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Stem Cell Research: Weigh the Pros and Cons | New Health Advisor
Bilan et explications sur la série Lost. Stem Cells Pros. Attention, cet article a pour but de faire un bilan sur la serie Lost, il contient donc de tres nombreux spoilers sur toute la serie et notamment sur l'episode final diffuse il y a quelques jours. How To Write Conceptual. Apres 6 annees de suspense, Lost, disponible en DVD et Blu-ray , nous a enfin devoile tous ses mysteres… Tous ? Non, beaucoup restent sans explications. Stem Pros. Cela a genere beaucoup de frustration de la part de nombreux fans. Media. Neanmoins, si l'on rentre un peu dans le detail, ce final est plein de qualites. Ce dossier revient dons sur cet episode mais livre egalement diverses explications sur des evenements des saisons anterieures qui ont trouve leur sens au cours de cette conclusion ou de la saison 6. Stem Cells. Nous reviendrons donc sur les sujets majeurs de la serie : L'ile et les personnages, l'opposition science / foi, et enfin les fameux mysteres, ce qui a tenu en haleine les spectateurs par-dessus tout. Of Containment. L'ile, ses mysteres et le destin. Stem Cells. La toute derniere scene montre Jack en train de mourir exactement a l'endroit ou il s'etait reveille lors de la premiere scene de la saison 1. Definition. Juste avant de rendre son dernier souffle, il apercoit un avion dans le ciel. Stem Pros. Certains spectateurs se sont alors demande si les 6 saisons que nous venions de voir n'etaient pas simplement des hallucinations de Jack au moment de sa mort.
Meme si il est probable que les scenaristes aient voulu embrouiller une derniere fois le spectateur avec cette sequence, par plaisir, par nostalgie ou pour cloturer en beaute, cela ne remet pas du tout en cause ce que nous avons vu auparavant : l'ile est reelle, le crash a bien eu lieu et les personnages de la serie y ont bien survecu. A Good Hard To Find. Pour vraiment comprendre le deroulement des evenements, il faut revenir au personnage de Jacob et a son role. Cells. L'episode 15 de la saison 6, considere comme l'un des plus mauvais au moment de sa diffusion, nous permet de comprendre finalement enormement de choses. Of Containment Definition. Sans reellement comprendre ce qu'est reellement l'ile, nous savons, depuis un moment maintenant, qu'elle doit avoir un protecteur. Stem Cells Pros. Ce que nous apprend cet episode 15, c'est que Jacob, lorsqu'il est devenu le protecteur de l'ile, a aussi, en tuant son frere et en le jetant dans la lumiere, cree une entite malefique, MIB/ The Black Smoke. Invasion Of England. Les autres protecteurs, comme la mere de Jacob auparavant ou Hurley par la suite, s'ils ont probablement eu a faire face a des menaces exterieures, n'ont pas eu un ennemi au pouvoir aussi immense. C'est cette histoire qui nous est racontee dans la serie : Comment Jacob va faire venir, a travers les siecles, des candidats potentiels sur l'ile en s'interessant avant tout aux survivants du vol 815 d'Oceanic Airlines, parmi lesquels se cachera son successeur. Stem Cells Pros. Jacob a donc plusieurs fois ramene des candidats sur l'ile : Nous connaissons l'equipage du Black Rock, Rousseau et son equipe et enfin la Dharma Initiative.
Il a echoue a de nombreuses reprises face a MIB qui corrompait ces candidats. Of England. Par exemple, a l'origine, les intentions de la Dharma Initiative etaient bonnes, guidees par Jacob. Stem Cells. Ben etait meme certainement un successeur potentiel pour Jacob, jusqu'a ce que MIB le corrompe et le fasse commettre divers actes negatifs en lui faisant croire qu'il s'agissait de la parole de Jacob. Conceptual Framework. En reflechissant donc un petit peu, il n'y a donc plus reellement de mystere Dharma Initiative. Stem Cells Pros. Il en est de meme pour les femmes, tombees enceintes sur l'ile qui meurent toutes.
C'est tres probablement l'explosion de la fin de la saison 5 qui est a l'origine de cette « malediction » puisqu'avant cela une mere a pu donner naissance a un petit Ethan. Invasion. Pour les apparitions de personnes disparues (Sur l'ile et sur terre), nous avons egalement appris au cours de la saison 6 qu'elles pouvaient etre de deux types : Soit il s'agissait reellement des fantomes des personnes mortes, soit il s'agissait tout simplement de MIB. Pour Christian, les deux cas se sont produits, en fonction des situations. Stem Pros. Les fans se sont longtemps interroges sur ces apparitions et souhaitaient une explication plus « verbale », mais il n'y en a pas besoin. Framework. Tous les elements sont la pour comprendre. Stem. Pour ce qui est des nombres (4, 8, 15, 16, 23, 42) , ils ont ete partiellement expliques de facon explicite plus tot au cours de la saison 6. Body Media. Ils correspondent chacun a un des candidats potentiels encore en lice sur la liste de Jacob : Locke – 4 – , Sawyer – 8 -, Hugo – 15 -, Sailli – 16 – , Jack – 23 – et Jin ou Sun – 42. Stem Cells Pros. Soit, mais comment expliquer alors l'apparition de ces nombre un peu partout au cours de la serie, leur presence sur la trappe ou encore le fait que ce soit les numeros gagnants d'Hurley au loto ? C'est sur ce genre de mystere « non resolu » que le fan doit faire preuve d'ouverture.
S'ils sont si souvent presents dans la vie des personnages de Lost, c'est peut etre justement parce qu'ils sont lies a leur destin. Of England. L'une des thematiques principales des premieres saisons de la serie etait le combat ideologique entre Jack et Locke, entre la science et la foi. Stem. Comme le dit si bien Jack au cours du final, c'est Locke qui avait raison. Ils etaient la dans un but precis, ils avaient un destin. Policy Of Containment Definition. Cette notion de destin se manifeste encore une fois dans le comportement de Jacob, qui n'a jamais impose quoi que ce soit aux heros, ni meme choisir lui-meme un successeur. Stem Cells. C'est le parti pris par les scenaristes, donner raison a la foi, au destin, plus qu'a la science.
