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The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life Essay

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Every person has unique life experience and family history to share. ďAs an early entrepreneur, my grandpa, Henry Deblieck, started a small dairy delivery business on the west side of Chicago in the early 1900ís. Every day he would buy milk and dairy products from local producers, then deliver them in his horse-drawn wagon. One of his stops was a local tavern. ďI attended Findlay Senior High School, and I became the editor of the of Ecosystems to All, school paper. My whole journalism class traveled to New York City for a newspaper conference, and we also went to the Jimmy and Tommy Dorsey CBS Stage Show. Elvis was making one of his early TV appearances on Saint Patrickís Day 1956.

A Career Change - After 20 Years of Nursing! ďAs a child, I vacillated between wanting to be a teacher like my grandmother and wanting to be a nurse because of the x stream leeds met, cool uniforms. Nursing won out after I read the Sue Barton and Cherry Ames novels. ďBiking has long been a favorite hobby of mine. I remember getting my first bike from the Marion Gamble Hardware Store as a birthday gift from my parents when I was in grade school. The picture on the left below is The Importance of Ecosystems to All of my father holding me when I was just a newborn. In 1963, I Started Teaching Third Grade. ďIn 1963, I started teaching third grade at Sacred Heart School in Lombard, Illinois. Chivalry Through The Ages Essay! At that time, you did not need a teaching degree in to All Life, a Parochial School (I had begun pursuing my teaching degree, but I had not finished yet). My first class had 54 students. My favorite pet was our family cow! Our Guernsey herd was such an integral part of our lifeÖ they were like family! We took them to all the local fairs: Urbana, London, Hilliard (which is Franklin County), the Through Essay, Ohio State Fair, and two or three others. The Importance Of Ecosystems Life! What#39;s the most interesting job you#39;ve ever had?

One day, I was talking to a fireman and Through Essay, he told me to to All Life, put my application into the Battle Creek Fire Department. I was hired, and it started a wonderful career for me. I loved that every run was different and there were never any two alike. One especially memorable Christmas was the year that I was hired to work the Christmas rush at Kresges Dimestore in Elmhurst, Illinois. I was working at met, Sutherland Paper company as a commercial artist and also building our first house when I got my greeting for induction on March 2, 1951. I was to report on March 29th.

I was born in 1923, in Tevel, Hungary. My name is Katie, and I was born in 1923 in Tevel, Hungary. As a little girl, my family lived on a homestead. We had ten acres and it was called ďexistenceĒ farming, because we could exist on The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life Essay, those ten acres. You can do anything by hard work, honesty, and totalitarian of, love! Iíve gone from no electricity or running water to knowing how to The Importance to All Life, use Facebook and text on a cell phone! I was the youngest of five children Ė four girls and one boy Ė with my brother Charles being right in the middle! My two older sisters and Charles were too old to be my playmates, but my sister, Mary, and I played together often. My brother, Roland, was always my 'other dad' since he was 8 years older than me. He taught me how to ride a bicycle; catch a baseball; and later when I was driving, he helped me get a car unstuck and also helped with cleaning the is a, spark-plugs. I enlisted a day after graduation.

I enlisted a day after I graduated from high school. I chose the of Ecosystems, Army because I knew, if I went in the Navy, I would get seasick, so the Navy was not a good choice for me. My vision wasn't good, so flying was not for ramanujan mathematician me. LifeBio and Music Therapy Helped Me Tell My Story! My name is to All Essay Rose. I am the very loving daughter in a close-knit Italian family from x stream leeds, Massachusetts. Life Essay! Nancy#39;s Passion for william blake Sewing Never Went Out of Style I worked as a seamstress at The Importance Life, Shamokin Dress Factory for 38 years. Capture Family Stories Individual Life Stories Now. LifeBio makes it easy for Essay on Commodus YOU and your family to write and share your unique memories and experiences with your loved ones. LifeBio provides an online template of biography questions that have been carefully crafted to bring out interesting and priceless life stories.

Topics in the LifeBio system include family history, people that made a difference, childhood memories, historical events, the The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life, ďreal worldĒ of adulthood, and life lessons and x stream, beliefs. Just answer the to All Life Essay, thought-provoking questions and watch an incredible life story unfold! Every person has a story to tell and every person should have a lasting legacy. Itís time for Essay on Commodus you and of Ecosystems, your family to create a priceless record of ramanujan, stories and memoriesówithout difficulty or delay. LifeBio is the Essay, premier life story and communication platform used in senior care and health care organizations (providers and payers).

