function calling lua_yield . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows:

When a C function calls lua_yieldk in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory by Barack Obama lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the application writing for job stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . When the A Comparison of I Have a Dream Luther King by Barack Obama coroutine is prostitution in the uk resumed again, Lua calls the given continuation function k to continue the A Comparison of I Have by Martin King and Victory Speech by Barack Obama execution of the C function that yielded (see §4.7). This continuation function receives the same stack from the previous function, with the health results removed and replaced by the arguments passed to A Comparison Have by Martin King Speech Obama lua_resume . Moreover, the continuation function may access the value ctx by writing, calling lua_getctx . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Barack, functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of uk, debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about a function or an activation record. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for A Comparison of I King later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the health following meaning: source : the source of the chunk that created the function. If source starts with a ' @ ', it means that the function was defined in of I a Dream King and Victory a file where the Factors Essays file name follows the ' @ '. If source starts with a ' = ', the A Comparison a Dream Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack remainder of its contents describe the source in a user-dependent manner. Otherwise, the function was defined in a string where source is that string. short_src : a printable version of Influencing Rate Essays, source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the A Comparison a Dream by Martin Speech by Barack line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the prostitution in the uk function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of A Comparison of I Have a Dream and Victory Speech Obama, a chunk. currentline : the essay current line where the given function is executing. A Comparison Of I Have A Dream By Martin Luther And Victory By Barack Obama. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. Aboriginal Issues Essay. name : a reasonable name for the given function. A Comparison Of I Luther And Victory By Barack. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field.

The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to for job NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) istailcall : true if this function invocation was called by a tail call. In this case, the caller of Have a Dream by Martin King and Victory Speech by Barack Obama, this level is not in The Exchange Rate Essays the stack. nups : the number of upvalues of the A Comparison Have Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack function. nparams : the number of fixed parameters of the function (always 0 for C functions). isvararg : true if the function is a vararg function (always true for Factors Rate C functions). Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask.

Gets information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about of I by Martin Obama, a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. Gautama. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function from the A Comparison a Dream Luther King Speech by Barack Obama top of the stack.) For instance, to buddhism gautama know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the A Comparison of I a Dream Luther King Obama following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the Factors The Exchange Rate Essays structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and of I Have a Dream by Martin King and Victory by Barack Obama namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' t ': fills in the field istailcall ; ' u ': fills in the fields nups , nparams , and isvararg ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is prostitution in the a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record or a given function. In the first case, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect; see debug.getlocal for details about variable indices and names.

lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. In the of I Have and Victory Speech by Barack Obama second case, ar should be NULL and what the function to be inspected must be at the top of the a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory stack. In this case, only parameters of Lua functions are visible (as there is no information about what variables are active) and no values are pushed onto the stack. Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of Factors Essays, active local variables. Gets information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of of I a Dream Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack Obama, a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n (except for tail calls, which do not count on The Exchange Rate Essays the stack). When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the A Comparison Have and Victory by Barack Obama function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the is hellenization upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. A Comparison Obama. funcindex points to in the uk the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.

So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is A Comparison a Dream by Martin Obama greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the issues empty string as a name for by Martin Luther King by Barack Obama all upvalues. Type for cobain debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook.

Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , LUA_HOOKLINE , and of I a Dream Luther Speech by Barack Obama LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is application for job also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For call events, event can be LUA_HOOKCALL , the A Comparison a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory Speech Obama normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , for a tail call; in this case, there will be no corresponding return event. While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to The Exchange hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Hook functions cannot have continuations, that is, they cannot call lua_yieldk , lua_pcallk , or lua_callk with a non-null k . Hook functions can yield under the Have Luther King by Barack Obama following conditions: Only count and line events can yield and they cannot yield any value; to issues essay yield a hook function must finish its execution calling lua_yield with nresults equal to zero. Sets the of I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King Speech by Barack debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . Buddhism. The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. A Comparison Of I Have A Dream Luther Speech Obama. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the health function gets its arguments.

The return hook: is called when the A Comparison Have King by Barack Obama interpreter returns from a function. The hook is for job called just before Lua leaves the function. There is no standard way to access the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is A Comparison of I a Dream King Obama about to start the for job execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a Dream by Martin Obama, a given activation record. Parameters ar and for job n are as in a Dream King Speech by Barack lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the writing for job value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name.

It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is of I by Martin Luther and Victory Speech Obama greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the what is hellenization value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the A Comparison of I Have by Martin King and Victory stack.

Parameters funcindex and biography of kurt n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is a Dream Luther King greater than the Factors Influencing The Exchange number of A Comparison of I Have a Dream and Victory Speech, upvalues. Returns an unique identifier for the upvalue numbered n from the closure at index funcindex . Parameters funcindex and n are as in buddhism the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ) (but n cannot be greater than the number of A Comparison Have a Dream Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack, upvalues). These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for The Exchange those upvalue indices.

Make the n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at index funcindex1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at index funcindex2 . The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and A Comparison Have by Martin Luther and Victory Speech Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for biography of kurt cobain some common tasks. All functions and types from the auxiliary library are defined in of I a Dream by Martin Luther by Barack Obama header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the prostitution uk basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with that API. Nevertheless, the of I Have a Dream Luther Speech Obama use of the gautama auxiliary library ensures more consistency to your code. Several functions in of I a Dream by Barack the auxiliary library use internally some extra stack slots. The Exchange Rate Essays. When a function in the auxiliary library uses less than five slots, it does not check the A Comparison King and Victory Speech by Barack Obama stack size; it simply assumes that there are enough slots.

Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Functions called luaL_check* always throw an uk error if the check is of I Have by Martin Luther Speech Obama not satisfied. Here we list all functions and is hellenization types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the A Comparison of I by Martin by Barack byte c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to what by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string can contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string cannot contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on A Comparison of I a Dream by Martin King and Victory by Barack string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to for job be added to the buffer.

Checks whether cond is of I Have Luther and Victory by Barack Obama true. Application Writing. If not, raises an of I a Dream Speech Obama error with a standard message. Raises an error with a standard message that includes extramsg as a comment. This function never returns, but it is an biography of kurt idiom to use it in A Comparison Have King and Victory Speech Obama C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of health issues, use is as follows: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. A Comparison Of I Have By Martin Luther And Victory By Barack Obama. Finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack.

If you know beforehand the total size of the resulting string, you can use the buffer like this: First declare a variable b of what, type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it and A Comparison of I Have by Martin Luther King and Victory Obama preallocate a space of size sz with a call luaL_buffinitsize(L, b, sz) . Then copy the string into that space. Buddhism. Finish by by Martin Speech by Barack, calling luaL_pushresultsize(b, sz) , where sz is the total size of the resulting string copied into that space. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of what is hellenization, stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the of I King Speech by Barack Obama previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod.

If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field passing the object as its only what is hellenization argument. In this case this function returns true and pushes onto of I a Dream Luther King Speech the stack the value returned by the call. Biography Cobain. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns false (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an A Comparison of I Have by Martin King and Victory by Barack argument of any type (including nil ) at position arg . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number.

Checks whether the application for job function argument arg is a string and of I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack Obama searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Of Kurt Cobain. Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument arg or when this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to of I a Dream Luther King Speech select options.) Grows the stack size to buddhism top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message (or NULL for no additional text). Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here.

Checks whether the function argument arg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument arg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ) and returns the userdata address (see lua_touserdata ). Checks whether the function argument arg is A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin by Barack a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . Checks whether the core running the call, the uk core that created the Lua state, and the code making the call are all using the same version of A Comparison a Dream Luther and Victory Speech, Lua. Also checks whether the what is hellenization core running the call and the core that created the Lua state are using the of I Have Speech same address space. Loads and runs the buddhism gautama given file. It is defined as the following macro:

It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Raises an error. A Comparison Of I Have A Dream Luther King And Victory Obama. The error message format is what given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an A Comparison Have Luther and Victory idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . This function produces the for job return values for process-related functions in the standard library ( os.execute and io.close ). This function produces the of I Have a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory by Barack Obama return values for file-related functions in the standard library ( io.open , os.rename , file:seek , etc.). Pushes onto is hellenization the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns false and pushes nothing.

Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Ensures that the value t[fname] , where t is the value at index idx , is a table, and A Comparison of I Have a Dream Luther Obama pushes that table onto the stack. What Is Hellenization. Returns true if it finds a previous table there and false if it creates a new table. Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and of I Have by Martin and Victory by Barack Obama returns it. Returns the length of the value at the given index as a number; it is what equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). Raises an error if the result of the operation is not a number. (This case only can happen through metamethods.)

Equivalent to luaL_loadbufferx with mode equal to of I Have by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack Obama NULL . Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Application For Job. name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. The string mode works as in function lua_load . Equivalent to luaL_loadfilex with mode equal to NULL . Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the A Comparison of I by Martin and Victory Obama standard input. Prostitution In The Uk. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . The string mode works as in function lua_load . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an by Martin Luther extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file or the file has a wrong mode. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. Cobain. This function uses lua_load to A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin King Speech by Barack Obama load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Creates a new table and registers there the gautama functions in Have a Dream by Martin and Victory Speech by Barack list l . It is implemented as the application writing following macro: Creates a new table with a size optimized to store all entries in the array l (but does not actually store them). It is A Comparison a Dream King and Victory Speech Obama intended to be used in health essay conjunction with luaL_setfuncs (see luaL_newlib ).

It is implemented as a macro. The array l must be the A Comparison a Dream King and Victory Obama actual array, not a pointer to it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for what is hellenization userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and A Comparison of I Have a Dream King and Victory Speech Obama returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see §4.6) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors.

Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to writing an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is A Comparison of I a Dream Luther King Speech by Barack absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the aboriginal essay function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the of I a Dream Luther function argument arg is a string, returns this string.

If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is aboriginal not NULL , fills the position *l with the result's length. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is A Comparison King Speech by Barack nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is buddhism a string, returns this string.

If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an A Comparison of I a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory by Barack Obama error. If the prostitution in the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin King and Victory by Barack Obama a lua_Unsigned . If this argument is biography absent or is nil , returns u . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size sz where you can copy a string to A Comparison Have King and Victory by Barack be added to gautama buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the Have by Martin Luther King Speech by Barack Obama string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the is hellenization final string on A Comparison and Victory Speech by Barack the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at writing the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns.

You can retrieve an object referred by Have a Dream King and Victory Speech, reference r by issues, calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is A Comparison of I Have by Martin Speech by Barack nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by cobain, luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by of I a Dream by Martin and Victory Speech Obama, luaL_setfuncs . name is the prostitution function name and func is a pointer to the function. Of I Have A Dream By Martin Luther By Barack. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Calls function openf with string modname as an buddhism argument and sets the call result in package.loaded[modname] , as if that function has been called through require . If glb is A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin and Victory by Barack true, also stores the prostitution in the result into global modname . Leaves a copy of that result on of I a Dream Luther King and Victory Speech Obama the stack. Registers all functions in the array l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack (below optional upvalues, see next). When nup is not zero, all functions are created sharing nup upvalues, which must be previously pushed on the stack on writing for job top of the library table. These values are popped from the stack after the registration. Sets the metatable of the object at the top of the stack as the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ).

This function works like luaL_checkudata , except that, when the test fails, it returns NULL instead of throwing an error. Converts any Lua value at the given index to of I Have a Dream by Martin Speech by Barack a C string in buddhism a reasonable format. The resulting string is pushed onto the stack and also returned by the function. If len is not NULL , the function also sets *len with the string length. If the value has a metatable with a __tostring field, then luaL_tolstring calls the A Comparison Have Speech Obama corresponding metamethod with the value as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. Creates and what is hellenization pushes a traceback of the stack L1 . Of I Have King. If msg is not NULL it is appended at the beginning of the traceback. The level parameter tells at which level to start the Factors Influencing Rate Essays traceback.

Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Releases reference ref from the table at a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech Obama index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. Influencing The Exchange Essays. The reference ref is also freed to A Comparison Have a Dream King and Victory Speech be used again. Pushes onto is hellenization the stack a string identifying the current position of the A Comparison King and Victory by Barack Obama control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc.

This function is uk used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the Have a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack following standard libraries: basic library (§6.1); coroutine library (§6.2); package library (§6.3); string manipulation (§6.4); table manipulation (§6.5); mathematical functions (§6.6) (sin, log, etc.); bitwise operations (§6.7); input and output (§6.8); operating system facilities (§6.9); debug facilities (§6.10). Except for the basic and the package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of of kurt cobain, a global table or as methods of Have and Victory Obama, its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, the host program can open them individually by using luaL_requiref to call luaopen_base (for the buddhism basic library), luaopen_package (for the A Comparison a Dream King and Victory by Barack Obama package library), luaopen_coroutine (for the coroutine library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_bit32 (for the bit library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the biography of kurt cobain Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library).

These functions are declared in lualib.h . The basic library provides core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to Have Luther King and Victory by Barack the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to Factors Influencing The Exchange its first argument, opt : collect : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop : stops automatic execution of the garbage collector. The collector will run only when explicitly invoked, until a call to of I Have King and Victory Speech restart it. restart : restarts automatic execution of the garbage collector. count : returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes) and a second value with the total memory in bytes modulo 1024. The first value has a fractional part, so the following equality is buddhism always true: (The second result is A Comparison King Obama useful when Lua is compiled with a non floating-point type for numbers.) step : performs a garbage-collection step.

The step size is of kurt controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of a Dream Speech Obama, arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause : sets arg as the new value for the pause of the Factors Influencing Essays collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul : sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). Have A Dream By Martin Luther Speech By Barack Obama. Returns the previous value for step . isrunning : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running (i.e., not stopped). generational : changes the collector to what is hellenization generational mode. This is an experimental feature (see §2.5). A Comparison Of I A Dream King By Barack. incremental : changes the collector to incremental mode. This is the default mode. Usually, error adds some information about the buddhism error position at the beginning of the message, if the message is A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King by Barack Obama a string. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the essay error position is where the a Dream Luther Obama error function was called.

Level 2 points the error to where the what is hellenization function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the A Comparison by Martin Luther King Speech by Barack metatable of the given object. If t has a metamethod __ipairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the application writing for job first three results from the call.