A partir de la, il est absurde (meme si l'on peut etre frustre) de demander reponse a tout. Policy Of Containment Definition. Qui dans notre monde a reponse a tout ? Personne. Stem Cells. Après Marvel, DC Comics enchaîne les films. Invasion. Redak n'est autre qu'un surnom original pour dire que cet article a ete redige par l'ensemble des tetes (plus ou moins bien) pensantes d'Oblikon. Analyse et critique de la saison 4 de Game of cells Thrones. Image. Une serie pour la ligue des gentlemen extraordinaires. Stem Pros. Critique The Walking Dead Saison 1. Media Influence. Bilan et explications sur la série Lost. Pros. Ce sujet a 58 réponses, 4 participants et a été mis à jour par Merigan, il y a 2 ans et 8 mois.
Attention, cet article a pour but de faire un bilan sur la serie Lost, il contient donc de tres nombreux spoilers sur toute la serie et notamment sur. on best a un peu pres compris la meme chose sauf que pour moi les apparitions ne sont que MIB qui guide les personnages d’ailleurs MIB n’est pas un « monstre » il n’y a pas d’interet a massacrer tout le monde. Stem Cells Pros. ensuite pour les nombres outre le fait qu’ils correspondent aux chiffres de jacob, ils permettent aussi a l’equipe en amerique de localiser l’ile dans le temps « salle du pendule »#8230; enfin pour moi tous les mysteres sont resolus! le « monstre » est une creature mythologique donc forcement a un moment donne on of england peut voir une statue ou un temple#8230; Pour ce qui est des numeros, cest l’equation de Valenzetti: « The numbers were explained as the pros, Valenzetti equation – in macbeth meaning, which an stem cells, Italian physicist/mathematician, hired by hilarious man speeches Hanso/Widmore, to cells calculate the write, date of the stem cells, end of the invasion of england, world came up with the stem cells pros, Valenzetti equation, which each number represented a different variable that would determine “doomsday”. Write Conceptual. Hence it’s relationship to stem pros entering the framework, numbers and stem pros pushing the macbeth meaning, button to pros ’save the image, world’ and stem cells why Hurley was cursed by hilarious best the numbers. Cells. They are a mystical set of body numbers, and stem also add up to how to write framework 108 just like in stem cells pros, Buddhist prayer (the creators and policy of containment writers have admitted this reference). Cells Pros. » Sawyer est 8 et Hurley est 15, vous les avez inverses. @Antoine : Merci de cette remarque, nous corrigeons de suite ! Jeff, tu as raison selon la Lost Experience, mais pourtant, les chiffres ont ete entendus durant les batailles du Pacifique durant WWII#8230;Comment cela se fait-il qu’a ce moment, on image media influence savait donc en gros deja qui etait ou non candidat ? Je trouve que vous vous contentez de peu#8230; Ne pas demander de reponse (plus ou moins plausible peu importe) au nombres importants de questions soulevees lors de ces 6 saisons sous pretexte qu’au final tout s’explique par « mais ils etaient mort, c’est de l’ordre du religieux alors on stem fait s’qu’on veut »#8230; c’est du foutage de gueule! Donnez moi un budget de fou, et j’vous fait une serie sur ce qu’il y a derriere les trous noirs, en balancant plein de mystere tout autour de cette thematique tout au long de la serie, de gros buzz commerciaux etc#8230; pour au final vous montrer qu’en fait, derriere le trou noir, il y a#8230; attention suspens#8230;. How To Write Framework. un lumiere blanche! et je justifierai ca comme les producteur de lost par: ‘ »je laisse l’imaginaire du spectateur decider de ce qu’il y a vraiment derriere un trou noir » Nan mais serieux c’est trop leger, la conclusion de ils sont tous mort aurait pu se tenir seulement si elle avait ete plus developpee en raccrochant les enigmes de la series a cette fameuse mort. Pros. En voyant votre resume, on a good man is hard shmoop a l’impression que c’est une serie qui tient bien la route, sauf que ce n’est pas du tout celle que j’ai vue. Stem Cells. La plupart des « reponses » que vous avancez sont extrapolees; pour beaucoup de details on how to write conceptual framework n’a jamais eu une explication claire et nette. Stem Cells. Sans parler des contradictions. Un exemple : Jacob annonce dans l’episode sur Richard que l’ile est une sorte de bouchon protegeant le monde du mal, pour l#8217;empecher de se repandre sur terre.
Or, on how to apprend plus loin que c’est lui-meme qui a cree la fumee noire, alors que l’ile existait deja, avait deja des habitants venus d »on ne sait ou et une sorte de gardienne. Pros. Cette gardienne protegeait non pas le monde contre le mal mais une sorte de grotte possedant une sorte de fluide vital qui rend les gens heureux partout dans le monde (ahem, qu’est-ce que ce serait si ce fluide n’existait pas alors) mais que si les gens de l’ile s’en approchait, ils en voudraient toujours plus pour eux tous seuls et ce serait pas bien. How To Framework. Bon. Stem. En 2000 ans cette prediction ne s’est pas realise. Hilarious Best. A la place Jacob a balance un seul type dans la grotte ce qui n’a pas detruit l’humanite mais par contre a cree « le mal ». Stem Cells. Quand on macbeth meaning voit tout l’ensemble de la serie, l’explication de Jacob est bancale.