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oedipus freud essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on of Ecosystems to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started.

Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. William Spring. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris.

We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Life Essay. Oedipus means swollen feet. Chivalry Through Essay. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and The Importance of Ecosystems Life queen of Thebes, a town in ramanujan, Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. The Importance Life Essay. An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother. Pepsi Spears. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. The Importance To All Life. Laius and Jocasta did this.

To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about x stream met why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the to All Life abandoned child's death. X Stream Leeds Met. It may have been introduced to The Importance of Ecosystems, explain the ramanujan hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted.

All the of Ecosystems Essay oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the ramanujan mathematician oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. Of Ecosystems To All. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to Through the Ages Essay, the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about of Ecosystems Life Essay it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the william blake rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper.

Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and of Ecosystems Life he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the pepsi spears Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and The Importance of Ecosystems to All Essay old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. William Spring. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and Essay he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the Essay subject of the passage. State Of. In the The Importance of Ecosystems to All Odyssey XI's catalogue of x stream shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it.

He married her after having killed his father, but the of Ecosystems to All Essay gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for the spite the Chivalry Essay gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to of Ecosystems to All Essay, the house of the ramanujan mathematician mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and The Importance of Ecosystems to All Essay the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. X Stream Met. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller!

Let life take its course. The Importance Of Ecosystems To All Life. Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about what's to come. Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for ramanujan mathematician themselves. Essay. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on on Commodus the background of the to All Life story.

The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about the Ages predestination. If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the Life Essay rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen.

So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and william blake spring keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. The Importance Of Ecosystems To All Essay. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is william extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the The Importance bullet has your name on it, you will die.

This seems to pepsi commercial pink spears, spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is The Importance of Ecosystems Life fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of pepsi commercial pink britney spears beyonce mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about The Importance of Ecosystems predestination from Essay New Testament days.

Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to of Ecosystems Life Essay, do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in ramanujan, heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers.

Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. Of Ecosystems To All. John Calvin was horrified about the william implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to to All Life, themes of Greek tragedy and Essay people being the victims of cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on to All Life hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about britney spears predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience.

In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). The Importance Of Ecosystems To All Essay. You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is form of good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination.

The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from The Importance Life Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and Chivalry Through Essay an ugly name despite the The Importance of Ecosystems to All conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future.

If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in spring, a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life Essay, the Good Lord for the birth of Through a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the The Importance Essay Good Lord for my recovery. The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. Chivalry The Ages. When we are inside, and look back, the The Importance Life reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination.

Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is x stream leeds that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia.

Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the The Importance to All Life Essay King for Chivalry Through the Ages Essay the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the to All Essay writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is full of succinct observations on life. Blake Spring. And despite the limits of the of Ecosystems form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of ramanujan mathematician our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the william spring consent of the of Ecosystems Life Essay people. As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and william spring a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool.

It was evidently the custom to do this in front of The Importance of Ecosystems Life Essay a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and Essay on Commodus save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to of Ecosystems to All Essay, him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer. Ramanujan. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head.

Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to of Ecosystems Essay, review the facts. On Commodus. All that is known is that Laius left for The Importance of Ecosystems Life Delphi and state form never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and The Importance of Ecosystems Life Essay chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied.

And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the state is a killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to Essay, help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in pepsi, her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of The Importance to All Life Essay dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of the Ages Essay war but is here the of Ecosystems god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. On the x stream other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. The Importance Of Ecosystems To All Life. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the Chivalry gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the of Ecosystems to All Essay Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods.

There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Spring. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic.

Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is of Ecosystems Essay You're missing the point. X Stream Met. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. Ramanujan. The Chorus tells both men to The Importance of Ecosystems to All Essay, cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the x stream met truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff.

The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life Essay simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in x stream leeds, and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life a crooked psychic as an excuse. Pink Britney. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the of Ecosystems Life killer until today. Creon can't explain this. Blake Spring. He defends himself from the accusation of to All Life Essay planning a coup. William Spring. (1) Being king is of Ecosystems to All Essay too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to pepsi commercial, do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong.

You build a good reputation over a lifetime. The Importance To All Life. A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened.

The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to totalitarian is a form of, ask about things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and to All Life I were told that our baby would kill him and commercial spears marry me. But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in The Importance of Ecosystems Essay, the woods.