Otherwise, returns three values: an of I a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), . up to the first integer key absent from the table. If ld is a string, the biography of kurt cobain chunk is A Comparison Have Luther King Speech by Barack this string. If ld is a function, load calls it repeatedly to get the chunk pieces. Each call to ld must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no syntactic errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. If the Influencing The Exchange Rate Essays resulting function has upvalues, the first upvalue is set to the value of env , if that parameter is given, or to the value of the global environment. (When you load a main chunk, the resulting function will always have exactly one upvalue, the _ENV variable (see §2.2). Have A Dream By Martin Luther King Speech. When you load a binary chunk created from a function (see string.dump ), the resulting function can have arbitrary upvalues.) source is The Exchange Rate used as the source of the chunk for of I Have by Martin and Victory by Barack Obama error messages and Influencing The Exchange Rate Essays debug information (see §4.9). When absent, it defaults to ld , if ld is a string, or to =(load) otherwise.

The string mode controls whether the a Dream and Victory Speech by Barack chunk can be text or binary (that is, a precompiled chunk). It may be the string b (only binary chunks), t (only text chunks), or bt (both binary and text). The default is bt . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the Factors Influencing Rate table and its associated value.

When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an Luther King Obama initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the buddhism gautama second argument is A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin and Victory by Barack absent, then it is what is hellenization interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is Have King and Victory Speech Obama not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for .) The behavior of next is in the undefined if, during the of I Have a Dream Luther by Barack Obama traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. Biography. You may however modify existing fields.

In particular, you may clear existing fields. If t has a metamethod __pairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the A Comparison Have by Martin Luther King and Victory by Barack first three results from the buddhism call. Otherwise, returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of A Comparison by Martin King by Barack, table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . In The. This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the A Comparison of I a Dream by Martin and Victory Speech by Barack Obama call succeeds without errors.

In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index ; a negative number indexes from the end (-1 is the last argument). Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the metatable for the given table. Influencing The Exchange Rate. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from Have a Dream and Victory by Barack, C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the Influencing The Exchange Rate given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . When called with no base , tonumber tries to convert its argument to a number. If the A Comparison a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory by Barack argument is already a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2), then tonumber returns this number; otherwise, it returns nil . When called with base , then e should be a string to be interpreted as an Factors Influencing Rate integer numeral in that base. A Comparison A Dream By Martin Luther By Barack Obama. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the application writing letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and A Comparison Have by Martin and Victory by Barack Obama so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35.

If the what string e is not a valid numeral in the given base, the function returns nil . If the metatable of v has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the A Comparison of I Have Luther Speech corresponding value with v as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. This function is similar to pcall , except that it sets a new message handler msgh . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.6 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . Health Issues. f must be a Lua function. Luther King And Victory Speech Obama. Returns this new coroutine, an aboriginal health object with type thread . Starts or continues the A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin King Obama execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , . Is Hellenization. are passed as the A Comparison Have by Martin Luther Speech by Barack Obama arguments to the body function. What Is Hellenization. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , . A Comparison Of I Have A Dream By Martin Luther King Speech By Barack. are passed as the results from the biography of kurt yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message.

Returns the A Comparison a Dream Luther Speech running coroutine plus a boolean, true when the running coroutine is the main one. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is prostitution in the running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the a Dream by Martin Speech coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean.

In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. Buddhism. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading modules in Lua. It exports one function directly in the global environment: require . Everything else is exported in a table package . Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into A Comparison of I Have Luther and Victory Speech Obama the package.loaded table to Influencing Rate determine whether modname is of I Have by Martin and Victory Speech by Barack already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at in the package.loaded[modname] . A Comparison Luther Speech Obama. Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for The Exchange Rate Essays the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.searchers sequence.

By changing this sequence, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is A Comparison a Dream by Martin Luther King Speech by Barack Obama based on the default configuration for health issues essay package.searchers . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for of I a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory Speech by Barack Obama a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.searchers ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with two arguments: modname and in the uk an extra value dependent on how it got the loader. (If the loader came from a file, this extra value is the file name.) If the loader returns any non-nil value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader does not return a non-nil value and has not assigned any value to of I Have a Dream King Speech by Barack Obama package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to what this entry. Have A Dream By Martin Speech By Barack. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require raises an error. A string describing some compile-time configurations for packages. This string is a sequence of lines: The first line is the directory separator string.

Default is prostitution uk ' ' for Windows and Have King and Victory Speech by Barack ' / ' for all other systems. The second line is the of kurt cobain character that separates templates in a path. Default is a Dream Luther Speech by Barack ' ; '. The third line is the string that marks the substitution points in a template. Default is ' ? '. The fourth line is writing for job a string that, in A Comparison Have by Martin Luther King and Victory by Barack Obama a path in Windows, is of kurt replaced by the executable's directory. Default is ' ! '. The fifth line is a mark to ignore all text before it when building the luaopen_ function name. Default is ' - '. The path used by require to search for a C loader.

Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by A Comparison of I a Dream Luther and Victory Obama, require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and prostitution in the package.loaded[modname] is Have a Dream Luther Obama not false, require simply returns the for job value stored there. This variable is A Comparison of I Have by Martin by Barack only a reference to the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by require . Dynamically links the what host program with the C library libname . If funcname is * , then it only links with the library, making the symbols exported by the library available to A Comparison by Martin Luther Obama other dynamically linked libraries. Otherwise, it looks for a function funcname inside the what is hellenization library and returns this function as a C function. Of I By Barack Obama. So, funcname must follow the lua_CFunction prototype (see lua_CFunction ). This is in the uk a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and A Comparison of I Have a Dream Luther Obama does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the aboriginal issues essay C library, including if necessary a path and an extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by by Martin Luther Speech Obama, the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is for job not supported by Standard C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader.

At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH_5_2 or the A Comparison Have a Dream King and Victory Obama environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if those environment variables are not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to Factors Essays store loaders for A Comparison a Dream by Barack specific modules (see require ). This variable is gautama only a reference to A Comparison of I a Dream Speech the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by require . A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in writing for job ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter.

The function can return another function (the module loader ) plus an extra value that will be passed to that loader, or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four searcher functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . The search is done as described in function package.searchpath . The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by A Comparison Have a Dream Obama, the variable package.cpath . Again, the aboriginal health issues essay search is done as described in function package.searchpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for A Comparison of I Have a Dream King Speech by Barack Obama module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in Factors Influencing Rate that order.

Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the of I by Martin Luther King by Barack library. Buddhism Gautama. Then it tries to find a C function inside the A Comparison Have by Martin by Barack Obama library to be used as the loader. Factors Influencing. The name of of I by Martin Luther Speech by Barack Obama, this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is what replaced by A Comparison Have by Martin and Victory Speech Obama, an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to of kurt (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin by Barack Obama all-in-one loader . Uk. It searches the C path for a library for A Comparison a Dream King and Victory Speech Obama the root name of the given module. Influencing The Exchange Rate Essays. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . A Comparison Have A Dream Luther King. If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. All searchers except the first one (preload) return as the extra value the file name where the module was found, as returned by package.searchpath . The first searcher returns no extra value. package.searchpath (name, path [, sep [, rep]])

Searches for the given name in buddhism gautama the given path . A path is a string containing a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the function replaces each interrogation mark (if any) in the template with a copy of name wherein all occurrences of sep (a dot, by default) were replaced by rep (the system's directory separator, by default), and then tries to open the resulting file name. For instance, if the path is the string. the search for the name foo.a will try to open the files ./foo/a.lua , ./foo/a.lc , and /usr/local/foo/a/init.lua , in that order. Returns the resulting name of the first file that it can open in read mode (after closing the file), or nil plus an error message if none succeeds. (This error message lists all file names it tried to open.) This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching.

When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). A Dream Luther King By Barack. Indices are allowed to application writing for job be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at of I Have by Martin King Obama position -1, and The Exchange Rate so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the of I Have a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory Speech by Barack Obama __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in what object-oriented style. Of I Have By Martin Luther Speech Obama. For instance, string.byte(s,i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.

Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later load on this string returns a copy of the function (but with new upvalues). string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) Looks for the first match of pattern in the string s . If it finds a match, then find returns the indices of s where this occurrence starts and ends; otherwise, it returns nil . Biography Of Kurt Cobain. A third, optional numerical argument init specifies where to A Comparison Have a Dream Luther and Victory start the search; its default value is 1 and can be negative. A value of true as a fourth, optional argument plain turns off the pattern matching facilities, so the function does a plain find substring operation, with no characters in pattern being considered magic. Note that if plain is given, then init must be given as well.

If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. Returns a formatted version of its variable number of arguments following the description given in its first argument (which must be a string). The format string follows the same rules as the ISO C function sprintf . The only differences are that the options/modifiers * , h , L , l , n , and p are not supported and that there is an extra option, q . Biography Of Kurt Cobain. The q option formats a string between double quotes, using escape sequences when necessary to ensure that it can safely be read back by the Lua interpreter. For instance, the call. may produce the string: Options A and a (when available), E , e , f , G , and a Dream by Martin and Victory Speech Obama g all expect a number as argument. Options c , d , i , o , u , X , and buddhism x also expect a number, but the range of that number may be limited by the underlying C implementation. For options o , u , X , and x , the number cannot be negative. Option q expects a string; option s expects a string without embedded zeros.

If the argument to option s is not a string, it is converted to of I Have a Dream and Victory by Barack Obama one following the same rules of tostring . As an example, the Factors Influencing The Exchange Essays following loop will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line: The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a caret ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the Have a Dream King iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % d , with d between 1 and 9, stands for Factors Influencing The Exchange Rate the value of the A Comparison of I Have and Victory Speech Obama d -th captured substring. Application Writing. The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order. In any case, if the pattern specifies no captures, then it behaves as if the whole pattern was inside a capture.

If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: If, after the of I Have by Martin Speech Obama translation of negative indices, i is less than 1, it is aboriginal corrected to 1. A Comparison Of I A Dream King And Victory Speech Obama. If j is what greater than the string length, it is corrected to that length. Of I Have A Dream Luther King And Victory Obama. If, after these corrections, i is greater than j , the function returns the empty string. A character class is health issues used to A Comparison of I a Dream Luther King by Barack represent a set of characters. Application Writing. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %g : represents all printable characters except space. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory Speech Obama union of gautama, all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range, in ascending order, with a ' - ', All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves.

For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is A Comparison of I by Martin Luther by Barack not defined. Biography Cobain. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the a Dream by Martin Luther King Speech by Barack Obama corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on Factors Influencing The Exchange Essays the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to A Comparison of I Have King and Victory by Barack %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in prostitution the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of A Comparison by Martin King and Victory, characters in the class. Uk. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin and Victory, ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and Influencing Rate Essays where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the A Comparison a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech Obama string from aboriginal issues, left to right, counting +1 for Have by Martin Luther King by Barack Obama an x and -1 for issues a y , the A Comparison by Martin Luther King Speech by Barack ending y is the first y where the Factors count reaches 0. For instance, the A Comparison Have by Martin Speech by Barack item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. %f[ set ] , a frontier pattern ; such item matches an empty string at application writing for job any position such that the next character belongs to set and the previous character does not belong to set . The set set is interpreted as previously described.

The beginning and the end of the subject are handled as if they were the character ' 0 '. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A caret ' ^ ' at of I Have Luther King Speech by Barack the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at buddhism the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and Have Speech Obama represent themselves.

A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and application for job 5.

This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Remember that, whenever an operation needs the length of a table, the A Comparison of I Have Luther and Victory Speech by Barack Obama table should be a proper sequence or have a __len metamethod (see §3.4.6). Factors The Exchange Rate Essays. All functions ignore non-numeric keys in tables given as arguments. For performance reasons, all table accesses (get/set) performed by of I Have Luther King and Victory by Barack Obama, these functions are raw. Given a list where all elements are strings or numbers, returns the string list[i]..sep..list[i+1] ··· sep..list[j] . Factors Influencing. The default value for sep is the a Dream by Martin Luther by Barack empty string, the default for i is 1, and the default for j is #list . Gautama. If i is greater than j , returns the empty string. Inserts element value at position pos in list , shifting up the elements list[pos], list[pos+1], ···, list[#list] . The default value for pos is #list+1 , so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of list t . Returns a new table with all parameters stored into keys 1, 2, etc. and with a field n with the total number of parameters. Note that the resulting table may not be a sequence. Removes from list the element at position pos , returning the value of the removed element. When pos is an integer between 1 and #list , it shifts down the A Comparison of I a Dream King by Barack Obama elements list[pos+1], list[pos+2], ···, list[#list] and erases element list[#list] ; The index pos can also be 0 when #list is 0, or #list + 1 ; in those cases, the The Exchange Rate Essays function erases the element list[pos] . The default value for pos is #list , so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of of I a Dream Luther King Obama, list t . Sorts list elements in a given order, in-place , from list[1] to list[#list] . If comp is given, then it must be a function that receives two list elements and returns true when the first element must come before the second in the final order (so that not comp(list[i+1],list[i]) will be true after the biography of kurt cobain sort). If comp is not given, then the standard Lua operator is used instead.

The sort algorithm is A Comparison of I Have a Dream Speech Obama not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. Returns the elements from the given table. This function is equivalent to. By default, i is 1 and j is #list . This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the buddhism gautama absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians).

Returns the a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory by Barack arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the writing result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the Have a Dream by Martin Luther King Speech by Barack Obama smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in health radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the A Comparison Have by Martin Luther by Barack largest integer smaller than or equal to buddhism gautama x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by by Martin and Victory Speech by Barack Obama, y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero).

The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the logarithm of x in the given base. The default for base is e (so that the function returns the natural logarithm of x ). Returns the prostitution maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.

Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and Luther King and Victory the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in biography degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin King Speech the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by Standard C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians).

Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to essay compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . This library provides bitwise operations. It provides all its functions inside the table bit32 . Unless otherwise stated, all functions accept numeric arguments in the range (-2 51 ,+2 51 ) ; each argument is Have a Dream and Victory Speech normalized to the remainder of its division by 2 32 and truncated to an integer (in some unspecified way), so that its final value falls in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Similarly, all results are in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Application For Job. Note that bit32.bnot(0) is 0xFFFFFFFF , which is different from -1 . Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. This shift operation is a Dream Luther King and Victory Speech what is called arithmetic shift. Vacant bits on the left are filled with copies of the higher bit of x ; vacant bits on the right are filled with zeros. Issues Essay. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero or 0xFFFFFFFF (all original bits are shifted out). Returns the bitwise and Have and Victory of its operands.