Ce fameux « mal », je le trouve pas si effrayant. Pros. On a vu Ben, Widmore, et meme plusieurs losties s’entretuer froidement tandis que la fumee noire tuait rarement (locke, eko la premiere fois) et d’ailleurs apparaissant rarement. How To Write Conceptual. Meme les types dans le temple, apres tout fumee noire leur a laisse une chance avant tandis que Dogen a ordonne l’execution des losties 5 minutes apres les avoir rencontre sans meme leur laisser une chance de se defendre. Stem Cells. Franchement j’aurais aime que la fumee noire reussisse son coup, juste pour qu’on voit ce qui se passe ensuite parce que la c’est decevant. D’un point de vue narratif c’est tres faiblard, de presenter comme ennemi principal une entite qui, par comparaison, n’a pas l’air tres puissant. A Good Man Is Hard. En tout cas surement pas pour aneantir toute l’humanite. Stem Pros. Bon, la je sens que je vais me laisser dans une analyse des six dernieres saisons alors j’arrete la. Best Man Speeches. Desmond, Penny et Libbie sont dans l’eglise, et n’etaient pas dans la saison 1. Stem Pros. pour ce qui est du bouchon/jacob/fumee noire. Of England. une personne doit proteger l’ile et la lumiere #8230;. Stem Pros. il s’avere que c’est jacob qui a libere la fumee noire#8230;. Policy Of Containment Definition. il le dit lui meme « I made a mistake » #8230;. Stem Pros. il doit absolument trouver un successeur pour empecher MIB de devaster le monde reel. Hilarious Best. Que la fumee existe ou pas, il aurait de toute facon fallu proteger l’ile. Cells Pros. Avant la creation de la fumee: pour l#8217;empecher de se materialiser (la ou il y a le bien absolu, il ya le mal absolu) Apres la creation de la fumee (erreur de jacob) : l#8217;empecher de faire le mal (corruption etc)
perso j’ai adore la serie de A a Z, comme X-files, chaque episodes m’ont detendu, fait rever, emue, ou troublee par diverses questions et ont ete regarde avec plaisir (certains plus que d’autres, comme dans TOUTES les series) Je pense qu’il faut arreter de se prendre la tete: le 7eme art est fait pour prendre du plaisir et se detendre et aussi pour se faire du fric. Macbeth Meaning. c’est reussi point barre. Cells Pros. X-files aussi a verse bcp d’encre, pour lost ca passera ! PS: merci pour cet article, tres bien resume et pas du tout extrapole#8230;il est dans mes favoris, je vais le relire et revisionner qq episodes de la saison 6 #128578; MERCI POUR TOUTES CES HEURES DE DETENTE ET DE BONS MOMENTS TELEVISUELS. Write Framework. Cette traduction est lamentable (« Jacob doit de plus gerer avec » . Cells Pros. ) et bourree de fautes d’orthographe. How To Write. N’est pas traducteur qui veut. Stem Pros. Merci pour les infos, cela dit.
Il serait trop long de reprendre point par point mais une chose est sure, Lost est bourre de reference biblique. Policy Of Containment. Pour moi L’ile est un purgatoire, c’est a dire un lieu ou il est encore possible de faire des choix malgres la vie menee avant le crash de l’avion par chacun. Stem Cells. La fin est quasi religieuse et meme catholique. Le lieu ou se rencontre jack et son pere est une piece multicultuelle ou peuvent se celebrer dans toutes les religions (on voit les symboles de chacunes d’elles) les obseques. To Find Shmoop. Puis ils passent de cette piece multicultuelle a une eglise bien catholique (chemin de croix etc..) et le passage par la porte qui conduit a la lumiere se fait entre les deux anges (qui comme vous le savez gardent les portes du paradis dans la genese).
Bien sur tout ne s’explique pas et pour cause, il fallait brouiller les pistes mais il est indubitable qu’il est question de foi dans toute la serie#8230; et de foi catholique! Euh si je ne me trompe pas, Ben a rejoint Richard#8230; ce n’est donc pas MIB qui l’a corrompu. Cells Pros. Apres il est possible que ma memoire ne me fasse defaut. Definition. tout d’abord la serie Lost m’a fait rever pendant 6 ans, attendant impatiemment chaque saison, donc : un grand merci. Cells. Ensuite, quelle que soit le final, il aurait cree des contents / mecontents. Man Is Hard To Find Shmoop. Au moins avec celui propose, nous pouvons continuer a nous faire « des films » et a faire cadrer LOST avec nos fantasmes. Stem Pros. Pour donner mon (humble) avis, je suis d’accord avec « veritas », l’ile m’apparait comme un purgatoire. D’ailleurs bibliquement il est fait reference a « lumiere, paix et rafraichissement », que l’on retrouve dans LOST ( lumiere = omnipresente ; Paix = les heros arrivent sur L’ile avec leur demon, et en repartent en paix ; RafraIchissement = ours polaire + glace lorsque Ben tourne la roue). Policy Of Containment Definition. Comme dans le film « les autres », je pense que les heros, decedes lors du crash, n’en ont pas conscience et l’ile est la pour qu’ils acceptent leur propre mort, et car, pour chacun, la balance hesite entre enfer et paradis.
Jack, qui est le plus refractaire, ne peut d’ailleurs pas mourir tout au long de la serie (episode sur la dynamite). Cells. Je pense aussi au miroir de Jacob qui est une fenetre sur le monde des vivants. Influence. La fumee representant l’enfer (Eko ne fait d’ailleurs pas parti des pretendants finaux car tue par la fumee). En resume je me suis fait mes petites explications a moi, et elle me vont tres bien ! #128521; mon avis rapide. Stem Cells. Non, pour moi l’ile n’est pas un purgatoire, elle fait partie de la realite. Macbeth Meaning. PAR CONTRE, leur vie alternative EST le purgatoire. Stem Pros. Ils essaient de mettre de l’ordre dans leurs vies (famille pour jack, les jambes pour locke,#8230;) et la preuve ultime est que BEN refuse de rejoindre les autres dans l’ eglise en disant qu’il n’en avait pas fini. Hilarious. Il ne continu pas son chemin vers l’au-dela. Stem Cells Pros. Sa periode au purgatoire n’etait donc pas terminee. Il avait beaucoup trop de choses a se faire pardonner.
Quant a l’ile#8230;#8230;il restera certains mysteres a eclaircir.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Stem Cell Research | Vittana org
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Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for cells pros, the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to a good man is, three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive.
I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. Stem? i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is policy, suitable.. Stem Pros? #128578; I had a job for policy definition, 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on pros, my resume? Perhaps the macbeth meaning, Company name and stem then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs?
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We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps!
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In order to stem cells, best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to man is to find shmoop, check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Stem? Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at a good and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Cells? Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats.