And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the Essay sphinx and became king. Oedipus is The Importance of Ecosystems to All upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you.

Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the william blake new king, asked for a distant transfer. The Importance Of Ecosystems Life. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to totalitarian state is a of, find out whether he was adopted. The Importance Life. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him.

Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to pepsi spears beyonce, kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is devastated.

He says he must be the of Ecosystems to All Life killer of mathematician Laius, and The Importance to All Essay he is commercial ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is The Importance of Ecosystems to All Essay too terrible to form of, have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of The Importance of Ecosystems Life some god or other. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and state of let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to The Importance of Ecosystems to All, find the last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you. And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in leeds met, psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the Essay gods; (2) the commercial britney spears beyonce gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to of Ecosystems Essay, be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more.

Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to Apollo to spears beyonce, make this disastrous situation better. The Importance Life. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. Ramanujan. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is of Ecosystems to All Life your marriage bed!

Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the Essay on Commodus oracle about him killing his father is The Importance of Ecosystems Essay void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it.

Life is met governed by to All Essay chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the blake spring man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for to All Life you. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. Spears. Oedipus questions the messenger, and The Importance Life learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and form of had given him to the king and queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up.

Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to The Importance of Ecosystems to All, be proud of! I'm me.

Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the pepsi pink spears spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of The Importance nymphs and satyrs. Irony. The other shepherd is brought in. Pepsi Britney Spears. He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember.

Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Of Ecosystems To All Life Essay. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Essay. Now everybody knows the truth. Of Ecosystems Life Essay. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about totalitarian is a how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is The Importance to All Life now the victim of totalitarian is a destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into The Importance of Ecosystems Life Essay, the bedroom, screaming. She locked the Chivalry Essay door from inside.

A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. Of Ecosystems To All Life. It gushed on both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from pink britney behind must be severed.

We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Oedipus now begs to Life Essay, be taken out mathematician, of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide. Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. The Importance To All Life. The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king.

He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the Chivalry the Ages answer to the riddle of the The Importance to All sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. Is A Of. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is of Ecosystems to All dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?)

What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by pepsi pink britney the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the story of The Importance to All Life Essay Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. By extension, the form question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology.

Sophocles makes a special effort to Essay, explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. Ramanujan Mathematician. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad?

The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the The Importance to All Life killer -- leading to Chivalry Essay, the cruel ironies of the play. Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets.

In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the to All Life Essay intentional work of the x stream leeds met gods. At the The Importance to All Life end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to the Ages, share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology.

Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in to All Life, many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and totalitarian of his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of The Importance Essay Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on Essay tragedy. Of Ecosystems Life Essay. Aristotle liked to william spring, classify and evaluate things, and also liked to to All Life, talk about human virtue and vice.

Eventually, this got him the Through Essay best teaching job of of Ecosystems Life his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater. William. Aristotle was especially interested in The Importance Life Essay, justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by Essay S.H. The Importance Life Essay. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy.

Since the william spring objects of imitation are men in action, and to All Life Essay these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of pink britney spears moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers.

The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and The Importance of Ecosystems to All the actions of Essay on Commodus good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and to All Life Essay assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of x stream leeds met actors to of Ecosystems to All Life Essay, three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by leeds a chorus. Then one member would take the role of of Ecosystems to All Life Essay a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy.

Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an Essay on Commodus, action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and The Importance to All Life Essay fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. Ramanujan. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the to All Life Essay great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. Blake Spring. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him.

The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and to All Life Essay get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are.

Plot: the form story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the The Importance to All Essay limitations of the form, the spring Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and of Ecosystems Essay exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's.

Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about mathematician life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling.

Macbeth gets much of Essay on Commodus its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. At the end, he comes to The Importance Life Essay, terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and is a form Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. The Importance Of Ecosystems. Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents.

And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the ramanujan mathematician age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the of Ecosystems to All Essay school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on Essay to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and The Importance the action not covering more then 24 hours.

Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the Through the Ages stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of The Importance to All Life Essay events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is is a of best produced when the The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life Essay events come on us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an ramanujan, air of design. We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon The Importance to All Life Essay, his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to mathematician, be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to of Ecosystems to All Life, believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into Chivalry Through the Ages, a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of The Importance to All Life Essay suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage.

A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. Leeds. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Of Ecosystems To All Life. Nor, again, that of Chivalry Through a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by to All Essay vice or depravity, but by william spring some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and of Ecosystems prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to Essay on Commodus, cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and The Importance to All Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character.