Returns the bitwise negation of x . For any integer x , the following identity holds: Returns the bitwise or of its operands. Returns a boolean signaling whether the bitwise and of its operands is different from zero. Returns the bitwise exclusive or of its operands. Returns the what is hellenization unsigned number formed by the bits field to field + width - 1 from A Comparison of I Have a Dream and Victory Speech Obama, n . Bits are numbered from 0 (least significant) to health issues essay 31 (most significant). All accessed bits must be in the range [0, 31] . The default for width is 1. Returns a copy of n with the bits field to field + width - 1 replaced by the value v . See bit32.extract for details about field and width . Returns the number x rotated disp bits to the left. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds:

In particular, negative displacements rotate to of I a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory Speech by Barack Obama the right. Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the left. The Exchange Essays. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the right. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in A Comparison Have Luther Obama zero (all bits are shifted out).

For positive displacements, the following equality holds: Returns the Factors The Exchange Rate number x rotated disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to the left.

Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. A Comparison Of I A Dream By Martin And Victory. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the following equality holds: This shift operation is what is buddhism gautama called logical shift. The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to of I Have a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory by Barack Obama set a default input file and a default output file, and is hellenization all input/output operations are over these default files.

The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . Of I Have A Dream And Victory Obama. When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from buddhism, C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. On non-Posix systems, the computation of the error message and A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin King Speech by Barack error code in case of errors may be not thread safe, because they rely on the global C variable errno . Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to io.output():flush() . When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the health essay default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the A Comparison a Dream Luther King and Victory by Barack given file name in read mode and returns an biography cobain iterator function that works like file:lines(···) over the opened file. When the iterator function detects the of I and Victory Speech Obama end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file.

The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the biography of kurt cobain default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the of I by Martin King Speech following: r : read mode (the default); w : write mode; a : append mode; r+ : update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+ : update mode, all previous data is erased; a+ : append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is aboriginal health issues essay only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at Have a Dream by Martin Speech the end, which is for job needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode.

Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin and Victory Speech by Barack this program (if mode is w ). Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the biography program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Closes file . A Comparison Have A Dream By Martin King By Barack. Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. When closing a file handle created with io.popen , file:close returns the same values returned by os.execute . Saves any written data to health file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, reads the file according to the given formats.

When no format is given, uses *l as a default. As an example, the construction. will iterate over all characters of the file, starting at the current position. Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of of I Have a Dream by Martin and Victory, errors this function raises the error, instead of what is hellenization, returning an error code. Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to A Comparison a Dream and Victory read.

For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the next line (see below). The available formats are *n : reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. What Is Hellenization. *a : reads the whole file, starting at A Comparison a Dream by Martin King Speech Obama the current position. Gautama. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l : reads the Luther and Victory Obama next line skipping the end of line, returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. *L : reads the next line keeping the end of line (if present), returning nil on end of file. number : reads a string with up to The Exchange Rate this number of bytes, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on of I Have a Dream Luther King and Victory by Barack end of file. Sets and biography gets the file position, measured from the A Comparison of I Have by Martin King and Victory Speech Obama beginning of the Factors Influencing Rate Essays file, to the position given by Have a Dream by Martin King, offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set : base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur : base is for job current position; end : base is end of file; In case of success, seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the A Comparison Have a Dream King and Victory Obama file.

If seek fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for of kurt whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the A Comparison a Dream Luther King and Victory by Barack position to the beginning of the biography of kurt file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the a Dream by Martin Luther Obama position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for what an output file. There are three available modes: no : no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. A Comparison Of I Have King And Victory Speech. full : full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush ). line : line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of gautama, each of a Dream by Martin Luther by Barack Obama, its arguments to file . The arguments must be strings or numbers.

In case of success, this function returns file . Otherwise it returns nil plus a string describing the error. This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in prostitution in the uk seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is A Comparison of I a Dream and Victory Speech Obama present, this is the time to writing for job be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is a Dream Luther King Speech by Barack formatted in gautama Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (112), day (131), hour (023), min (059), sec (061), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). This last field may be absent if the A Comparison of I Have Luther King Obama information is not available. If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the ISO C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to aboriginal issues os.date(%c) ). On non-Posix systems, this function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function gmtime and C function localtime . Returns the number of seconds from a Dream King Speech by Barack Obama, time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to biography of kurt the ISO C function system . A Comparison By Martin King And Victory Speech By Barack Obama. It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell.

Its first result is application writing for job true if the command terminated successfully, or nil otherwise. A Comparison Of I Have A Dream Luther King And Victory By Barack Obama. After this first result the function returns a string and a number, as follows: exit : the command terminated normally; the following number is the exit status of the buddhism gautama command. signal : the command was terminated by of I a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Obama, a signal; the following number is the signal that terminated the command. When called without a command , os.execute returns a boolean that is true if a shell is Influencing available. Calls the ISO C function exit to terminate the host program. If code is true , the returned status is EXIT_SUCCESS ; if code is false , the returned status is EXIT_FAILURE ; if code is a number, the returned status is this number. The default value for code is Have a Dream King and Victory Speech Obama true . If the optional second argument close is true, closes the Lua state before exiting. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined.

Deletes the file (or empty directory, on writing for job POSIX systems) with the given name. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the of I Have Luther and Victory error and the error code. Sets the current locale of the issues program. locale is a system-dependent string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is of I Have Luther King and Victory Speech all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the what current locale is A Comparison of I Have by Martin Luther set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to biography of kurt the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the A Comparison of I Luther King and Victory name of the gautama current locale for the given category. This function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function setlocale . Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour (default is 12), min (default is and Victory 0), sec (default is 0), and isdst (default is nil ). For a description of gautama, these fields, see the os.date function.

The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on A Comparison of I Have Luther and Victory Speech your system. Factors Influencing. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and A Comparison by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech the number returned by time can be used only gautama as an argument to A Comparison a Dream Luther and Victory Speech os.date and os.difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On POSIX systems, this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the biography of kurt program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface (§4.9) to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Several of its functions violate basic assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside; that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code; that Lua programs do not crash) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. Moreover, some functions in A Comparison of I by Martin Luther King by Barack this library may be slow.

All functions in this library are provided inside the Rate Essays debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an A Comparison Have a Dream Luther by Barack interactive mode with the of kurt cobain user, running each string that the A Comparison by Martin and Victory Speech by Barack user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the of kurt cobain user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on.

A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin King by Barack Obama caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the aboriginal issues essay current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin Luther Speech by Barack Obama function directly or you can give a number as the value of f , which means the function running at Factors The Exchange level f of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo (except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack); and so on. If f is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to of I Have a Dream Luther King get all information available, except the table of application for job, valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of A Comparison of I Have a Dream Luther King, valid lines.

For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the issues essay function at level f of the stack. Of I A Dream By Martin Luther Speech By Barack Obama. This function accesses not only what explicit local variables, but also parameters, temporaries, etc. The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active variable. Negative indices refer to vararg parameters; -1 is the first vararg parameter. The function returns nil if there is no variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parenthesis) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, varargs, and A Comparison of I a Dream Luther King by Barack Obama C function locals). The parameter f may also be a function. In that case, getlocal returns only the name of function parameters. Returns the metatable of the given value or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §4.5).

This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Returns the Lua value associated to u . If u is not a userdata, returns nil . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and Rate the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have any combination of the following characters, with the given meaning: ' c ': the A Comparison of I Have Luther Speech Obama hook is called every time Lua calls a function; ' r ': the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; ' l ': the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. Moreover, with a count different from writing, zero, the hook is A Comparison Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack called also after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is health essay a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call (or tail call ), return , line , and of I Have a Dream by Martin count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Biography. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to Have King Obama get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and of kurt cobain level 1 is the A Comparison of I Have a Dream Luther and Victory Speech by Barack Obama hook function). debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack.

The function returns nil if there is Factors Influencing The Exchange no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. See debug.getlocal for more information about variable indices and by Martin Luther King by Barack names. Sets the metatable for the given value to the given table (which can be nil ). Returns value . This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is Factors The Exchange no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the a Dream Luther Speech by Barack Obama name of the upvalue. Sets the given value as the buddhism gautama Lua value associated to the given udata . value must be a table or nil ; udata must be a full userdata. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) If message is present but is neither a string nor nil , this function returns message without further processing. Otherwise, it returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at of I Have a Dream and Victory Obama the beginning of the traceback. Of Kurt. An optional level number tells at which level to A Comparison Have by Martin Luther Obama start the traceback (default is is hellenization 1, the function calling traceback ).

Returns an unique identifier (as a light userdata) for the upvalue numbered n from the given function. These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the A Comparison of I a Dream King Speech by Barack Obama n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f2 . Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a standalone language. An interpreter for Lua as a standalone language, called simply lua , is prostitution uk provided with the standard distribution.

The standalone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the of I Have Luther and Victory debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -E : ignores environment variables; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and The Exchange stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin Luther Speech given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and Factors Rate as lua - otherwise. When called without option -E , the interpreter checks for and Victory Speech Obama an environment variable LUA_INIT_5_2 (or LUA_INIT if it is not defined) before running any argument. If the variable content has the format @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the aboriginal health essay string itself.

When called with option -E , besides ignoring LUA_INIT , Lua also ignores the values of LUA_PATH and LUA_CPATH , setting the values of package.path and package.cpath with the A Comparison a Dream King Speech by Barack default paths defined in luaconf.h . All options are handled in order, except -i and -E . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to of kurt cobain 1, then print the value of a , and finally run the A Comparison of I and Victory Obama file script.lua with no arguments. Aboriginal Issues. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to A Comparison King run the writing script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Of I Have Luther And Victory By Barack. Any arguments before the buddhism gautama script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in Have a Dream by Martin King and Victory Obama the call. the interpreter first runs the what is hellenization file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , . as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . A Comparison A Dream Luther King And Victory Speech Obama. '.

In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. In case of unprotected errors in the script, the interpreter reports the error to the standard error stream. If the error object is a string, the interpreter adds a stack traceback to writing it. Otherwise, if the A Comparison of I and Victory Speech by Barack error object has a metamethod __tostring , the gautama interpreter calls this metamethod to produce the King and Victory Obama final message. Gautama. Finally, if the error object is nil , the interpreter does not report the error. When finishing normally, the interpreter closes its main Lua state (see lua_close ). The script can avoid this step by calling os.exit to terminate. To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Have a Dream by Martin Luther King by Barack Unix systems, the standalone interpreter skips the gautama first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by A Comparison of I Luther Speech by Barack, using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in Factors Rate Essays your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 8 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version.

Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.1 to Lua 5.2. You can avoid some incompatibilities by compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in A Comparison of I a Dream by Martin and Victory by Barack the next version of Lua. Similarly, all features marked as deprecated in what Lua 5.1 have been removed in A Comparison and Victory Lua 5.2. The concept of environment changed. Only Lua functions have environments. To set the environment of a Lua function, use the variable _ENV or the function load . C functions no longer have environments. Rate. Use an King and Victory Speech upvalue with a shared table if you need to keep shared state among several C functions. (You may use luaL_setfuncs to gautama open a C library with all functions sharing a common upvalue.) To manipulate the environment of a userdata (which is now called user value), use the A Comparison of I a Dream and Victory by Barack Obama new functions lua_getuservalue and lua_setuservalue . Lua identifiers cannot use locale-dependent letters. Doing a step or a full collection in the garbage collector does not restart the collector if it has been stopped. Weak tables with weak keys now perform like ephemeron tables . The event tail return in debug hooks was removed.

Instead, tail calls generate a special new event, tail call , so that the debugger can know that there will not be a corresponding return event. Equality between function values has changed. Now, a function definition may not create a new value; it may reuse some previous value if there is no observable difference to the new function. Function module is deprecated. It is easy to set up a module with regular Lua code. Modules are not expected to set global variables.

Functions setfenv and getfenv were removed, because of the changes in aboriginal essay environments. Function math.log10 is A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin Obama deprecated. Use math.log with 10 as its second argument, instead. Function loadstring is deprecated. Use load instead; it now accepts string arguments and aboriginal health issues essay are exactly equivalent to loadstring . Function table.maxn is deprecated. Write it in Lua if you really need it. Function os.execute now returns true when command terminates successfully and a Dream Luther King and Victory by Barack nil plus error information otherwise.

Function unpack was moved into the table library and therefore must be called as table.unpack . Character class %z in patterns is deprecated, as now patterns may contain ' 0 ' as a regular character. Application Writing. The table package.loaders was renamed package.searchers . Lua does not have bytecode verification anymore. So, all functions that load code ( load and loadfile ) are potentially insecure when loading untrusted binary data. (Actually, those functions were already insecure because of flaws in the verification algorithm.) When in doubt, use the mode argument of those functions to restrict them to loading textual chunks. The standard paths in the official distribution may change between versions. Pseudoindex LUA_GLOBALSINDEX was removed. You must get the global environment from the registry (see §4.5). Pseudoindex LUA_ENVIRONINDEX and functions lua_getfenv / lua_setfenv were removed, as C functions no longer have environments.

Function luaL_register is deprecated. Use luaL_setfuncs so that your module does not create globals. (Modules are not expected to set global variables anymore.) The osize argument to the allocation function may not be zero when creating a new block, that is, when ptr is A Comparison of I Luther and Victory by Barack NULL (see lua_Alloc ). Prostitution In The Uk. Use only the test ptr == NULL to check whether the block is A Comparison of I Have a Dream King and Victory Speech new. What Is Hellenization. Finalizers ( __gc metamethods) for userdata are called in the reverse order that they were marked for finalization, not that they were created (see §2.5.1). (Most userdata are marked immediately after they are created.) Moreover, if the metatable does not have a __gc field when set, the finalizer will not be called, even if it is set later. luaL_typerror was removed. Write your own version if you need it. Function lua_cpcall is A Comparison of I Have a Dream Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack Obama deprecated. Is Hellenization. You can simply push the function with lua_pushcfunction and A Comparison of I a Dream by Martin Luther King Speech by Barack Obama call it with lua_pcall . What Is Hellenization. Functions lua_equal and lua_lessthan are deprecated.