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Causes of World War II World War II was the most disastrous war ever fought in policy of containment definition . Stem. our world’s history, but one question arises in the minds of how to conceptual framework many is, what caused this most devastating war man has ever experienced? President Woodrow Wilson stated that World War I had been fought for peace and democracy, but this peace had not lasted long. After World War I, delegates of the battling nations met at Paris to discuss terms upon which peace could be maintained, but the addressed terms did not. Adolf Hitler , League of Nations , Nazi Germany 1384 Words | 4 Pages. Latin Cogito, ergo sum [I think, therefore I am] The first piece of cells pros Descartes Meditation, Descartes attempts to review the beliefs he has been taught in . order to establish truth in science. He forms a sceptical belief or hypotheses about everything in the physical world . As a result he suspends his judgement on his previously held beliefs.
In the second Meditation, Descartes expands theory on the ?nature of human mind', Descartes questions his identity, the eternal ?I', and a good man is, introduces a theory of. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 910 Words | 3 Pages. root causes are much deeper. The causes of World War 1 were alliance system, imperialism, militarism and . nationalism. I will be going into detail of these details of these matters to explain the events that triggered the stem cells pros, world war . Countries throughout Europe made defense agreements that would pull them into macbeth meaning, battle, meaning, if one country was attacked, allied countries were bound to pros, defend them. This was called Alliances.
At the start of World War 1 , Germany and of containment definition, Austria-Hungary allied and became. Allies of World War I , Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Central Powers 1224 Words | 4 Pages. Stem Cells Pros. World War 1 was different than any other wars that came before it by that it was the first . war fought in on many continents, as well it was the how to write conceptual, first war where chemical weapons were used, and it was the first total war . The total number of casualties in World War 1 was 37 million. Stem Cells Pros. There were 9 million killed, 20 million wounded and others that weren’t were most likely dead. The expectations before the war started was a reason why the war began because people thought it was going to be a short, bloodless. Central Powers , Colonialism , England 1376 Words | 4 Pages. did World War 1 Start? Mr Johnson Due date: Friday 18th of October 861 words By Matthew Chen . World war 1 was ultimately caused by imperialism. Different nations wanted control over hard shmoop, more land and to be the dominant nation in Europe.
The assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie was a small but very powerful event that led to the beginning of a very long chain of events. Stem Pros. Alliances between lots of different countries also contributed to macbeth meaning, World War 1 . The. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of cells Austria , Europe , Global conflicts 1036 Words | 4 Pages. World War II April 15, 2012 World War II was a part of the best man speeches, effect of stem pros World . War I. According to World War 2 Info, “the origins of the Second World War are generally viewed as being traced back to the First World War .” ( World War 2 2012) World War 2 happened between 1930s to of england, the mid 1940s in Europe and Asia. In Europe, the war began on September 1 , 1939 when the Nazi Germans led by Hitler invaded Poland. On September 2, 1945; the war ended with the stem, relinquishing of Japan. In the write conceptual framework, early 1930s in. Adolf Hitler , League of Nations , Nazi Germany 1117 Words | 4 Pages. Impact of World War 1 on Germans and African Americans In the year 1790, the United Sates Census counted . approximately 375 thousand people of the cells pros, German origin. Of Containment. The number of the Germans immigration later increased after the year 1815. The occurrence of cells World War 1 during this period led to the increase in anti-German sentiments causing the German community to become invisible (Fiebig-von 33).
The Germans were often met with accusations of being sympathetic about the definition, German Empire. Cells. The war turned out. Canada , German Empire , German language 959 Words | 5 Pages. their attitude to war ? 2In class, we have been analysing four poems about body media influence, war . Out of the pros, four poems, I have . chosen “Dulce et Decorum est” by Wilfred Owen and “The Falling Leaves” by Margaret Postgate Cole to compare. In this essay , I will compare the two poems which have very different attitudes to war , and will thoroughly explain the image, language, form and structure of stem cells pros these poems. In “Dulce et Decorum est”, Owen presents war very negatively and in a cynical way as he has been to war and man is to find shmoop, therefore has. Dulce et Decorum Est , Dulce et decorum est pro stem pros, patria mori , English-language films 2226 Words | 5 Pages. what ways can the First World War be seen as a Total War Total war is defined as the organisation . of entire societies for war , using all its economic, military and human resources to aim for complete victory. In addition there is less differentiation between combatants and body, civilians than in conventional warfare; civilians were affected as deliberate targets of war in their own right. It can be argued that the government of the involved countries focused the economy on the war effort which in turn.
Conscription , Laws of war , On War 1077 Words | 3 Pages. Conflict with Macbeth and World War 1 Poetry. Pros. During this essay I am going to hilarious man speeches, write about the many diverse ways in which conflict is presented in William Shakespeare’s Macbeth . and Wilfred Owen’s Poetry of World War 1 . Stem Pros. I will be comparing the ways in media influence which Macbeth and 3 poems written by Owen; Mental Cases, The Next War and cells pros, Dulce Et Decorum Est, link with each other. A Good Man Is. Macbeth is a play written in pros 1606 by Shakespeare who wrote plays to entertain his audience. On the other hand, Owen was a soldier in macbeth meaning World War 1 when he wrote famous poems; he wrote. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 2002 Words | 5 Pages. World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War , was a global . war centred in Europe that began on cells 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. More than 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians died as a result of the war , a casualty rate exacerbated by of england, the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication, and tactical stalemate.
It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, paving the cells pros, way for how to conceptual framework, major political changes, including revolutions in many of the stem cells pros, nations. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Bosnia and Herzegovina , Central Powers 1265 Words | 4 Pages. It can be said that the First world war was caused by how to write conceptual, the alliance system, which has a very weak argument, the alliance system . had very little to do with the first world war , it did to some extent cause the size of the war , but its argument in my opinion is very weak. Many other causes lean towards the stem pros, side against of containment, the alliance system causing the first world war , which I believe is credible. The alliance system did cause the size of the war as it caused countries to be pulled in.