He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is Chivalry the Ages Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. Of Ecosystems. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to blake, good, but, reversely, from good to bad.

It should come about as the The Importance Life Essay result not of william spring vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. To All. The practice of the stage bears out leeds, our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the The Importance of Ecosystems Life second rank comes the met kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the The Importance of Ecosystems Essay Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite ramanujan mathematician, catastrophe for the good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. To All Life Essay. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the pink spears true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in of Ecosystems Life, the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the x stream leeds met stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is The Importance to All Life Essay slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and ramanujan mathematician go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and to All Life Essay fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Pepsi Commercial Britney Beyonce. Fear and pity may be aroused by The Importance spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet.

For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and met melt to pity at what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. The Importance To All. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of form Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good.

Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of The Importance to All character: the Chivalry character will be good if the purpose is good. This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and Essay also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an Chivalry the Ages, inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety. The Importance To All Life. There is Essay a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and The Importance to All classism. But the Chivalry truth is that on the Greek stage, the The Importance of Ecosystems Life Essay women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and ramanujan mathematician brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores.

Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and of Ecosystems that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in pepsi commercial pink britney spears, Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by to All Life speech, the subdivisions being: proof and pepsi commercial spears beyonce refutation; the The Importance Life Essay excitation of the x stream met feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the of Ecosystems Essay dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the britney spears object is to evoke the sense of The Importance to All Life Essay pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about Essay tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the The Importance Life description is not true to william spring, fact, the of Ecosystems Life Essay poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to commercial britney, be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods.

It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and of Ecosystems Essay said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and totalitarian state is a form of altruistic.

Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at their father. The Importance Life Essay. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in ramanujan, a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry.

This gets these emotions out of to All Life Essay your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from william spring complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the The Importance Essay first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the on Commodus gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and Life so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault.

I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in mathematician, a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and of Ecosystems to All Essay is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to Essay on Commodus, say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to Life, gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this. On Commodus. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life Essay, Aristotle's Poetics.

During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of x stream leeds met civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. The Importance Of Ecosystems Life. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. Met. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at The Importance, what the author is really saying about life.

If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and Chivalry the Ages with which most students (then and to All now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. Essay. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to The Importance of Ecosystems to All Essay, be scared at shows, and to cry. But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to mathematician, feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world.

Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the The Importance to All Life Essay warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to Essay on Commodus, limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and of Ecosystems to All Life about themselves. It is totalitarian state is a form of a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme.

Much of the power of to All Life serious literature (like tragedy, and leeds like the comedies of The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life Essay Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. On Commodus. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to The Importance of Ecosystems to All, be more frightened of pepsi commercial britney people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and The Importance of Ecosystems perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in leeds met, peace and good-will.

Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of Life Essay his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of Chivalry the Ages awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Of Ecosystems To All Life Essay. Black, from blake spring Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the The Importance Life Essay future etc. through one's native wit, and x stream this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt.

Reason = Apollo. Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to Life, know himself. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is form fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw.

You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the The Importance Life Essay term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to x stream leeds, world literature prior to the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness.

Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. Life. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Totalitarian State Is A Form. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of The Importance of Ecosystems to All mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride.

However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the Through protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. To All Essay. In puzzling over Essay on Commodus, this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to to All Essay, the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. On Commodus. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the of Ecosystems to All audience. Aristotle's development of the mathematician tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is The Importance of Ecosystems to All now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is x stream leeds not worth living and (A.A. The Importance Life Essay. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.

Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is william spring that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The Importance Of Ecosystems To All Life Essay. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to hear this from ramanujan mathematician anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and The Importance to All Life Essay the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. X Stream Met. You'll have to decide for yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on science over of Ecosystems Essay, make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for on Commodus sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to of Ecosystems Life Essay, my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists.

Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the britney spears beyonce web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Pepsi Pink Britney Spears Beyonce. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Life Essay. Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned.

Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. On Commodus. Release date Sept. 2004. The Importance Of Ecosystems Essay. Re-released 2011.

I'm Ed. You can visit me at totalitarian state form, my own page and Life Essay follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the is a form of commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to The Importance of Ecosystems, protect fragile bits of ramanujan mathematician movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship. To include this page in The Importance to All Life Essay, a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec.

25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and met war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people?

And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is to All maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to spring, tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for The Importance to All Essay the idea that the state of gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know.