Use the new lua_compare with appropriate options instead. Function lua_objlen was renamed lua_rawlen . King By Barack Obama. Function lua_load has an extra parameter, mode . Pass NULL to simulate the old behavior. Function lua_resume has an extra parameter, from aboriginal health issues essay, . Pass NULL or the thread doing the call. Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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Also discuss your career plans and why you want to Factors Influencing Essays, obtain an MBA. Early in A Comparison Luther and Victory Speech by Barack Obama, my childhood, the Factors Influencing The Exchange Internet became more than just a luxury--it became a necessity. My father moved from Singapore to Indonesia to of I a Dream by Martin Luther Speech Obama, start a textile company when I was four years old, leaving me alone with my mother. Biography Of Kurt! To alleviate the pressures of of I a Dream Speech Obama, separation, I developed the computer skills needed for electronic communication and was able to remain in of kurt cobain, close contact with my father. This experience solidified my interest in information technology and exposed me to A Comparison a Dream and Victory by Barack, the enormous potential of this developing field. In the summer of 1992, I exploited my knowledge of IT to help those in my community. I volunteered at a local library, helping people with computer and Internet-related questions. Also at application writing that time, my father's business had launched many technological changes that led to A Comparison King, the automation of its production line. These improvements had saved his company from bankruptcy. Visiting him and seeing how the new system had increased his profits heightened my interest in IT.

I now live in Canada, where computers continue to play a large role in my daily affairs. Issues! I use electronic mail and Internet chats to communicate with both parents, and have chosen management information systems as my course of study. Information technology fascinates me not only because it makes companies more competitive, but also because it can bridge great distances to bring people together. I have much respect for and interest in the IT industry. Personal satisfaction also plays a key role in my career decision. While monetary rewards are of Luther Speech by Barack, practical importance, true job satisfaction springs from the opportunity to grow and learn within an industry. Application For Job! I enjoy acquiring new skills and information, which help me to adapt to the fast-changing world, as well as pique my interest in innovation. In addition, a career with open prospects would give me constant incentive to improve myself and to gain more knowledge.

I currently volunteer for A Comparison of I Have King and Victory Speech by Barack, an on-campus organization, Job Web, in buddhism, which I am responsible for posting employment opportunities on the World Wide Web, answering questions and preparing informative handouts. A Comparison Have Luther By Barack! This position has broadened my computing abilities and has improved my interpersonal skills, which are crucial to Factors, any business endeavor. I enjoy the sense of productivity and usefulness I gain from the work, and feel it is A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin and Victory Obama a valuable experience for future employment. Given the confluence of my personal and professional interests, my goal is to obtain a master's degree and then to writing for job, work in an IT-related industry, either with a consulting firm or as a systems analyst with a financial institution. In addition to this, I plan to use my private time to attend computer programming courses in A Comparison of I a Dream Luther and Victory by Barack Obama, order to maintain a competitive knowledge of technology. When I have gathered enough experience and skills, I plan to launch a consulting company of application, my own.

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Your original paragraph was a bit too general, so I anchored your assertions in application, concrete fact to make them more compelling. Although monetary reward is practically important in reality. This is A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory by Barack Obama redundant. I suggest the following: While monetary rewards are of practical importance. I like learning new skills and acquiring up-dated information, because they can help me adapt the fast-changing world, enrich my experiences, explore my interest, and give me higher self-esteem as I am a valuable person. This is too effusive. I have provided a shorter version of this idea below. I have improved the Influencing The Exchange Essays diction of this paragraph to A Comparison of I by Martin Luther King, make it more compelling. I will attend a computer-programming course in order to continuously update myself and become more competitive. This construction is slightly awkward.

You can rephrase this idea as follows: I plan to use my private time to attend computer programming courses in order to maintain a competitive knowledge of cobain, technology. I have adjusted the tone of this paragraph to use a more confident voice. For instance, I replaced the phrase, the of I Have a Dream Luther Speech program can deepen expertise, with, such a program will deepen my expertise. This adjustment is subtle, but it makes a big difference. Your original introduction failed to biography of kurt, introduce your subject to the reader in an adequate fashion or to engage his attention. Rather than summarizing your arguments in an essay this short, it is better to provide a hook that draws your reader into the piece.

See my suggestion in the text. This paragraph was too wordy, and many of your arguments were redundant. I have streamlined your discussion to make it more direct, and Have by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack I have separated this paragraph into two parts to Influencing Rate, make it more readable. In addition, it was necessary to reduce the graphic description of your physical ailment. It is A Comparison of I Have Luther and Victory by Barack better to focus on how you overcame adversity rather than to dwell on how you suffered as a child. . full of of kurt cobain, ulcers, sores, bandages and scars. I always felt itchy and painful, and I dared not play with others. Moreover, my hairs had never been longer that two inches. These are distracting details that fail to illustrate how you overcame adversity.

I suggest reducing these descriptions to a minimum. During every examination and competition, I told myself that I was able to do the best because nothing was tougher than the time when I was in A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin Speech Obama, the primary school. This is a very powerful argument that does a great job of illustrating your resolve. Biography Cobain! I have highlighted and expanded upon this idea in A Comparison Have Luther and Victory by Barack, the revised essay. This paragraph is also best divided into two separate parts. To ensure that your essay reads smoothly, I have provided new transition sentences to each paragraph. However, I quickly found that I was wrong after we completed our first function.

This is a good place to vary sentence length for dramatic effect. I propose the following: I quickly learned my mistake. I followed up my members' tasks very strictly and did not accept their idea very often. While it is important to be honest, you should cast this detail in the most favorable light possible. I propose the following: I was strict with my team members and gautama often rejected their ideas in favor of my own. With all the changes I have proposed, you will have to use your judgment and A Comparison a Dream Speech Obama accept only those which you think are best. Overall, these essays now do a very good job of putting a human face on aboriginal essay, your application. Have Luther King Obama! I wish you the best of health essay, luck in the application process. See how EssayEdge experts from schools including Harvard, Yale and of I a Dream Luther Princeton can help you get into business school!

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Abuse Of Power In Animal Farm Essays and Research Papers. ‘The main source of power throughout the novel is the power of words, language and the use of rhetoric.’ Discuss the statement . A Comparison Of I Have Luther And Victory Obama! referring to the context, characters and events in the novel. The power of words refers to the ability of someone who is in the position of authority to influence or force people into submission. George Orwell’s Animal Farm is a satirical portrayal of the Soviet Revolution, as there are many similarities and equivalents of characters and events between the buddhism gautama novel and Soviet. Animal Farm , Communism , George Orwell 781 Words | 3 Pages. Corruption Of Power Can power really corrupt a person? Power can corrupt anybody who steps up as a . Of I Have A Dream By Martin Luther King Obama! leader, especially when power is unchecked.

In Animal Farm , by George Orwell, Snowball and Napoleon fight for the top spot as leader, but on the way they become corrupted. As the animals discover new things and obtain them the pigs cunningly keep it for themselves. Even do Snowball also became corrupted Napoleon showed cruel force and intimidation to aboriginal health issues the animals to keep his position. A Comparison Of I By Martin Luther And Victory Speech! Abuse , Animal Farm , Corruption 506 Words | 4 Pages. The Concept of for job Power in Animal Farm. Of I Have A Dream By Martin Luther By Barack! In the allegorical fable Animal Farm by George Orwell, power is Factors Influencing The Exchange Rate Essays, shown in the way the animals take . over the farm to achieve their own means, with the conclusion drawn by Orwell that Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely. To begin with, Old Major, a highly respected old boar, uses his position of trust to influence the other animals that it is of I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King by Barack Obama, time for change. To do this, he uses the power of application oratory, using a number of Have a Dream Luther King and Victory Speech Obama persuasive techniques. The Roman philosopher Cicero.

Allegory , Animal Farm , George Orwell 928 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Power has many facets which are evident in society. Discuss in reference to the core text studied and the supplementary material . In the novel, Animal Farm by of kurt cobain, George Orwell and the film, The Power of One directed by John G. Avildsen show many aspects of power which are evident in society. A Comparison A Dream By Martin By Barack! Themes further expressed in both materials include, Power through leadership and corruption, power through violence and submission, power of control over the intellectually inferior and . These are. Abuse , Animal Farm , Bullying 1043 Words | 2 Pages. Biography Of Kurt Cobain! The Abuse of Language in Animal Farm. ?The Abuse of A Comparison of I by Martin Languagein Animal Farm : By: Karwan ?zkurt Animal Farmis a great work by Orwell that . includes many things that are real in life. In his book, Bloom says that, “sixty years have passed debating over the ultimate political meaning of Animal Farm , but it owes partly to its use of propaganda” (Bloom, 2007:53). The corruptions and distortions of language which helped Napoleon to have a dictatorial government in Animal Farm became a particular concern of Orwell’s last years.

In his essay. Animal Farm , Dictatorship , Mammal 1419 Words | 6 Pages. Foreshadowed Abuse of Power in Animal Farm by George Orwell. The abuse of health power is a Dream by Martin Luther King Speech by Barack Obama, foreshadowed several times in Animal Farm . First of what all, you've got Napoleon. . Have A Dream King By Barack! The name in itself is foreshadowing. Napoleon, the man, was an application, ignoramus who wanted nothing more than power . He didn't really care about the people he stepped all over to get it, so long as he got it. Napoleon, the pig, is eventually brandished as having a personality all too similar to that of the man. Then there's the AWOL milk incident. It's obvious that the pigs did something with it: 'Never. Animal Farm , Dog , Dog health 749 Words | 3 Pages. Hunger for Have a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech Obama Power In kindergarten, many usually want to be the line leader. For some, leadership comes naturally and aboriginal health essay, taking charge of of I Luther King and Victory Speech things is of kurt, . what they like to do.

For others, it is easier to stay in the shadows and let other people lead. However, this leads to problems when one person or group pirates power and uses it to one’s advantage. In the novel, Animal Farm , the author, George Orwell, creates a story where animals revolt and expel their neglectful owner, Farmer Jones, from the farm . The pigs. Animal Farm , George Orwell , Leon Trotsky 1977 Words | 5 Pages. Animal Farm : The Nature of Power Describe at least one idea that was worth learning about. Explain why the idea . was worth learning about in the text. In George Orwell’s book Animal Farm an idea that was worth learning about was the corruptive nature of power , and the effects it has on those who wield it. “ Power tends to corrupt; absolute power corrupts absolutely.” -Lord Acton. This is important because it gives the reader an insight on Orwell’s theory on why most communist revolutions and. Alcoholic beverage , Animal Farm , George Orwell 1241 Words | 4 Pages.

full title · Animal Farm : A Fairy Story author · George Orwell (pseudonym of Eric Arthur Blair) type of A Comparison of I Have a Dream Luther and Victory Obama work · . Novella genre · Dystopian animal fable; satire; allegory; political roman a clef (French for what “novel with a key”—a thinly veiled expose of factual persons or events) language · English time and place written · 1943–1944, in London date of first publication · 1946 publisher · Harcourt Brace Company narrator · Animal Farm is the only work by Orwell in. Animal Farm , Fiction , George Orwell 620 Words | 3 Pages. Animal Farm , by George Orwell, is a complex book, which conveys a lot information. The book is basically a parallel of the . Russian Revolution, but Orwell also wrote this book with, as an objective, to understand the major theme: `` power corrupts``. This theme is obviously presented in A Comparison Have by Martin King Speech, the novel, but to Factors Influencing Rate simplify your understanding of A Comparison of I King Speech this essay, Napoleon will be used as an example of a corrupted individual by power . To conclude this introduction, the corruption of Napoleon will be presented under.

Animal Farm , Corruption , George Orwell 1052 Words | 3 Pages. ?Question 3: “ Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely.” To what extent does this saying apply to George Orwell’s . Biography Of Kurt Cobain! Animal Farm ? The quote “ power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely” made by Lord Acton relates to the novel Animal Farm significantly. This quote expresses the fact that power can be abused and some infamous cases in history has shown that this can end in a tragedy. Power is A Comparison of I Have a Dream and Victory by Barack Obama, a way through which authority and control is developed. Biography Cobain! It can be attained through the. Animal Farm , Corruption , George Orwell 908 Words | 3 Pages. ‘The main source of power throughout the novel is the power of words, language and the use of the rhetoric.’ Discuss the . statement referring to of I a Dream the context, characters, and events in the novel. Biography Of Kurt Cobain! Thesis Statement There are many parallels between the Russian Revolution and ensuing Communist takeover and the events in of I a Dream Obama, George Orwell’s novel Animal Farm . Writing For Job! It was a time when a totalitarian government came to power and thus a climate of of I by Martin Luther and Victory fear existed. Application Writing For Job! Even when the more discerning animals questioned the pigs’. Animal , Animal Farm , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 2322 Words | 7 Pages. ?ENG2D 27 March 2013 Animal Farm “The greater the power , the more dangerous the . abuse ”. The unpleasant human characteristics of selfishness and greed are dominant throughout this piece of literature.

There is an A Comparison of I a Dream Luther Speech by Barack Obama, automatic crave for power but once that is issues, achieved, everyone still yearns for more proving that nothing can satisfy man. A Comparison Of I Have A Dream By Martin Luther King By Barack Obama! In the novel Animal Farm , George Orwell explores the subject of power corruption and the influence it may hold over of kurt, a leader despite good intentions. He. Animal Farm , Corruption , Dictatorship 1019 Words | 5 Pages. Animals are not the brightest or powerful thing on earth, but in this case this pig is A Comparison of I Have Luther King and Victory, very intelligent and knows how to . Gautama! abuse and misuse power . Napoleon used brilliance, cunning, treachery, propaganda and a lot of other skills to gain, create and maintain power . He succeeded. Animal farm remained under his cruelty throughout the novel. In the novel “ Animal Farm ” by George Orwell, explains the Have by Martin Luther King and Victory three ways that the what is hellenization pigs, particularly Napoleon, manages to overtake the farm is by of I Have a Dream Luther and Victory Speech by Barack Obama, the use. Animal , Animal Farm , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 1528 Words | 4 Pages. ?.Can power really corrupt a person?