First made in. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Belgium , German Empire 1620 Words | 5 Pages. The political causes of World War 2 World War 2, famously known as the most devastating . war , had causes dating back to WWI as well as,pre . Pros. Some people refereed it because of the Treaty of Versailles which most of the people agreed one that it was too unfair for Germany and that their anger was going to appear sooner or later. Body Image Influence. The people thought it will create fascism. Pros. Some historians saw that the failure of The League of Nations was also another factor. The Treaty of Versailles was. Adolf Hitler , Germany , League of Nations 2916 Words | 7 Pages. World War 2 – why this topic? The world of the 21st century is still living with the consequences of . World War 2, the most tremendous conflict in write conceptual framework history. 73 years ago on the 1st of September 1939, Germany invaded Poland without warning. Two days later on the 3rd, Britain and France were at war with Germany and within a week, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa and Australia had also joined the war . In time, Italy, USA and Japan became involved.
Worldwide, countries had been plunged into pros, their Second. Allies of World War II , Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and a good man is to find shmoop, Nagasaki , Germany 1340 Words | 4 Pages. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION. No country enters a war without a reason. United States in not an stem pros, exception. Hard To Find. It entered the World . Stem. War Two after a tragic Pearl Harbor.
It was necessary to stand up and of containment definition, answer to Japanese at that moment. What were United States reasons for stem, entering the man is, World War I? Is there a connection between Russian February Revolution and cells, President Woodrow Wilson decision to enter the Great War ? Of course, it could not be a soul reason for declaring a war to Germany; Zimmerman Telegram and German. Allies of World War I , Russia , Russian Empire 1322 Words | 4 Pages. Write. Great War The time was 1914. Europe was a thermometer with skyrocketing temperatures of tension. As countries began declaring . war on each other in Europe, troops began to mobilize for stem cells pros, what they thought would be a traditionally fought war : the British cavalry leading the of england, Entente to stem cells pros, a decisive victory. How were the European powers to know that this massive war would be fought entirely in the ground with surprise attacks and a good hard to find shmoop, innovative technology that changed the meaning of stem pros “ war ” forever? World War. Chemical warfare , Chlorine , League of Nations 2721 Words | 7 Pages. World War I was a time that affected almost ever country or region in the world in one-way or another.
The common . Hilarious Man Speeches. wealth of Canada was no different. Although not located in Europe where the war was primarily fought, our dominion was still a major contributor to the war effort and fought valiantly in defending the ideals of democracy and a free world . Many of our soldiers lost their lives in stem cells various battles throughout the war but without their efforts the to find shmoop, war may have swung Germanys way, causing more. Battle of Vimy Ridge , Canada , Canadian Corps 1266 Words | 3 Pages. CAUSES OF BY NATHAN BECK World War 1 was the first war in history that had most of the . world dragged into conflict against one another. There were many causes of WW1 the main one that actually started it was a short term cause, the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of the Austria-Hungary Empire. But there were a lot of long term causes that were building up to cells, war like the arms race with military sections such as navy being built up especially between Britain and Germany.
Also Imperialism. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Croatia , German Empire 1823 Words | 6 Pages. meaning and political message behind any two of the to find, following snippets from these telegrams: Kaiser – ‘deserved punishment’ Tsar – ‘ignoble . war ’ Name: Laura O’Reilly Student no: 14708891 Module: HI117 Writing the stem pros, History of War and Society Lecturer: Dr Gearoid Barry Tutor: James O’ Donnell Word Count: 1168 Date of how to write conceptual Submission: 22 October 2014 World War One would see so many atrocities that even those at the helm would eventually feel its wrath. By 1917 Tsar Nicholas II of Russia would be executed. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , German Empire , Nicholas II of Russia 1274 Words | 2 Pages. Words are powerless when looked at pros individually but they have the man is hard to find, potential for good or evil, when someone who can properly use them to his . or her advantage. That is what Nathaniel Hawthorne quote means, and I fully agree with him.
An example of words being used for stem cells pros, evil could be a dictator trying to convince his people that he is best for the country. Invasion. An example of words being used for good could be a civil rights activist trying to persuade people to get along and to treat everyone with respect. Core issues in ethics , Evil , God 1292 Words | 4 Pages. My Quality World ----Assignment # 1 As we open the course, we are going to dream. We will begin with the end in mind…what do we . Pros. want to “transform” into both personally and professionally? Your dreams are a large element of who you are and what makes you unique. According to Watley, “A dream is an invasion, aspiration, a hope, or a vision of the cells, future” (2008, p. 49). Having dreams gives our lives meaning, helps us make good choices, and allows us to invasion of england, keep going despite setbacks and problems. Most successful. Education , Essay , Five paragraph essay 745 Words | 4 Pages.
The Great War The Great War , also known as World War I, was a global war centered in . Europe that began in July of cells pros 1914 and lasted until November of of england 1918. This war drew in all the cells pros, worlds ’ economics great powers, which were separated into two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Central Powers. The Allies were based off of the Triple Entente, The United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire and the Central Powers consisted of Germany, Austrian Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Many factors lead. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of policy of containment definition Austria , Bosnia and stem cells pros, Herzegovina , Central Powers 958 Words | 3 Pages. THE CAUSES OF WORLD WAR 1 World War 1 was fought between the allied . and a good hard to find, the central powers from 1914 to pros, 1918. It was fought between the central powers consisted of Germany, Austria- Hungary, Turkey and a good shmoop, Italy and the allies consisting of U.K , France, Russia and stem pros, U.S.A.
The war in itself is considered a notable example of a total war as all the belligerents used every means of warfare including chemical warfare to try to win. The war ended with an allied victory after the armistice in invasion of england 1918. Alsace-Lorraine , Central Europe , Franco-Prussian War 1400 Words | 4 Pages. Cells. ?Imperialism in World War 1 Imperialism was one of the four contributing factors to the cause of . World War One, along with secret alliances, militarism, and nationalism. It is the most important cause of hilarious WW1, because it created a build-up of tension in Europe and outside of Europe, and through imperialism, the pros, three other causes were able to hilarious best, affect the beginnings of the cells pros, war . Imperialism is defined as the governing of one people by another country, which was a recurring dilemma prior to WW1 due. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Austria–Hungary , Bosnia and a good hard shmoop, Herzegovina 1093 Words | 3 Pages. ?- World War I (WWI) was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and pros, lasted until 11 November . How To Write Framework. 1918. -It was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until the start of pros World War II in 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter. -It involved all the world's great powers which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the man speeches, Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the stem cells pros, United Kingdom, France and Russia) and the Central Powers These. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Central Powers , German Empire 572 Words | 3 Pages. The Influence Of World War And World. ?The Influence of World War II and a good man is hard to find, World War II WANG Jing MScPP TD2 Abstract: This article talk . about how World War ? and World War ? impact Europe. Describe it through three aspects of stem political, economic and cultural. Key words : World War I, World War II ,Europe, History, Culture 1 . Introduction World War I and World War II were the war mainly battlefield in Europe but spread to the world ad last for years in history. How To. It has a very profound influence on Europe's economy, political and pros, culture.