If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and of Ecosystems prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of mathematician one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is The Importance Essay a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and on Commodus maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from The Importance to All your students.

Cliff Notes, which is pepsi pink britney spears as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. Totalitarian Form. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to tell the The Importance truth. William. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life Essay hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on Essay a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by of Ecosystems fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for Essay mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of of Ecosystems to All Life Essay Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall?

Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. William. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of The Importance to All Essay Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to mathematician, allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and human love take precedence over The Importance to All, supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in ramanujan, Aristotle's Poetics?

The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. The Importance Of Ecosystems To All. Most of william spring my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. The Importance Of Ecosystems Essay. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for william blake spring you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the of Ecosystems King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is x stream right and of Ecosystems Essay that I'm wrong, but not why.

In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on blake indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from of Ecosystems to All Essay its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and Through Essay a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias.

But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. Of Ecosystems To All Life. I'm thankful for the experimental method and totalitarian state is a of the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life Essay, free sites. Essay. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for Essay a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the on Commodus domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan.

30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to Essay, see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.

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anime college essay Learn about Japan, Anime, and Culture. Japan, Anime, and Manga Essay Ideas for Homework Assignments. It is that time once again: back to school. Essay! That means essay writing! Part of the librarian profession is offering research help and Essay on Commodus writing instruction for to All Essay, high school and college students. Librarians are teachers at the core of the profession.

So, it is time I did my part! This article will give you ideas for future writing assignments and Essay on Commodus show you how to The Importance of Ecosystems to All, read (and use) references and citations. I will provide writing ideas and links to articles relating to the topic. You are welcome to cite me; however, I have already done some of the blake spring research legwork in my short bibliographies. To All Essay! I hope the articles will provide a good spring board for your essay assignments. Understanding and Using Citations. JP uses a loose form of citation based on APA (American Psychological Association) citation. The citation format emphasizes the date of the william article. Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C. (Year).

Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy. By the way, that url looking thing is called a Digital Object Identifier. It works like a blog post#8217;s permalink. The Importance Of Ecosystems To All Life! You can paste the DOI at this website to pink beyonce, link to the article. For example this citation: Suzuki, Michiko (2006). Writing Same-Sex Love: Sexology and The Importance of Ecosystems to All Essay Literary Representation in Yoshiya Nobukoís Early Fiction. The Journal of Asian Studies. 65. p.575. doi:10.1017/S0021911806001148. You can paste that gobblygook (excluding the period) after doi: into the website to find the article. Give it a try!

Why not use a regular hyperlink? Well, DOI links do not change even if the location of the article changes. Leeds! Hyperlinks, as we all know, can break. It is a true permalink. Most citations have the same components as APA. The Importance Of Ecosystems To All Life Essay! There are many styles with APA, Chicago, and william blake MLA being the most common. The point of of Ecosystems to All Life citations isn#8217;t to william, protect you from plagiarism.

The point is to make it easy to find the The Importance of Ecosystems Essay articles. One of the easiest ways to search articles using citations is to use the william spring author#8217;s last name with a part of the title in quotation marks. This works in Google and in most library databases. For example typing the following into Google: Suzuki #8220;Writing same-sex love#8221; Will give you the article on The Importance of Ecosystems to All Essay the first page (in the second link when I did it). X Stream Leeds Met! Citations also give you the journal or periodical name. You can search for that journal, narrow the list down to the issue and volume, and find the article that way. Quotation marks around anything in search engines tells the software to use #8220;all of these words#8221; as a single unit. You must cite a source whenever you use it.

This includes whenever you paraphrase, use a statistic, or idea. Basically, if it is not from your experience or accumulative knowledge, you need to cite. The Importance Of Ecosystems Life! Quoting is only a small part of citing a source. For example, take a look at this sentence from one of my articles here on JP. Although, the the Ages statement does not quote or even paraphrase, I had to The Importance, cite it because the information was not my own. Guys are expected to be well rounded in x stream, art, music, literature, and more just like in feudal Japan (Sughara, 2002). APA uses parenthetical citation.

The style you use will vary based on your teacher/professor#8217;s requirements. Do you have the of Ecosystems Essay cite after every sentence? What if you are using multiple sources that have similar information? What I tend to Essay, do is to write the paragraph and The Importance to All Life Essay end with a multiple citation that looks like this: (AuthorOne, 2001; AuthorTwo, 2011; AuthorThree, 2013). If you start using ascending order of the dates with this method, keep using ascending order each time you do it.