Power can corrupt anybody who steps up as a leader, especially when power is Factors Influencing Rate, . By Martin Luther King And Victory By Barack! unchecked. Biography Of Kurt! In Animal Farm , by George Orwell, Snowball and Napoleon fight for the top spot as leader, but on the way they become corrupted. As the animals discover new things and of I a Dream by Barack Obama, obtain them the buddhism gautama pigs cunningly keep it for A Comparison King Speech themselves. Is Hellenization! Even do Snowball also became corrupted Napoleon showed cruel force and intimidation to the animals to keep his position. Snowball became corrupt at A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin and Victory Speech some point. What Is Hellenization! Animal Farm , Communism , George Orwell 979 Words | 2 Pages. PlotManor Farm is a former prosperous farm that has fallen on hard times, and A Comparison Have by Martin and Victory Speech by Barack, suffers under the now ineffective leadership of its . drunken and aggressive owner, Mr. Jones. One night, Old Major, the prize boar and the second-oldest on the farm , calls the animals on Factors The Exchange Essays, the farm for A Comparison of I Have by Martin Luther and Victory by Barack Obama a meeting, where he compares the humans to parasites and what is hellenization, encourages them to break free from their tyrant's influence, while reminding them that they must hold true to their convictions after they have gained freedom. With that.

Animal Farm , Dogs , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 936 Words | 3 Pages. This relates to Animal Farm because all of the a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory farm animals do not like oppression but they have a . bunch of oppressors among them. The pigs control the prostitution farm animals in every way possible and frankly they are sick and tired of it. Animal Farm by A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack, George Orwell shows that oppression is at the heart of so much sorrow in life, and that the abuse of power is at the heart of oppression. Napoleons violence and Squealers mind-control are the two forms of what power and abuse that keep the poor animals oppressed. . A Comparison Have Speech By Barack! Abuse , Animal Farm , Bullying 972 Words | 3 Pages. Animal Cruelty: Physical Abuse of Animal in Traditional Farm.

Effects of Factors The Exchange Essays Animal Cruelty? Dalvi Herrera English 135 Professor Michael Gurin August.25, 2012 Do you know what animal . cruelty is? This is a common question where people would probably answer with the same response. The thing is of I by Martin Luther Speech by Barack, that do you really know what animal cruelty is? Animal cruelty is not only physical abuse that animals receive but also on many other factors. This type of animal cruelty mostly occurs on industrial farms . Buddhism! You’re also probably wondering what an industrial farm is. Well. Agriculture , Animal rights , Animal welfare 2109 Words | 6 Pages. is what he does with power ”(Plato). With this quote, we can judge a man for what he is truly worth when authority is given to him. A Comparison Of I Have By Martin Luther And Victory Speech By Barack Obama! In both . Buddhism! novels the antagonists do not use the power wisely, and this makes the protagonists miserable. That being said, power shapes the life we live.

Power can be good; it can be bad; but it plays a huge role in who we are. A Comparison Of I Have By Martin And Victory! There are many similarities in Speak and Animal Farm . Starting with similarities in theme are there is an abuse of the prostitution in the power . Napoleon uses it to. Animal Farm , Antagonist , English-language films 1170 Words | 3 Pages. 2013 Animal Abuse Whether an animal did something to make you mad or upset, you are going through a rough time, . or simply just because you want to, animal abuse is wrong in every way and our society should have more stringent laws against it. Many people take animals for granted and animal abuse is A Comparison of I Luther and Victory Speech, something people see and application writing for job, hear about all of the time, yet in today’s society people tend to turn a blind eye on it. Every animal deserves the right to live just as us humans do. An animal is a. Abuse , Animal rights , Child abuse 892 Words | 3 Pages. Power and Corruption in Animal Farm No question now, what had happened to the faces of the pigs.

The creatures . outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which (Orwell 97). A Dream And Victory By Barack! In George Orwell’s Animal Farm , the struggle between pigs’ path to power over the other barnyard animals is Rate Essays, symbolic of the Russian Revolution. After the animals overthrow the human leader, they attempt to establish a government based on. Animal , Animal Farm , George Orwell 1396 Words | 4 Pages. A Comparison Of I A Dream By Martin King And Victory Speech By Barack! ?Analysis of the book Animal Farm The book Animal Farm is a novel by George Orwell. It was . written during World War II, but was not printed until after the war in 1945. The book intends to show that Russia was not a true democratic socialist country, and is at the same time a parody of Stalinist Russia. In this book analysis I will try to find similarities between George Orwell's fiction in the book and the actual people and events of the Russian revolution. Animal Farm is set in Factors Influencing The Exchange Rate Essays, an unspecified.

Animal Farm , Communism , Joseph Stalin 1330 Words | 4 Pages. Farm Exploitation: Animal Abuse in the Farm Society today runs on ignorance, with many people that . do not have the knowledge of where their food source derives. A Comparison Of I Have By Martin Obama! There are many cases reported every day of people abusing their pets or wild animals , but most cases of animal abuse happen at the factory farm . There are over aboriginal, 139,000 factory farms in the United States. A Comparison Of I Have By Martin Luther King Speech! They slaughter over 27 million cows, hogs, and hens every day for application our convenience (Food Inc.). Consider yourself in the position of the. Animal rights , Chicken , Factory 1491 Words | 4 Pages. Animal Farm setting in time within the Russian Revolution In the fictional story Animal Farm , . A Comparison Of I A Dream Luther King By Barack! Orwell uses his farm to symbolize the communist system during the Russian Revolution.

The original intention of overthrowing the farm owner, Mr. Jones, is not entirely wrong. Nearly all of writing Mr. Jones principles and harsh mistreatment of the animals proves to the reader that communism is not equality, but just another form of unfairness. The rulers of the farm were typically the pigs and dogs because they.

Animal Farm , Communism , George Orwell 953 Words | 3 Pages. now called Manor Farm , I have been afraid. I have not been willing to take action against Have Luther King Speech by Barack the corrupt and biography cobain, oppressive. My story has been . captured and retold in the satirical novel Animal Farm by George Orwell. My life here on Manor Farm has always been the same, unchanging. First, Mr. Jones owned and fed us while also making us work for him. Then, the animals rebelled, and we owned ourselves. This is of course until the pigs were given too much responsibility in leading the farm that they took. Animal Farm , Corruption , George Orwell 1292 Words | 4 Pages.

Power will lead to corruption. Power is an A Comparison of I a Dream by Martin Luther King by Barack, evil which plagued the modern system. Power has a correlation to gautama . Have By Martin And Victory Speech! corruption. This is a world-wide phenomenon in Rate Essays, the modern era, also the past. Power given by a group to A Comparison of I Have a Dream Luther and Victory Speech an individual will inevitably corrupt him/her. Over centuries, it has become evident that, leadership can result to corruption and disorder. Power can corrupt any living being who takes the Influencing role as a leader. Adolf Hitler was corrupted by his thirst for leadership and subjugation, which led. Of I Luther And Victory Speech By Barack Obama! Animal , Animal Farm , George Orwell 2262 Words | 6 Pages. Prostitution Uk! ?Critical essay Animal Farm – George Orwell George Orwell’s allegorical fable Animal Farm by Have a Dream Luther King, . Is Hellenization! George Orwell depicts Napoleon as the supreme leader and how the power gradually corrupts him into becoming everything they fought against in the rebellion. A Comparison Have Luther And Victory By Barack Obama! Using the buddhism quote “ power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely” fits well with Napoleon and his reign as a leader. I believe Napoleon has always wanted power , however it came to be.

He, and many of the a Dream Luther by Barack Obama other pigs, took no part in the rebellion. Is Hellenization! Animal Farm , Corruption , George Orwell 803 Words | 2 Pages. Animal Farm Essay The book Animal Farm is a story about a farm on which the . animals fight for much more than just the best stall to sleep in. The book is basically summed up into all of the animals taking over the farm and running it on their own. In the book there is a very prominent power struggle between two pigs, Snowball and Napoleon. When compared, they actually are very similar and also very different. In my opinion, Snowball will always be remembered as the honest and of I Luther by Barack, actually cared.

Animal Farm , Difference , Dogs 826 Words | 3 Pages. Napoleon Gained Power over Animal Farm. Throughout the novel “ Animal Farm ” by gautama, George Orwell, Napoleon gained, managed and maintained his power over the . animals of the of I by Martin Speech by Barack Obama farm . Napoleon gained power over the animals by using force, propaganda, manipulating the animals and sending his opposition into exile. His style of leadership involved using the media to support his decisions, enforcing a variety of new laws and in the uk, using fear to a Dream by Martin King Speech by Barack Obama keep himself in a position of superiority over the other animals . By changing events to his advantage and implementing. Prostitution In The! Animal , Animal Farm , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 811 Words | 3 Pages. 200125 March 2010 Animal Farm : Book Review Animal Farm is a dystopian, allegorical novel written . by A Comparison of I a Dream Luther by Barack Obama, George Orwell and aboriginal essay, published in 1945. A Comparison Of I Have And Victory Obama! Orwell was a novelist as well as a journalist, and is best known for his narrative documentaries and application, his novellas', including “Nineteen Eighty-Four,” and “ Animal Farm .” His novella “ Animal Farm ” mirrors events in Russia that lead up to the Revolution and lasted during “Stalin era,” and exhibits noteworthy symbolism between common farm animals and important communist/socialist. Animal Farm , Communism , George Orwell 1076 Words | 3 Pages. The novel Animal Farm , by George Orwell, was an allegory about the Russian Revolution in which the author used a . farm and it's members to of I Have a Dream by Martin King and Victory Speech Obama symbolize major characters and their actions. Gautama! In this composition, I will reveal to you many of of I a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack Joseph Stalin' s important contributions and how they relate to the actions of Napoleon from Animal Farm . I will break this topic down into the following three parts, their rise to power , Stalin's Five Year Plan, and their use and abuse of authority. br brWhen Lenin.

Adolf Hitler , Animal Farm , Great Purge 926 Words | 3 Pages. The Exchange Essays! Compare and contrast Napoleon and Snowball. A Dream By Martin Speech Obama! What techniques do they use in their struggle for power ? Does Snowball represent a morally . legitimate political alternative to biography the corrupt leadership of Napoleon? As Joseph Stalin did, Napoleon prefers to work behind the a Dream Luther King Speech by Barack Obama scenes to build his power through manipulation and deal-making, while Snowball devotes himself, as Leon Trotsky did, to winning popular support through his ideas, passionate speeches, and success in debates with his opponent. What Is Hellenization! Snowball. Animal Farm , George Orwell , Joseph Stalin 1385 Words | 6 Pages. characters. In the self-proclaimed novel, ‘ Animal Farm ’, the A Comparison Have a Dream by Barack Obama author George Orwell uses his allegorical farm to . symbolise the communist system. Animal farm was published at the beginning of World War II, in England in 1945 and in the United States in 1946.

George Orwell wrote the book during the war as a cautionary fable in order to expose the seriousness of the dangers posed by the totalitarian government. The novel ‘ Animal Farm ’ centres on a group of animals , who decide to fulfil Old Major’s dream. Allegory , Animal , Animal Farm 2212 Words | 6 Pages. ? Animal Farm : Critical Essay In the era of the writing Russian Revolution George Orwell wrote the Have a Dream and Victory by Barack fable known as “ Animal . Writing! Farm ” to highlight the events and outcome of the revolution. Orwell symbolises iconic figures during the A Comparison of I a Dream King and Victory by Barack revolution through the use of farm animals such as pigs, cows and donkeys. Throughout the what novel Orwell takes us through the story of the animals and how they deal with overtaking the human race, food shortages, deaths and have to Luther and Victory by Barack Obama tolerate with the horrors of having a tyrannical leader. Animal Farm , Dogs , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 1488 Words | 4 Pages. ? Every day animals are abused and it’s simply ignored. Humans think it’s okay to take out their sick acrions on for job, these helpless . animals , just because they cannot talk. Animal cruelty issues are the people’s issues. A Comparison Of I Have Luther King And Victory By Barack! When animals are abused the people are at risk as well. 13% of intentional animal abuse cases involve domestic abuse violence.

Animal cruelty is no longer a ‘little’ issue, this can lead to long term psychological effects to not only the animals but the humans as well. This leaves the. Abuse , Animal cruelty , Bullying 893 Words | 3 Pages. Is Hellenization! ?Essay Question: Those in power will inevitably become corrupt. To what extent do you agree? George Orwell’s novel, Animal . Farm shows the overlaying theme of the corruption of power . Power , more often than not, causes the bearer to become corrupt, which causes them to lose most sense, besides that, which will get them more power . In the beginning of the A Comparison Luther Speech novel we are introduced to Old Major. He holds power on prostitution in the, Manor Farm . Old Major uses his power to introduce Animalism and A Comparison King Speech Obama, the Seven Commandments. Animal Farm , Corruption , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 1107 Words | 2 Pages. The Power of Language in Animal Farm by what is hellenization, George Orwell. The Power of Language George Orwell, writer of the A Comparison by Martin King and Victory Speech novel Animal Farm shows how the . abuse of language becomes a vehicle for the abuse of power . Napoleon is intelligent enough to of kurt understand how he can use Squealer to promote propaganda in order to entrench himself as the A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin Speech leader. Biography Of Kurt! Napoleon uses Squealer as his spokesman because Napoleon does not possess the a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory oral skills Squealer has.

Squealer does nothing of his own, but only under Napoleon’s orders. George Orwell uses the character Napoleon. Animal Farm , Bed , Deception 1161 Words | 4 Pages. Convenor : Dr. Benjamin Keatinge Title of the Assignment: “In what ways does Orwell criticize Soviet Communism in Animal Farm . and to aboriginal issues essay what extent is his analysis based on real historical events?” George Orwell’s “ Animal Farm ” is a master piece where as politics and satire are concerned. It is a tale where animals as individuals are oppressed by their owner Mr. Jones. The animals , which can speak and actually share a lot of human characteristics, are being mistreated and neglected having wanted. Animal Farm , Communism , Leon Trotsky 931 Words | 3 Pages.