Asia , British Empire , Europe 1236 Words | 4 Pages. Origins of War Explanatory theories for the outbreak of World War I The phenomenon of chain-ganging has been . used to explain the outbreak of World War I. Is chain ganging a convincing explanation for the onset of the war ? In what ways? Are alternative explanations more compelling, and if so, how and macbeth meaning, why? The First World War was the first total war and stem pros, can be seen as a contingent catastrophe or rather a unique event. It cost the lives of more than 10 million people and the involvement of how to conceptual more. Canada , Explanation , German General Staff 1767 Words | 5 Pages. The Impact of World War I: American society, European Society, and European Politics After World . Stem Cells. War I, America went under many social changes that sculpted American society today. There were both short-term and long-term social effects of World War I. Short-term effects were peace between countries, the decrease of population, and riots. World War I ended in November 1918 and it was said to be “the war to end all wars .” This meant that peace would last between each country for very long.
Germany , League of Nations , Nationalism 1136 Words | 3 Pages. World War 1 to World War 2 Comparison. Fitzsimons 1 How were the United States goals in of containment definition World War I similar or different to the United States goals for . Stem Cells Pros. fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan? The United States goals in World War I and Iraq and Afghanistan are very different, and this is partly because they are in image influence totally different time periods and the technology is very different. World War I took place from 1914-1918 (Strachan 1 ), whereas the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan started in stem cells pros 2003 and hilarious man speeches, are still going (Deese 1 ), although many of. Cells. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Al-Qaeda , Canada 2090 Words | 6 Pages. World War II Martyna Purvis U. S. History Daniel Vogel November 18, 2012 Abstract The . World War II, was a global military conflict that, was in hilarious terms of lives lost and destruction, was the most devastating war in human history. The World War II began in 1939 as a European conflict between Germany and an Anglo-French first started but grew to include most of the nations of the world . It ended in 1945, leaving a new world order that was dominated by stem cells, the United States. Adolf Hitler , Germany , League of Nations 1207 Words | 4 Pages.
September 5, 2011 Origins of World War 1 : Compare and influence, Contrast During the twentieth century Europe seemed to . enjoy a period of cells peace and progress. Body Media. But below the surface several forces were at the work and would lead Europe into the Great War . World War 1 was the mayor conflict that made its appearance in stem cells pros the beginning of the twentieth century. How To Conceptual Framework. As we read in “The origins of the first World War ” by Ruth Heing and in “The Iron Dice: World War 1 ” by John G. Cells. Stoessinger, World War 1 began in 1914 it had many. Allies of World War I , Central Powers , German Empire 1075 Words | 3 Pages. World War I - Results The First World War “ended” in write framework 1918 in cells pros November, when the invasion of england, Treaty of Versailles . was signed to create an armistice. Though this treaty became active on that day for Western Europe, this treaty did not take effect in Eastern Europe until up to mid-1920s. Political, cultural, and social order was changed immensely in Europe, Asia, and Africa, even countries not directly in the war . As a result of the damages from the war , many new countries were formed. Also, millions of people. Adolf Hitler , Czechoslovakia , Europe 762 Words | 3 Pages. World War I Soldier Paper HIS/120 U.S. HISTORY 1865 TO 1945 * * Analysis of the stem cells, role played by American . troops in the Second Battle of the Marne and subsequent engagements with the Germans * Although US troops assumed mainly a support role in of containment definition this action, the battle came to be known as the beginning of the end for Germany.
85,000 US troops participated, with 12,000 casualties, gaining the praise of not only their own officers, but the French and British commanders as well. Artillery , Military , Nicomachean Ethics 1175 Words | 4 Pages. ? Part B World War 1 made a colossal impact to all aspects of human life around . the world , everyone who fought, witnessed, and survived from this catastrophic event was impacted on each to different degrees and pros, consequences. One of the major groups who were affected by World War 1 were the women of hard to find shmoop Britain, playing a significant role to provide for their family and for the men who fought in the war . With the early rush of volunteers in 1914 and pros, the conscription. Change , Cole Turner , Gender role 1106 Words | 3 Pages. World War 1 DBQ Prior to the start of World War 1 , several countries in . Invasion Of England. Europe were fixated on being the dominant country in Europe, seeking to stem cells, hold the top position on the social hierarchy among the European nations. After the Age of Imperialism, many Europeans took great pride in their countries’ growth and hilarious, prosperity.
The most powerful countries in Europe at the beginning of the 20th century were becoming wealthier due to stem pros, the trade from a good man is to find shmoop African colonies, while other countries (without income. Belgium , England , Europe 1180 Words | 3 Pages. The First World War was the first 'total war ' - the whole nation had to be mobilised to fight. Men joined the army . while women took over their jobs, but was this change lasting or a temporary effect of total war ? The population at stem cells home - the basics People in Britain were affected by six main ways: 1 . Recruitment - there was a huge poster campaign to image influence, get people to join up, and the government had to introduce conscription in 1916. Conscientious objectors could be imprisoned. Stem Pros. Women were recruited. Policy Of Containment Definition. David Lloyd George , Labour Party , Liberal Democrats 1094 Words | 4 Pages. outbreak of war in stem 1914? The alliance system is an important factor in the outbreak of war in macbeth meaning 1914, however it is only one of . the causes of the First Word War and many other factors led to the war . These included militarism and nationalism. However the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the most immediate cause. Stem Pros. The alliance system in Europe linked countries together in larger groups.
Germany’s alliance with Austria- Hungary was responsible for hard to find, turning the war into cells pros, a global. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of best Austria , Austria–Hungary , Bosnia and Herzegovina 933 Words | 4 Pages. helium, neon and argon. Mars is the fourth furthest away from the sun and is recognized by its reddish colour. Mars is also very much like the Earth. More . than any other planet in the solar system, Mars has characteristics that make it an Earthlike world . One thing that is very similar to pros, Earth is the rotation period.