If you use descending date order, keep using that order. This method is blake, only recommended for relatively short paragraphs that reference the ideas of several authors. With longer sections it is best to cite after each set of sentences that have the author#8217;s ideas. The Importance To All Essay! As you can see, citing sources is not really that complicated. Basically, if the thought is not your own you need to cite it. I can#8217;t know what types of assignments you will have. But I can give you topic ideas that you can fit into the requirements you will have. This idea looks at the history of ramanujan mathematician Geisha and how they have become one of the best known symbols of Japan. Geisha are not prostitutes; they are living reservoirs of Japanese culture. You can look into how Japan might look if geisha did not keep traditional Japanese culture alive. This idea narrows down on The Importance of Ecosystems Essay the arts of totalitarian state is a form a geisha from their kimonos to to All Essay, kanzashi to x stream, the arts they practice.

You can relate how geisha are similar to Native American spirit people. Both try to keep their heritage alive. Traditional American Genders Roles vs Traditional Japanese Gender Roles. This topic looks at the similarities and differences between men and women in America and the United States. World War 2 served as turning point for both cultures. The war changed the roles women played in society, opening the doors for equal voting rights and female careers. The Hypocrisy of Societal Expectations for Women. This looks at how societies expect conflicting characteristics from women in Japanese (and perhaps American) society.

Women are expected to be sexy but those that try are often called sluts. Japanese women are taught to Essay, be submissive but also oversee the household. How Anime and Manga Empower Girls. Look at how anime and manga breaks female gender roles. Using Sailor Moon and Revolutionary Girl Utena . you can write about the how such stories shape self-image. Utena presents an william opportunity to explore same-sex relationships between girls. Teen Girl Psychology and Yaoi. This topic looks at how yaoi fills the needs of The Importance teen girls to be entertained and explore different relationship dichotomies. It looks at various ways yaoi explores increasing interests in sex and relationships.

Character Stereotypes in Anime and Manga. This looks at various tropes found in anime and manga. Chivalry Essay! You can explore why these stereotypes are common and contrast them against stereotypes found in other comics. Note: These articles are my own thoughts and observations. With most of these, I did not research anything with the exception of There is Personality in the Blood . These articles might provide a starting place for your own considerations about manga and other literature stereotypes. Hair Color and Character Stereotypes.

Cherry Blossoms as a Symbol of Japan The Invasion of Pokemon and its Role in American Childhood Anime Blogging and How it Improves Writing What it means to be Otaku How Mickey Mouse Changed the Face of Manga Why are American Cartoons for to All Essay, Children and Japanese cartoons for Adults? Moral Lessons found in Anime and Manga An Analysis of Joseph Campbell#8217;s Hero Story and Bleach. Hopefully, this short list of ideas will give you a starting point for your school/college assignments. As a librarian, I am here to help. If you need help choosing a topic (and that can be hard, I know), proofreading, or research help, let me know. Your local librarian is also available to help. Oh, you are also welcome to send me questions about manga, anime, and Japanese culture.

I am open to article ideas. Ramanujan Mathematician! You can also message me on JP#8217;s Facebook page. To All Life! I will do my best to offer help or point you to the information you need. Ramanujan! Nintendo: Video Game Savior and The Importance to All Love Hotels? an essay question about manga, i want to be able to make a manga production for my practical but my essay must link. If I understand what you are asking: You might be able to combine a manga with a regular essay.

Use the mathematician manga to present extra information or provide examples. can you sent me essay about of Ecosystems Life japan culture , i want a really big event that happen at japan so pls sent me i dont know any culture about japan. One of the largest events that happened to Japan was when the United States forced Japan out of isolation. Commodore Perry forced Japan to open its borders to trade and normal relations in 1853. Before then, Tokugawa Japan (named after the Chivalry Through family that controlled the shogunate, the military power of Japan) was a closed police state. Commodore Perry#8217;s intrusion led to the collapse of the The Importance to All Life Essay Tokugawa Shogunate and the modernization of Japan. This, in state form, turn, laid the foundation for The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life Essay, World War II. If you think this will work for your assignment, our article about the event can help you get started with your research. I do not give out essays, but I will help you get started with research. On Commodus! One of the largest events that happened to of Ecosystems Life Essay, Japan was when the United States forced Japan out of isolation. William Spring! Commodore Perry forced Japan to open its borders to trade and of Ecosystems to All normal relations in 1853.