August 2014 George Orwell, the author of the novel Animal Farm describes how the of I by Martin animals on the . farm use self- preservation in order to protect themselves from the in the damage that the humans are causing. One particular character Squealer, who was a pig in second in command to the leader also known as “Leader Comrade Napoleon.” Squealer is an essential asset to A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin Luther King Speech by Barack Napoleon, cause he uses Squealer to biography deliver messages to the other animals on the farm . Although Squealer is important to Napoleon, Squealer. Animal Farm , Food preservation , George Orwell 939 Words | 4 Pages. Loyalty is A Comparison of I a Dream King and Victory by Barack, Power Loyalty is the prostitution uk willingness to make an Have a Dream by Martin, investment or personal sacrifice to strengthen a cause. Loyal subjects are . vulnerable to exploitation because of their trust in their leader’s agenda.

In George Orwell’s political satire, Animal Farm , a pig named Napoleon leads the animals of Manor Farm in a rebellion against writing the tyrannical farmer Mr. Jones. They succeed in driving away all the humans, turning the of I Have a Dream Luther King Speech Obama farm into an animal utopia, and establishing their own system of government. Factors Influencing The Exchange Rate! Animal Farm , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood , George Orwell 1381 Words | 4 Pages. initiating the war with Japan. The lack of people caused issues in factories and of I a Dream Obama, farms which then resulted in a shortage of food and material. What Is Hellenization! . The people rioted against the poor conditions and low pay but Czar Nicholas did not agree and came back at them with violence. This is what caused the Russian Revolution. In Animal Farm , the animals of Manor Farm felt that their farmer, Mr. Jones, was treating the animals of the farm poorly by A Comparison of I a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack, letting them go hungry for gautama days, lashing out at them, making them work.

Animal , Animal Farm , Dogs 1895 Words | 6 Pages. Animal Farm George Orwell who wrote Animal Farm uses animals to show how the . influences and nature of A Comparison a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory power can be used for buddhism gautama ultimate good or absolute evil. George attempts to show how the good idea of communism can be easily corrupted by the greed of the leader. A Comparison Have By Martin Luther King Speech By Barack! It is about a group of animals that rebel against the farm owner in order to gain control of the farm and to be treated with more respect. Influencing The Exchange Rate! Old Major explains was one of the most respected animals in the farm . He called a meeting one. Animal Farm , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood , Eric Burdon 1686 Words | 5 Pages. “ Animal Farm ” Bibliography: Orwell, George. Of I Have Luther King And Victory! “ Animal Farm .” New York: Penguin Books Ltd, 1989 . Introduction and Summary: Animal farm is an animal fable with a deliberate purpose. Buddhism Gautama! It is very realistic about society and its politics. There are a number of conflicts in A Comparison a Dream Luther King Speech by Barack Obama, Animal Farm : the animals versus Mr. Jones, Snowball versus Napoleon, the common animals versus the health essay pigs, Animal Farm versus the neighbouring humans, but all of them are expressions of the underlying tension between the oppressors.

Animal , Animal Farm , Dogs 2584 Words | 7 Pages. A Comparison Of I A Dream Speech By Barack Obama! ? ANIMAL FARM —A Preliminary Bibliography Boos, Florence, and William Boos. Orwell's Morris And Old Major's Dream. English . Studies 71.4 (1990): 361-371. Academic Search Complete. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. Influencing The Exchange Essays! Compares and contrasts the A Comparison Have by Martin Luther Speech by Barack political literature of nineteenth century writer William Morris and health, twentieth century writer Eric Blair/George Orwell.

Morris wrote essays, journalism and poetry, including: News from Nowhere and The Earthly Paradise; George Orwell's novels: Animal Farm and A Comparison Luther King by Barack Obama, 1984;. Gautama! Animal Farm , Communism , Fairy tale 1240 Words | 5 Pages. is an inspiration to the other animals . Describe Boxers role in the novel and who or what does he symbolise? INTRODUCTION 1; George . Of I A Dream By Martin Luther King Speech! Orwell’s Animal Farm is a historical fable that represents the Russian revolution INTRODUCTION 2; In George Orwell’s historical fable Animal Farm , Boxer has an important role and is shown as the inspirational, dedicated, hard-working horse that is literally willing to die of labour for the benefit of the farm and the other animals . Boxer’s cry “I will work harder. Animal Farm , Communism , Karl Marx 781 Words | 3 Pages. Animal Farm - Karl Marx Is based on buddhism, the work of the German Philosopher Karl Marx Karl Marx was a German Philospher . Ms F Grech - Form 3 “The worker becomes all the poorer the more wealth he produces, the more his production increases in power and range. A Comparison Of I A Dream By Martin King And Victory Speech By Barack Obama! ” 1 Animal Farm - Karl Marx “The worker becomes an ever cheaper commodity the more commodities he creates. ” What does this mean? A useful or valuable thing Karl Marx was talking about cobain, Capitalism.

Capitalism , Communism , Karl Marx 313 Words | 4 Pages. Animal Farm: the morals of the novel. had written his novel “ Animal Farm ” in order to warn his readers for of I Have by Martin and Victory by Barack numerous reasons. In many parts of the novel, George Orwell . clearly portrayed how ignorance was a very big part as to why the buddhism animals were so easily controlled. This in theory, lead to the conflicted problems the animals had about equality.

In particularly, equality was the key idea of the relation between the Russian Revolution and a Dream Luther Speech, Animal Farm . Buddhism Gautama! Accordingly, George Orwell had expressed thoroughly how power can almost certainly be. Animal Farm , Communism , Leon Trotsky 1079 Words | 3 Pages. ? Animal abuse Richard D. A Comparison Of I Have A Dream By Martin Luther And Victory By Barack! Acton Colorado Christian University . Animal abuse . When Richard Acton was young he had a neighbor. The neighbor was on the small side. It always seemed as if he was getting bullied. He was so shy, he always stayed in his house. He was seldom seen in the yard playing or anything.

And if he appeared in the yard, he would not stay out long. One day Richard asked his parents about him, and what they thought. They told Richard to sit down that. Abuse , Animal control officer , Animal cruelty 2236 Words | 10 Pages. Animal Farm Research Paper George Orwell is the author of the book called Animal Farm , and he is prostitution in the uk, . probably most famous for A Comparison of I by Martin Luther King and Victory by Barack Obama this allegory that is based on the events of the Russian Revolution.

George Orwell wrote some of the best satirical fiction of the twentieth century and was a man of aboriginal health essay strong opinions. Of I Have A Dream Luther King By Barack! Animal Farm is an anti soviet satire and displays his view on Influencing The Exchange Rate Essays, the Russian revolution through this story (George Orwell 2). Of I By Martin King And Victory Speech By Barack! In this story “ Animal Farm ” by George Orwell, the prostitution in the uk characters and events. Communism , Leon Trotsky , Marxism 1394 Words | 4 Pages. Of I A Dream By Martin King And Victory By Barack! Animal Farm Journal Napoleon - “It was notices that they wagged their tails to health essay him in the same way as the other dogs had been . use to do to Mr. Of I Have A Dream And Victory Speech By Barack Obama! Jones.” (49) Napoleon may not have the brains but he sure as that cunning personality that makes him powerful. He never took part in any of the rebellion acts. In the Battle of the Cowshed, Napoleon was the only one injured while Snowball, the Factors The Exchange Rate Essays pig so called to be a traitor, was shot in the back. He never shows interest in A Comparison Have by Martin Luther by Barack, the rebellion until Snowball. Aerosmith , Animal , Animal Farm 863 Words | 3 Pages. ? Animal Farm Animal Farm is a novel written by George Orwell.

The novel was published by . Penguin-books in 1945. The story, Animal Farm , takes place on what is hellenization, a farm that eventually is controlled by Have by Martin Luther and Victory, animals . Orwell portrays the what consequences of of I a Dream by Martin Luther King by Barack a revolution where leaders misuse their power of influence. There will be a special focus on the use of language and propaganda in this essay. The owner of the farm , Mr. Jones, mistreats his livestock and the animals won’t tolerate it. A white boar, Old Major. Animal Farm , Communism , E. Is Hellenization! H. Carr 826 Words | 2 Pages. ? Animal farm Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950),[1] who used the pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, . essayist, journalist and critic. His work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism, and a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack, commitment todemocratic socialism.[2][3] Animal Farm is an allegorical and dystopian novella by George Orwell, first published in England on buddhism gautama, 17 August 1945.

According to Orwell, the book reflects events leading up to the Russian Revolution. Animal Farm , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood , George Orwell 1843 Words | 4 Pages. allegory ‘ Animal Farm ’ (first published in 1945), written by George Orwell, both convey the same themes and morals. The values . A Comparison Of I A Dream And Victory By Barack! presented by both Orwell and the Wachowski Brothers are abuse of power , lack of privacy and manipulation of people by the use of Influencing propaganda. The use of power can be taken for granted; it can be used for by Martin Luther and Victory Obama good or evil. Factors Influencing The Exchange Rate! In the movie, ‘The Matrix’ and the novel ‘ Animal Farm ’ they both overuse power for evil and it ends in horrible consequences. In the novel ‘ Animal Farm ’ the pigs.

Morpheus , The Animatrix , The Matrix 1029 Words | 3 Pages. Animal Farm Parallels the Russian Revolution. Animal farm essay: Every text is a reflection of it compositional context, this is A Comparison of I by Martin King Obama, evident in ‘ Animal . Farm ’ by George Orwell. The controversial and political corruptions that occurred in Russia during 1917 are portrayed in this book, which explores the corruption of socialist ideals in the Soviet Union and the negative impact on the uneducated working class people. Animal farm introducers the aboriginal health abuse of language to gain power , in order to satisfy personal greed as well. This book is allegorical as. Communism , Marxism , October Revolution 962 Words | 3 Pages. Lord of the Flies and Animal Farm. Shelley once said, “ Power , like a desolating pestilence, pollutes what’er it touches.” He meant that when somebody acquires a reasonable amount . of control or power over others, that dominance will eventually corrupt them. The corruption can quickly get to of I a Dream Luther King and Victory by Barack the point of extreme savagery emerging over respectable leadership, causing the people who are being ruled to suffer great hardship. This is exemplified in the novel, Lord of the Flies, by William Golding and in the film, Animal Farm , directed by John.

Animal Farm , Chicken , English-language films 1376 Words | 4 Pages. Animal farm Essay “What is the satirical comment that Orwell is trying to make in Animal Farm amp; . how does he achieve this?” George Orwell’s famous Allegorical Beast fable titled Animal Farm , comments on the Russian revolution and on the misuse and Influencing Rate, abuse of power . A master piece of political satire, Animal Farm is A Comparison a Dream King Speech by Barack Obama, a tale of oppressed individuals who long for freedom. Through his literary links to scapegoating, revisionism and propaganda Orwell makes a satirical comment on the way in which those. Is Hellenization! Animal Farm , Communism , George Orwell 754 Words | 2 Pages. A Dream Luther! ?Smit Kataria Hon. Eng. 10 Animal Farm The Power of Symbols 5/4/14 How many times in your . Influencing Rate! life have you seen symbols? Symbols are everywhere, and they have many different meanings. Symbols can symbolize words, emotions, people, places, events and more. In the book Animal Farm by George Orwell, symbolism plays a huge role. The entire story symbolizes the Russian revolution. The people, animals , places, events and ideas all have a significant meaning relating to the revolution.

Animal Farm , Communism , George Orwell 1322 Words | 4 Pages. It is A Comparison of I a Dream King and Victory Speech Obama, fear alone that controls the buddhism lower animals in Animal Farm. ? Animal Farm Analytical Essay Topic: It is fear along with manipulation, propaganda, the ignorance of the lower . animals and the level of A Comparison a Dream Luther and Victory by Barack intelligence that the pigs have over aboriginal health essay, the other animals that controls the lower animals in George Orwell's Animal Farm . Fear, while extremely prominent, is not the only device used to control the lower animals in the allegorical masterpiece, Animal Farm by George Orwell. Along with fear, the pigs use manipulation, propaganda, the ignorance of the lower animals and. Animal , Animal Farm , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 1016 Words | 2 Pages. Of I Have A Dream King And Victory By Barack Obama! Symbolism and Allegory in Animal Farm. three aspects of Animal Farm : Old major, The Windmill and The Seven Commandments George Orwell uses symbols throughout the novel . Animal Farm to aboriginal health essay show how the of I a Dream by Martin upper class groups use manipulation to their advantage. Animal Farm in simple terms is the allegory of gautama a revolution gone sour. A Comparison Of I And Victory Speech Obama! Animalism, Communism, and Fascism are all the symbols which are used by what, the pigs as a means of satisfying their greed and Have a Dream Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack, lust for power . As Lord Acton wrote: Power tends to corrupt; absolute power corrupts absolutely”. Cobain! Animal , Animal Farm , Communism 1648 Words | 4 Pages.

Major had a dream, few speculated that it would ultimately turn into a nightmare for the inhabitants of Animal Farm . A Comparison Of I Have By Martin King Speech Obama! Old Major . fantasized about biography of kurt, a free society where animals would live in harmony and where they would work for themselves as opposed to working for free and being deprived of their work by of I Have Luther, humans who would use it for their own profit. Old Major illustrates the suppression of the Rate Essays animals which strongly resembles the of I by Martin by Barack Obama work of Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan when he states, “our lives are miserable. Animal Farm , Communism , Friedrich Engels 1969 Words | 5 Pages.

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Focus and A Comparison of I Have a Dream King Speech by Barack Obama, Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the Question. Stephanie Allen read Classics and English at St Hugh’s College, Oxford, and is currently researching a PhD in gautama, Early Modern Academic Drama at the University of Fribourg. We’ve all been there. You’ve handed in A Comparison a Dream by Martin Speech by Barack, an essay and buddhism gautama, you think it’s pretty great: it shows off all your best ideas, and contains points you’re sure no one else will have thought of. You’re not totally convinced that what you’ve written is relevant to A Comparison and Victory Speech Obama, the title you were given – but it’s inventive, original and good. In fact, it might be better than anything that would have responded to the question. But your essay isn’t met with the lavish praise you expected. What. When it’s tossed back onto of I Have by Martin Luther and Victory, your desk, there are huge chunks scored through with red pen, crawling with annotations like little red fire ants: ‘IRRELEVANT’; ‘A bit of a tangent!’; ‘. Uk. ’; and, right next to your best, most impressive killer point: ‘Right… so?’. The grade your teacher has scrawled at the end is A Comparison by Martin and Victory Speech, nowhere near what your essay deserves. In fact, it’s pretty average.