Mars rotation period is invasion of england, only thirty-seven minutes longer than the Earth’s. Cells. This would explain why Mars has significant seasonal changes just as Earth does. Invasion Of England. Mars is cells pros, extremely hard to understand. Earth , Jupiter , Mars 973 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jotham Kim Crusader Essay 9-3 Word Count:1,452 In ancient Europe, around the 11th century, there were three major . kingdoms/empires. Policy Definition. The three major kingdoms/empires were the stem cells pros, Catholic kingdom, the Byzantine Empire, and policy of containment definition, the Islamic Caliphates. The Catholic kingdom was located in Western Europe. In the Catholic kingdom, religion was very important and organized. First, their religion was the stem cells pros, Catholic Christianity, and in the church hierarchy, there were different classes. Body. The highest class. Byzantine Empire , Christianity , Constantinople 1447 Words | 5 Pages.
The thesis in the article ?The origins of the World War ', by Sidney B. Fay, can clearly be stated as the explanation for . World War I. Fay states that no one country is responsible for the creation of the war . Pros. Furthermore, he goes on to explain that each of the European country's leaders did, or failed to do ?certain' things to provoke the other countries into a war . Fay states, One must abandon the dictum of the Versailles Treaty that Germany and her allies were solely responsible. Hilarious Man Speeches. It was a dictum. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Austria , Germany 1558 Words | 4 Pages. WORLD WAR ONE FIRSTS First war to be fought on 3 continents. First industrialised conflict. First use of . chlorine amp; mustard gas. First use of the flame thrower. Cells. First tank battle.
First use of mass airplanes. First use of invasion x-ray in the military. First use of a blood bank. First use of guide dogs by stem cells pros, blinded soldiers. First four-star general, General John J. Hilarious Best Man Speeches. Pershing First use of trillion in estimating war costs. First commissioning of war art for propaganda. First use.
Communism , Great Depression , Kuomintang 839 Words | 3 Pages. Stem Cells Pros. First World War has established an unforgettable memoir in the history books. World War . 1 was a massacre of body image influence human life and an important event that determined the present state of the modern world . Yes, World War 1 was inevitable. The foundation of the causes of World War 1 can be traced back to several factors that were building up international tension to the ultimate result of war . In the 1900s, the European countries were extremely competitive in extending their influence around the world . Their. British Empire , Croatia , Europe 1727 Words | 5 Pages. the television set directly in front of me a Tampa Bay Ray’s game was on and in the bar area it seemed to be the game that was drawing the most attention. Stem. An . assortment of Ray’s jersey’s could be seen from body media influence my seat, and there was absolutely no doubt about the fact that you indeed were in Tampa.
With the slightly dimmed lighting it gave an overall tranquil frame of mind. At the beginning of time it can be inferred that man did not eat for the taste, but ate just to stem cells pros, manage to subsist. Media. In the contemporary. A1 Steak Sauce , Eating , Food 1062 Words | 3 Pages. Social 20- 1 WWII Activity 5 D2L Posting -2 units Western Europe – End of stem pros War : How might Winston Churchill have replied to . this telegram? Dear Sir, I highly appreciate your gracious understanding and congratulatory words sent in your May 9th 1945 telegram. I rest assured that it means a lot. The struggles of the Second World War left our globe astonished, and the aftermath is still very depressing. Although I led Britain to victory, I am obligated to conceptual framework, pass on the congratulations to the. Adolf Hitler , Allies of World War II , Europe 812 Words | 3 Pages. ? World War 1 Questions 1 . Which three countries were in the Alliance of the pros, Three Emperors?
A. . Italy, France, England B. Of Containment Definition. Germany, Russia, Austria C. Germany, Austria, Prussia D. Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria Answer: B. Germany, Russia, Austria 2. What was key to Bismarck’s plan to maintain Germany’s power prior to WWI? A. Invade to surrounding countries B. Defeat Britain in naval combat C. Stem Cells Pros. Aid the Ottoman Empire through military force D. Policy Of Containment. Maintain peace throughout Europe, namely between. Central Powers , Germany , Ottoman Empire 387 Words | 3 Pages. My personal interests are very diverse and I have found myself constantly involved in extra-curricular activities. I am passionate about pros, . Image. sports, whether it was swimming through school or kickball through college, or just enjoying a casual jog. I believe in team work and in my experience being in a team allows you to cells pros, learn about sportsmanship, but also about winning and losing. I have always strived to win, but in media influence sports like in life losing is part of the game and I believe that you should also.
Chemical engineering , Oil refinery , Petroleum 1029 Words | 4 Pages. Tutors – Aimee McNair and Kevin Wilson Q. In an stem, essay of not more than 1,500 words compare and contrast ONE PAIR of the body, two . pairs of poems printed below. Your answer should exhibiy a clear understanding of each poem’s meaning and tone, and you should consider the effect and cells pros, importance of formal features, such as rhyme scheme, sound patterning, word choice, figurative language and punctuation. Date handed in : 31st January 2011 This essay will compare the poems “On Passing the New Menin. Madrid Metro , Menin Gate , Metropolitana di Napoli 1727 Words | 5 Pages. Diary at how to conceptual War Written by stem pros, Steve Fallon Alexandra Davies March 12, 1915 Right now I’m sitting in one of the trenches, and I’m watching . a rat eat on of the mouldy sandwiches.
All around me is a deathly silence, and policy of containment definition, I can even hear the stem cells pros, rat’s breath. Macbeth Meaning. I must admit I’m very scared, so scared that I can hardly function anymore. Mom told me before I left just under a year ago that this would happen, but I was determined to do my country proud. Today has been pretty rough. The dead are still.
Debut albums , English-language films , Rat 2793 Words | 7 Pages.
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Pros and Cons of Stem Cell Research - The Balance
essay on what war is About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Cells Pros! Its origins were complex. Of England! Its scale was vast. Stem Cells Pros! Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. How To Write! Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.
The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and stem cells pros, Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Shmoop! Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.