And the comment at the bottom reads something like, ‘Some good ideas, but you didn’t answer the question!’. If asked a question about application writing Keats, you should write about Keats. If this has ever happened to you (and it has happened to me, a lot), you’ll know how deeply frustrating it is – and how unfair it can seem. This might just be me, but the Have Luther and Victory Speech by Barack exhausting process of researching, having ideas, planning, writing and buddhism, re-reading makes me steadily more attached to the ideas I have, and the things I’ve managed to put on A Comparison of I a Dream Luther the page. Each time I scroll back through what I’ve written, or planned, so far, I become steadily more convinced of its brilliance.

What started off as a scribbled note in the margin, something extra to think about or to pop in if it could be made to prostitution uk, fit the A Comparison by Martin and Victory Speech by Barack argument, sometimes comes to be backbone of a whole essay – so, when a tutor tells me my inspired paragraph about Ted Hughes’s interpretation of mythology isn’t relevant to my essay on Keats, I fail to application, see why. Or even if I can see why, the thought of taking it out is Have a Dream by Martin King and Victory Obama, wrenching. Who cares if it’s a bit off-topic? It should make my essay stand out, if anything! And an examiner would probably be happy not to read yet another answer that makes exactly the same points. If you recognise yourself in the above, there are two crucial things to realise. The first is that something has to change: because doing well in high school exam or coursework essays is almost totally dependent on being able to pin down and organise lots of ideas so that an examiner can see that they convincingly answer a question. And it’s a real shame to work hard on writing something, have good ideas, and not get the marks you deserve. Writing a top essay is A Comparison a Dream Luther and Victory Obama, a very particular and actually quite simple challenge. It’s not actually that important how original you are, how compelling your writing is, how many ideas you get down, or how beautifully you can express yourself (though of course, all these things do have their rightful place).

What you’re doing, essentially, is using a limited amount of time and knowledge to really answer a question. It sounds obvious, but a good essay should have the buddhism gautama title or question as its focus the whole way through . It should answer it ten times over of I by Martin King and Victory by Barack – in every single paragraph, with every fact or figure. Treat your reader (whether it’s your class teacher or an external examiner) like a child who can’t do any interpretive work of their own; imagine yourself leading them through your essay by the hand, pointing out buddhism that you’ve answered the question here , and here , and here. Now, this is A Comparison by Martin and Victory Speech Obama, all very well, I imagine you objecting, and much easier said than done. But never fear! Structuring an buddhism essay that knocks a question on the head is something you can learn to do in a couple of easy steps. Of I Have By Barack Obama. In the next few hundred words, I’m going to share with you what I’ve learned through endless, mindless crossings-out, rewordings, rewritings and prostitution uk, rethinkings. I’ve lost count of the A Comparison of I Have Luther King by Barack number of times I’ve been told to buddhism, ‘write the question at the top of every new page’- but for of I Have by Martin by Barack Obama, some reason, that trick simply doesn’t work for application, me. A Comparison Of I Have By Barack Obama. If it doesn’t work for you either, use this three-part process to allow the question to structure your essay: 1) Work out exactly what you’re being asked. It sounds really obvious, but lots of students have trouble answering questions because they don’t take time to figure out exactly what they’re expected to do – instead, they skim-read and in the uk, then write the essay they want to write.

Sussing out a question is a two-part process, and the first part is easy. It means looking at the directions the question provides as to what sort of essay you’re going to write. I call these ‘command phrases’ and will go into more detail about what they mean below. Of I A Dream Luther Obama. The second part involves identifying key words and phrases. Use forceful, persuasive language to show how the points you’ve made do answer the question. Health Issues Essay. My main focus so far has been on tangential or irrelevant material – but many students lose marks even though they make great points, because they don’t quite impress how relevant those points are. Again, I’ll talk about how you can do this below.

3) Be brutally honest with yourself about whether a point is relevant before you write it. It doesn’t matter how impressive, original or interesting it is. Have A Dream By Martin And Victory By Barack Obama. It doesn’t matter if you’re panicking, and you can’t think of aboriginal health, any points that do answer the question. Have Luther. If a point isn’t relevant, don’t bother with it. It’s a waste of prostitution in the uk, time, and might actually work against you- if you put tangential material in an essay, your reader will struggle to A Comparison Have King, follow the Influencing thread of A Comparison of I Luther and Victory Speech Obama, your argument, and lose focus on of kurt your really good points. ‘Macbeth and of I a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech, Banquo meeting the witches on the heath’ by Theodore Chasseriau. Let’s imagine you’re writing an English essay about the aboriginal health issues essay role and importance of the three witches in Macbeth . You’re thinking about the Have Luther King Speech Obama different ways in which Shakespeare imagines and presents the witches, how they influence the action of the tragedy, and perhaps the extent to The Exchange, which we’re supposed to believe in them (stay with me – you don’t have to know a single thing about Shakespeare or Macbeth to understand this bit!). Now, you’ll probably have a few good ideas on this topic – and whatever essay you write, you’ll most likely use much of the same material. However, the A Comparison of I a Dream by Martin Luther Speech Obama detail of the phrasing of the is hellenization question will significantly affect the way you write your essay. You would draw on similar material to address the following questions:

Discuss Shakespeare’s representation of the a Dream Luther three witches in biography of kurt cobain, Macbeth . How does Shakespeare figure the supernatural in Macbeth ? To what extent are the Have a Dream Luther King Speech by Barack Obama three witches responsible for Macbeth’s tragic downfall? Evaluate the importance of the three witches in bringing about Macbeth’s ruin. Are we supposed to believe in the three witches in Macbeth ? “Within Macbeth ’s representation of the health witches, there is a Dream by Martin Luther King Speech, profound ambiguity about the actual significance and buddhism, power of their malevolent intervention” (Stephen Greenblatt). Have A Dream King And Victory Speech By Barack Obama. Discuss. I’ve organised the examples into three groups, exemplifying the different types of application for job, questions you might have to Speech by Barack, answer in is hellenization, an exam. The first group are pretty open-ended: ‘discuss’- and ‘how’-questions leave you room to Have by Martin Luther Speech, set the scope of the essay. You can decide what the focus should be. What Is Hellenization. Beware, though – this doesn’t mean you don’t need a sturdy structure, or a clear argument, both of which should always be present in an essay. The second group are asking you to Have King and Victory Speech, evaluate, constructing an argument that decides whether, and how far something is true. Is Hellenization. Good examples of hypotheses (which your essay would set out to prove) for these questions are: The witches are the most important cause of tragic action in Macbeth.

The witches are partially, but not entirely responsible for Macbeth’s downfall, alongside Macbeth’s unbridled ambition, and that of his wife. We are not supposed to of I Have a Dream by Martin and Victory by Barack, believe the witches: they are a product of Macbeth’s psyche, and his downfall is issues essay, his own doing. The witches’ role in A Comparison a Dream by Martin Luther Speech Obama, Macbeth’s downfall is deliberately unclear. Their claim to reality is shaky – finally, their ambiguity is part of an uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the theatre. (N.B. It’s fine to conclude that a question can’t be answered in black and The Exchange Rate Essays, white, certain terms – as long as you have a firm structure, and A Comparison Have by Martin Speech by Barack, keep referring back to it throughout the application writing for job essay). The final question asks you to a Dream by Martin King by Barack Obama, respond to a quotation.

Students tend to what, find these sorts of questions the A Comparison a Dream King and Victory Obama most difficult to Factors Rate Essays, answer, but once you’ve got the A Comparison Have a Dream Luther King Speech Obama hang of them I think the title does most of the work for in the, you – often implicitly providing you with a structure for your essay. The first step is breaking down the quotation into its constituent parts- the different things it says. I use brackets: ( Within Macbeth ’s representation of the witches, ) ( there is profound ambiguity ) about the Have by Martin Luther King by Barack Obama ( actual significance ) ( and power ) of ( their malevolent intervention ) Examiners have a nasty habit of picking the most bewildering and terrifying-sounding quotations: but once you break them down, they’re often asking for something very simple. This quotation, for example, is buddhism gautama, asking exactly the same thing as the A Comparison of I Have Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack other questions. The trick here is making sure you respond to all the different parts.

You want to make sure you discuss the following: Do you agree that the status of the witches’ ‘malevolent intervention’ is ambiguous? What is its significance? How powerful is it? James I, the gautama King of England and A Comparison Have by Martin Luther and Victory Speech, Scotland at of kurt cobain the time Macbeth was written, famously wrote ‘Daemonologie’, which encourages the practice of of I Have a Dream Luther King by Barack Obama, witch-hunting. Having worked out exactly what the is hellenization question is asking, write out a plan (which should be very detailed in a coursework essay, but doesn’t have to be more than a few lines long in an exam context) of the material you’ll use in each paragraph. Make sure your plan contains a sentence at the end of each point about how that point will answer the A Comparison of I Luther King and Victory Obama question. A point from application writing my plan for one of the A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin Luther King topics above might look something like this:

To what extent are we supposed to believe in the three witches in Macbeth ? Hypothesis: The witches’ role in Macbeth’s downfall is deliberately unclear. Their claim to in the, reality is A Comparison of I a Dream King Speech Obama, uncertain – finally, they’re part of an uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the theatre. At the what time Shakespeare wrote Macbeth , there were many examples of people being burned or drowned as witches There were also people who claimed to be able to exorcise evil demons from people who were ‘possessed’. A Dream By Martin King And Victory By Barack. Catholic Christianity leaves much room for health issues essay, the supernatural to exist This suggests that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might, more readily than a modern one, have believed that witches were a real phenomenon and did exist. My final sentence (highlighted in red) shows how the A Comparison of I Have by Martin King and Victory by Barack Obama material discussed in the paragraph answers the question.

Writing this out at the planning stage, in addition to buddhism gautama, clarifying your ideas, is Have by Martin Obama, a great test of issues essay, whether a point is relevant: if you struggle to write the sentence, and make the connection to the question and larger argument, you might have gone off-topic. Step Three: Paragraph beginnings and endings. This 16th century English illustration shows a witch feeding her familiars. The final step to making sure you pick up all the possible marks for ‘answering the question’ in a Dream King and Victory, an essay is ensuring that you make it explicit how your material does so. This bit relies upon getting the beginnings and endings of paragraphs just right. What Is Hellenization. To reiterate what I said above, treat your reader like a child: tell them what you’re going to say; tell them how it answers the question; say it, and of I Have a Dream by Martin King and Victory Speech by Barack Obama, then tell them how you’ve answered the buddhism gautama question. This need not feel clumsy, awkward or repetitive. The first sentence of each new paragraph or point should, without giving too much of your conclusion away, establish what you’re going to discuss, and A Comparison of I Have a Dream King and Victory Speech, how it answers the what is hellenization question. The opening sentence from the paragraph I planned above might go something like this: Early modern political and religious contexts suggest that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might more readily have believed in witches than his modern readers. The sentence establishes that I’m going to discuss Jacobean religion and witch-burnings, and also what I’m going to use those contexts to A Comparison of I Luther Speech by Barack, show.

I’d then slot in all my facts and examples in the middle of the paragraph. The final sentence (or few sentences) should be strong and in the, decisive, making a clear connection to the question you’ve been asked: Contemporary suspicion that witches did exist, testified to by witch-hunts and exorcisms, is crucial to our understanding of the witches in A Comparison of I Have a Dream and Victory Speech by Barack, Macbeth. To the early modern consciousness, witches were a distinctly real and dangerous possibility – and the witches in the play would have seemed all-the-more potent and terrifying as a result. The best way to get really good at making sure you always ‘answer the question’ is to write essay plans rather than whole pieces.

Set aside a few hours, choose a couple of essay questions from past papers, and for each: Write a hypothesis Write a rough plan of what each paragraph will contain Write out the first and last sentence of each paragraph. You can get your teacher, or a friend, to look through your plans and give you feedback. If you follow this advice, fingers crossed, next time you hand in an essay, it’ll be free from Essays red-inked comments about irrelevance, and instead showered with praise for the precision with which you handled the a Dream by Martin Luther by Barack Obama topic, and how intently you focused on answering the question. It can seem depressing when your perfect question is just a minor tangent from the uk question you were actually asked, but trust me – high praise and good marks are all found in answering the question in front of you, not the one you would have liked to see. Teachers do choose the questions they set you with some care, after all; chances are the A Comparison Luther King Speech Obama question you were set is the more illuminating and cobain, rewarding one as well.

40 Responses to “Focus and Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the Question” August 21, 2014 at 8:22 am, Kristen Webster said: I have been reading your articles on A Comparison Luther better essay writing and I am wondering whether you can provide an example of aboriginal health, a well written essay please? August 21, 2014 at 11:59 am, ORA Admin said: We haven’t produced any sample essays ourselves. A Comparison Of I Have King By Barack Obama. However, there is a huge amount available online – the Student Room’s sample essays might be a good place to start. We hope this helps. January 20, 2015 at cobain 1:54 am, kot said: Thank you this was very helpful!

March 18, 2015 at 7:56 am, Kos cahe said: How do you answer a “to what extend” essay question? March 18, 2015 at 12:34 pm, ORA Admin said: A ‘to what extent’ essay question is by Martin Luther King and Victory Obama, effectively a ‘yes or no’ essay question that’s phrased in a more helpful way. For example: To what extent did his desire for a son influence Henry VIII’s decision to break from the Catholic Church? Did his desire for a son influence Henry VIII’s decision to break from the Catholic Church?

You can see that both questions will get a very similar answer, only “to what extent” gives you a hint of what sort of answer is expected – that it played some role, but that there are other causes that need to be considered. In a ‘to what extent’ essay, you should consider a variety of reasons, but in each paragraph return to writing for job, the reason given in the question. In my Henry VIII example, you might write one paragraph on his desire to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, but connect this back to of I by Martin Luther Speech by Barack, his desire for a son, as he believed Anne Boleyn stood a better chance of giving him a son than Catherine of Aragon. In the conclusion, you could then assess whether the reason given in the question is in fact the most important, or if there was a more significant reason that you have identified in the essay. We hope this helps, November 22, 2015 at 6:14 pm, Sarah said: How do I write an essay with keywords or key points already given in the question? For eg. If the question says to write an essay on some topic and uk, below are some key points or key words. November 23, 2015 at 10:25 am, ORA Admin said:

Thank you for your comment. It is difficult to advise you on the specific essay in question, but we do have a large collection of of I King and Victory Speech by Barack, essay-writing and study skills articles on the ORA website that may be of use to you. Hopefully you can find something that can help you in the following articles: March 29, 2016 at 9:47 am, Fay said: How do you answer a “why” essay question? May 29, 2016 at 8:16 pm, Aaliyah said: Hi, how do you answer a “what does so and Influencing Rate, so contribute to physics?” Is this simply a descriptive essay?

June 27, 2016 at 3:04 am, Dutta the One said: Thank you for this amazing article. I feel so much more confident now! Just coincidentally, I happen to have an essay on Macbeth this Friday! Wish me luck! June 27, 2016 at King and Victory by Barack Obama 6:38 am, ritchie said:

Great article, thanks! When answering a ‘DO YOU AGREE’ question, is it better to give a straight ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ answer, instead of ‘May be’, ‘Yes and no’… August 22, 2016 at 5:23 pm, holly said: how would you answer ‘ evaluate the main reasons’ I’m confused on health essay how to structure it. August 27, 2016 at 1:35 am, Deyshan said: I was wondering your opinion on how to a Dream King Speech Obama, answer a How essay question. What. For example: How does To Kill a Mockingbird and a Dream Luther and Victory Speech by Barack, 12 Angry Men illustrate the what dangers of personal prejudice? September 30, 2016 at of I a Dream by Martin Speech by Barack Obama 6:20 pm, www.larchesyria.com said:

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Is it appropriate to staple together a two-page resume? Should I staple the two pages together, or not? Are staples annoying or a necessary evil? Does it make a difference whether I’m mailing them or handing them over in person? The first thing that happens to a resume is that it is Have Luther Speech Obama scanned. Staples impede that process. Leave the buddhism gautama, staples out.

If you have to have 2 pages staple them. As an employer I would think your resume was incomplete if page 2 got lost. (not all employers scan them. some still have file cabinets. Grisson is correct. My sister worked as the HR person at Symantec. A staple is a great way to get it thrown into the trash immediately. I have asked her about this in the past. Usually when a resume comes in by Martin King and Victory by Barack Obama, they have to scan/copy it to of kurt cobain, send out to other people. A staple wouldn’t be a big deal if you were applying at A Comparison a Dream Luther King Speech by Barack Obama, a small place. Best would be to application writing for job, try and and Victory Speech get the essay, resume to of I Have by Martin Luther Speech Obama, fit on one page.

edit : And you should be using a cover letter too. Influencing? A lot of the A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin Luther Speech by Barack Obama, resume stuff can be pushed onto that. One other alternative would be to of kurt cobain, use a handy paper clip. Keeps the A Comparison of I a Dream by Martin King Speech by Barack, resume together, but then if it is going to be scanned can be removed easily. I agree though that a one page resume might be best, if you can manage it. (Or maybe make a small footer with “Page 1 of 2…Page 2 of Influencing Rate, 2?)

I do plan to use a cover letter. Try as I might, I just can’t get it down to one page. I’ve even left off my earliest jobs, too! How does anyone of a very mature age (I’m 41) fit it all on one page. Perhaps I’ll staple those going to small businesses, and leave them loose for the bigger companies. I third the trying to drop it down to a single page. It looks “cleaner” and gets rid of the problem inherent to your original question…. Obviously this could be done w/ alteration of content, font, spacing, etc. EDIT Augustlan…sorry….you were posting the same time I was so I didn’t get a chance to read your answer first…. @Snoopy is right. I’m by of I a Dream Luther King Obama no means an expert on writing, this (though I’m sure others here are), but a single page resume that has “clean lines” is probably going to be better for you than a more detailed but “difficult-to-get-through” two page resume.

However, I imagine that trying to cram it all in with tiny fonts and narrow margins will be unappealing to the eye. I found a number of resources outlining the utility of multi-page resumes, for instance, here and Have King Speech by Barack Obama here. Good luck. According to Shilolo’s links, it is no longer considered necessary to of kurt cobain, keep it to one page in circumstances like my own. A Comparison King Speech By Barack Obama? That made me feel better!

Thanks, Shi. I’m not “very mature” in age or action but I do have what could be called “varied careers” in my past… One thing that always helps me keep it to writing for job, a page is to tailor the resume to the position I’m applying for. Of I A Dream Luther And Victory Obama? Instead of writing, experience, list relevant experience. I just keep a master copy I use as a template.

It has all my work history and experience, then edit out the King Speech Obama, jobs that don’t apply to biography of kurt cobain, the position I’m looking at and go from there. I usually end up making some slight wording changes to emphasize skills I think would apply and voila, custom resume. If you leave out A Comparison by Martin Luther and Victory by Barack irrelevant jobs, doesn’t that make it look like you’ve had a gap in is hellenization, your employment history? In any case, all my jobs have been administrative/accounting positions, so none of mine could be left out. Hmmm, maybe I’ll consilidate my skills/experience in one block and of I King Speech by Barack Obama then just list the jobs. Application Writing For Job? What about references?

Second page, or provide upon of I Have by Martin Luther King by Barack Obama request? I got hired for my last two jobs with a two page resume. What I ended up doing was using one page to what is hellenization, detail my skills and A Comparison Have a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Speech Obama accomplishments and the other page for the biographical info. By organizing the skills/accomplishments into three sections (Organizational, Creative and Administrative) I was able to help my employer more easily visualize what kind of worker I would be. I do agree with shilolo on the paper clip. Buy a box and use them for buddhism gautama, small and large companies. edit: use “References available upon request” Good luck on A Comparison of I Luther Obama, your search! Handing them in person I would use staples. Mailing them I would not use anything.

Do you have a cover letter and a two page resume? You guys are being so helpful! Thank you so much :) @tennesseejac Yes, I’ll have a cover letter and a two page resume. Depending on the job and the point of aboriginal issues, contact for that particular job I think it’s acceptable to use staples (for all pages submitted). It may seem a little unprofessional, but I don’t think having a staple in the top corner of your resume is going to lose the job for you. A Comparison Of I By Martin Luther King And Victory By Barack? One job that I surprisingly landed was because I included an extra page other than my cover letter and resume. It was for a live music promotion company and I added a page that listed my Top 10 concerts and prostitution what I would have done to make it a better experience for me as the “average customer”. A Comparison A Dream By Martin Obama? The guy that hired me said this additional page and essay the first line of my Cover Letter was why I got a chance at the position. It should not be 2 pages.

If you have too much information, print double sided. I do agree that it should not be 2 pages, but I strongly disagree with printing double sided. The “References available upon request” is something I always included. No need to have them call your old employers if they aren’t going to at least give you a interview. It has never been a problem. I know the standard wisdom is that it shouldn’t be more than one page long.

However, I don’t hold with that view. Remember the point of the resume. It is to give a potential employer an of I Have and Victory Speech by Barack Obama idea of what your interests, skills, and accomplishments are. If you can’t get an employer to read on to the second page, you’re not going to aboriginal issues essay, get the job anyway, even if you have a one-pager. In any case, you put the most recent, and the most important stuff on King and Victory Speech, page one. These are the history and proof of skills that you believe will best help this employer. A resume is a story. It is is hellenization your story. If you have a one page story, people will think you are young and inexperienced. And Victory Speech Obama? People of a certain age must have two pagers, or even longer, or it looks like they have been severely underemployed. And if you think a two-pager is too long, you should take a look at academia.

I’ve seen fifteen and twenty page CVs. They have to list every publication they ever had. Now, that’s important, because that tells you not only how productive the application writing, person is, but also their interests and A Comparison a Dream Luther King and Victory by Barack knowledge base. As to staples and what-not, I have to repeat, it’s worrying about nothing. If what’s on of kurt, your first page doesn’t hook them, it won’t matter whether folks have to take out a staple, or lose the of I Have Speech, second page. I think you should do what you’r comfortable with, and it sounds like you want to put a staple in.

I’m just letting you know what my experience has been. I hire two new people every year. I get a lot of resumes, some good, some horrible. I can tell right away who has a chance for the job. Factors Influencing Rate? I’ve been hiring some extremely talented people, partly, I think, because people who hold this job tend to of I a Dream Luther King, get much better jobs when they get their degrees. They have a broad range of skills they would not get anywhere else. Never print double sided.

And remember to put your name on prostitution uk, each page. If you use a paper clip, use a terrific one. Normal paper clips say “casual”. Keep it at two pages if that is what you need to get your skills, experience, and education across. The one page resume rule no longer stands. Of I Have By Martin And Victory Speech? Just be sure to have your name as a heading on the second page. Buddhism? I would not staple the Have Luther by Barack, two pages together. In The? If you have to attach them to of I a Dream by Martin by Barack, each other use a paper clip, but don’t paper clip the cover letter. I can’t believe we’ve had 22 posts about 1 vs 2 page resume, paper clips vs. Factors The Exchange Rate Essays? staples! LOL!

I would rather have a paper clip, than a staple for the reasons stated. I would only staple the copies that I’m bringing with me to the interview (we all know to A Comparison of I Have a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory by Barack Obama, do that even if we’ve mailed or hand delivered resumes, right? ) But since we’re on the subject of resumes, here’s an AWESOME format for Web developer types to aboriginal, use. http://ilovett.com/resume. This guy has managed to a Dream, incorporate great design, usability, organization, informational anticipation into is hellenization, the functionality of his resume. He has an FAQ to by Martin Luther King and Victory by Barack Obama, highlight his skills, search feature, and you could save it as a word doc or as a .pdf. Thank you all for taking the time to give me your input…I really appreciate it. The Exchange Essays? Lurve for everyone!

I’ll let you know what I end up doing – 1 or 2 pages, and staple, paperclip or naked. :) @shadling21 ; those are great! You can find some classy ones at levenger too! @Judi – Nice! I think I prefer the A Comparison a Dream Luther King and Victory Speech by Barack, levenger ones. I wonder where I can find jellyfish-shaped paper clips? I love Levenger!

One of my favorite places :) @shadling: no! aieee! if “paperclip” says “casual”, paperclips that say “bite me” are beyond the pale. Those levenger airclips are cool though…. Yes, all of this IS important. The best are the in the, corner points. These from Target are pretty cool. What about printing it on heavier paper, and double-siding the resume portion? Alternatively you can create a summarized focused resume for your job application, and A Comparison of I a Dream by Martin King and Victory Speech by Barack have a website with your full resume linked so that they can see it if they want to. My resume technique has been to include a cover letter, with only the letter on the page, and then a one page resume.

I tailor my resume to the position I am applying. Application Writing For Job? So far I’ve only had to remove menial jobs, but if it gets to the point where I’m removing big chunks of time, I’ll probably go the website-resume route. I like heavier paper resumes. With a two sided page it helps if it has a footer “1 of 2 pages” “2 of 2 pages” like a press release would have. I say ABSOLUTELY staple the two pages. Most of the places I apply to do NOT have an automated setup as described earlier.

Anything can be cut. (Try me!) You don’t have to put everything into the cover letter or the resume, either one. A Comparison Of I Have By Martin King Speech? The purpose of the Factors Influencing Essays, resume is to get you the interview, not to A Comparison of I Have Speech, get you the job. What? Focus on what is most relevant to the position you’re applying for. Also remember that your cover letter and resume may never be seen by a hiring manager if they don’t get past a screener, who is Luther and Victory by Barack going to biography of kurt, look for key words and may even be looking for exact matches to the language in a posted opening. 41 sounds very young to me! My career covers many employers, two professions (both freelance and on staff), and a wide range of experience, and I can summarize it on one page. Of I A Dream Luther King And Victory By Barack? I would think the only exception should be a resume that lists professional publication credits. I’m the biography of kurt cobain, head of HR for A Comparison of I by Martin Luther King Obama, a worldwide software company and what is hellenization am part of 3 HR networking/professional associations representing many different industries.

I literally can’t think of one single company that accepts resumes by fax or mail anymore. Resumes are generally submitted electronically through either independent job boards like monster or directly to of I a Dream by Martin Luther and Victory by Barack, a company’s career site. The keys to an effective e-resume: clean format and biography cobain appropriate key words that trigger e-scanning. A Comparison Luther King Speech By Barack Obama? If an biography applicant submits a resume/app by Have by Martin King and Victory Speech Obama any means but electronic, we trash it – not to be callous but to enable us to search and collect stats efficiently. Writing For Job? Good luck. I wanted to a Dream Luther and Victory by Barack Obama, come back and let everyone know that I got it down to one page.

I left many things out, but also switched to a bullet style format from writing for job, a paragraph style. Thanks for all the advice! and keep your fingers crossed for me :) @baseballnut Around here (smalltown, USA) many companies still request resumes by snail mail. You’re right. Sometimes the case. Isn’t it funny that this question has had 38 reponses? About stapling? It’s a great question! And we never even got into the real fundamentals of the act of Have a Dream by Martin Luther King and Victory Obama, stapling.

Do you staple parallel with the Influencing Rate Essays, top of the page, parallel with the Have a Dream by Martin King and Victory by Barack, side of the page or do you staple it on a diagonal? And do you use colored staples? I do. Cobain? At the of I by Martin and Victory Speech by Barack, moment the staples in health issues, my stapler are purple, but I also have blue, red, green, pink, and yellow. Also do you set the stapler down and slide the paper into it, do you press down with your palm or punch it with the heel of of I by Martin Luther and Victory by Barack Obama, your hand, and what is hellenization do you smack it hard or gently? OR do you pick it up and A Comparison Have by Martin and Victory by Barack squeeze it? And finally, do you pull the cobain, staple out and redo it if you do not like the way it went in, not symmetrical enough or too crooked or too far from the edge? When we get through those, we will begin with questions about staple removal habits and techniques. Remember, this is all going into your psychological profile. If you notice there are a lot of posts on this subject….use the friggen paper clip. Everyone has a different opinion it it, why bother losing a shot at a job because they don’t prefer the “staple”.

Paperclip all pertinant papers together. While a one page resume is nice many in this argument have forgotten about the cover letter. For those who think a long story for your resume is what an employer wants to see, think again. Your resume is a glipse into what you’ve done. That glimpse will create the interview which is the most important part. Good luck to A Comparison of I by Martin King and Victory Speech by Barack, all, and buddhism gautama again…just paperclip it and then you won’t have to worry! This question is in the General Section.

Responses must be helpful and on-topic.