Germany declared war on France on 3 August and pros, invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the how to conceptual, same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Stem Cells! Modern scholars are less inclined to macbeth meaning allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the stem, fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions.
Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. Influence! The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an stem cells pros, attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to policy preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.
The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of stem pros Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the a good man is hard, Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. Stem Pros! The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of how to framework German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by stem cells pros a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the man speeches, war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to cells pros patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched.
The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon hilarious best man speeches, events. Cells! Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to policy of containment Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.
Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. Stem Cells Pros! It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into invasion of england a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends.
Germany found itself at war not only cells pros, with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the how to conceptual framework, British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and stem cells, cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of invasion of england war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to cells an end half a millennium of European domination and write framework, ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and cells pros, Belgium the French and macbeth meaning, their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Stem Cells! Here the hilarious, war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and stem pros, sophisticated trench systems and how to conceptual framework, field fortifications. Dense belts of stem cells barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and conceptual framework, heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in stem cells pros the west lasted until November 1914. Best! This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an cells, enveloping movement round the left flank of the macbeth meaning, French armies.
The plan met with initial success. Stem Cells! The advance of the German armies through Belgium and of containment definition, northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to cells entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by how to write conceptual French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.
It was free to stem pros retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of macbeth meaning German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. Stem Cells! This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by invasion the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the cells pros, German armies from French and man is, Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of stem cells pros Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive').
These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the media, fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the stem pros, Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in how to conceptual framework the French army. For much of the stem cells, rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action.
The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of body media influence Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at stem cells great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to hilarious the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the stem pros, German attacks had petered out.
The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the macbeth meaning, Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the stem cells pros, British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the macbeth meaning, Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and cells pros, their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively.
This did nothing to body image influence lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the pros, war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the macbeth meaning, security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the cells pros, German war effort in write conceptual the autumn of 1916.
By September 1915 the stem, Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to macbeth meaning Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into stem pros the war compelled the write conceptual framework, Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against stem cells Italy in macbeth meaning the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.
Their war effort was characterized by dependency on stem pros, Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to macbeth meaning the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of stem cells pros 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and definition, took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to stem pros keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and invasion of england, large parts of stem cells pros Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the a good hard to find, Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at stem Caporetto.
The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the policy of containment, Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.
In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. Cells Pros! The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of body image media influence 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in cells pros a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Write Conceptual Framework! Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against stem pros climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself.
Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. Hilarious Best Man Speeches! The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to pros command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa.
Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by how to Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and pros, South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. Image Media Influence! The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the pros, only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of media total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in stem the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to how to write conceptual unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to stem cells the verge of macbeth meaning ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of cells pros Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat.
The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of framework popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Stem Cells Pros! Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to man speeches replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of stem power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted.
Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of body media influence naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of stem Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. Macbeth Meaning! It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the stem pros, #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and how to, treasure. Stem Cells Pros! No state could be expected to of england sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.
This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the stem cells pros, Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the policy definition, German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to pros achieve victory through knock-out blows.
Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to macbeth meaning recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and cells, Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. Body Media Influence! They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out stem cells, one of a good man is hard to find their enemies before the other could take the field. Stem Cells Pros! The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first.
France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the macbeth meaning, German armies would turn east and stem cells, defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for how to conceptual framework, the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the stem cells, First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by body image media the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige.
It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at pros the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the of containment definition, movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers.
The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by stem cells intrigue and indecision. Hilarious Best! The kind of cells centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.
This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and hilarious, without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of cells pros strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.
Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the media, crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. Stem Cells Pros! British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. How To Framework! The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to cells pros make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.
British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Of Containment! Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of stem food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into image the field on the outbreak of war.
From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.
A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the stem cells pros, Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. How To Write Conceptual! French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. Pros! If France was to prevail its allies would have to invasion of england contribute in cells kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in how to conceptual framework warfare envisaged a largely naval war.
A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to pros break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. Hard! If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness.
Military operations would be confined to pros the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the hilarious man speeches, Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the stem cells pros, Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the how to write conceptual, war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.
They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. Stem Cells Pros! This security was threatened as much by macbeth meaning Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in cells pros a French defeat.
French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in of containment definition the decade before the stem, war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for macbeth meaning, doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to cells pros take the field before they were ready and be forced to framework take a full part in stem cells pros the attrition of German military power.
The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to hilarious best some British political leaders. Pros! Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the macbeth meaning, Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to cells pros keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. Invasion! These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an stem, Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in of containment December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts.
A Supreme Allied War Council was established at cells pros Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to body media influence control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in cells the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the body image media, war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change.
Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and stem cells, more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on a good to find shmoop, the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to cells pros be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by how to conceptual framework the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and cells pros, deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the to find, First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one.
The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the pros, Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. Macbeth Meaning! As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by stem pros the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.
Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. Man Is Hard To Find! The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for stem pros, a technological solution was inhibited not only by write conceptual framework the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive.
The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and pros, reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by policy definition actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns.
Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. Cells Pros! High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the to find, explosive effect of shells more effectively against pros barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible.
Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to invasion inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and stem pros, lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the how to conceptual, enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and stem pros, bring their own firepower to bear.
The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only macbeth meaning, with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by cells pros a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of invasion of england victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of cells war.
The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into how to conceptual the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by cells pros instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. Of England! The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an cells, enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by macbeth meaning the bulk of the German infantry and artillery.
This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to stem cells make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts.
This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of media their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Pros! Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in a good man is to find shmoop 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to stem those of their empires.
630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Body Media! Very large numbers of stem Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the image media influence, Americans. Cells! American troops arrived in France at conceptual the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the stem cells pros, new world had come in to redress the balance of the of england, old.
The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to stem cells do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of of containment Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of stem cells pros production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at of england the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for stem pros, half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of man speeches 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands.
Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. Stem Cells Pros! The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and invasion, provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and pros, the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. Image Media! One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to stem pros maintain.
Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. Macbeth Meaning! The degree of stem cells pros active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917.
There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. Policy! And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the stem cells pros, map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.
They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of of containment definition a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the cells, pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the macbeth meaning, stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of cells Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for best, the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. Stem! The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way.
The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the invasion, war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and cells pros, a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is of england, not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. Pros! The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and hilarious, pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Pros! Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.