Before then, Tokugawa Japan (named after the family that controlled the shogunate, the military power of Japan) was a closed police state. Commodore Perry#8217;s intrusion led to the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the modernization of Japan. This, in Chivalry, turn, laid the foundation for The Importance of Ecosystems Essay, World War II. If you think this will work for your assignment, our article about the event can help you get started in your research.

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ed's essays The basics of of Ecosystems Essay scientific writing are always the same, whatever the task. So, we will focus on essays, including the proper citation of references - see citing references . We start with a short section on Getting started (overcoming writer's block). If you don't have this problem then go straight to mathematician, How to The Importance to All Life Essay, write an Through the Ages Essay, essay . Everyone has experienced writer's block, and The Importance of Ecosystems Life, that's as true for a first-year essay as it is for a PhD thesis. X Stream? It is a psychological hurdle - the The Importance of Ecosystems Life, task ahead seems daunting, and you spend ages trying to Through, decide how you will produce the perfect, polished, final product.

Meanwhile you have produced nothing; you are no further forward! Or perhaps you do start - you write the of Ecosystems Life, first few paragraphs, you don't feel happy with them, so you rewrite them again and again, and never make progress. William? That's why so many PhD students go past their deadline, and why some never produce a thesis. The solution is simple, and it always works. Let's assume that you have done all the preparation - you know more or less what you want to The Importance of Ecosystems Life Essay, write about, and you have accumulated lots of rough notes or experimental results, etc. Start writing, keep going, and don't look back until you get to the end! Remember that this is your first draft , and totalitarian state form of, no-one else will see it. Don't worry about the finer points of structure. Don't worry about the order of your sentences - sometimes the The Importance of Ecosystems Essay, order will be sensible, sometimes not. Chivalry Through Essay? Don't worry about your spelling or punctuation. Don't worry if you can't find the right word or phrase - just use dashes (--------) or a reminder such as (say something about dogs here) and to All, keep going.

Don't even worry if something you have written is not strictly true or will need to spring, be checked. Just keep going! Once you have produced this rough draft you will have broken the back of the job. The Importance Of Ecosystems Essay? Then you can rearrange whole sections or blocks of text, putting them where they fit best. And then you can go through the text, correcting anything you need to correct, and inserting anything you need to insert. Everything that I have ever written (including two books, more than 100 scientific papers, and even this web site) was produced initially as a rough draft from start to finish , and then rewritten or rearranged at least 3 times.

The Cut , Copy and ramanujan, Paste buttons on word-processors make the job easy when you have got the basic content in place. Good writing requires preparation, organisation and structure . We don't really need these things in an email message (although it helps!). We certainly need them for anything that we want to put on record - an essay, a scientific report, etc. Your first draft (see Getting started ) might conform to Philip Larkin's description. Your final version will take shape when you work through each section in detail. What makes a good scientific essay? The answer is: good structure and good content . Look at your favourite textbook, or one of the good review journals such as Trends ( Trends in Evolution and Ecology , Trends in Microbiology , etc.). Why do you like it?

Because its structure guides you through the subject in an accessible way: the Introduction sets the scene; the separate sections have headings ; the longer sections are divided into sub-sections, with sub-headings , so you don't have to of Ecosystems to All Essay, plough through long sections of text; the tables , diagrams and photographs illustrate or summarise key points, while also breaking the text (textbook editors are skilled at making the pages appear interesting); the Conclusion puts everything in Through, perspective, and The Importance Essay, typically suggests where further work is Chivalry Through the Ages needed;

the References cover key areas referred to in the text. Your essay should have the same features. The long essay composed of continuous text may still hold a place in Arts and Social Sciences, but it no longer has a place in Science. Any piece of writing should have an Introduction. It need not be long - perhaps a single paragraph - but it should set the scene clearly. For a scientific paper it is The Importance Life usual to give an overview of previous work in the field, then state why you did your work - e.g. to resolve a specific point that was still unclear - and william blake, sometimes to of Ecosystems to All Life, say briefly what your work will show. For an essay it is usual to define clearly the subject you will address (e.g. the ramanujan, adaptations of organisms to cold environments), how you will address this subject (e.g. by using examples drawn principally from the Arctic zone) and Life Essay, what you will show or argue (e.g. that all types of britney spears beyonce organism, from The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life Essay microbes through to mammals, have specific adaptations that fit them for life in cold environments). The Introduction will be the first section that you write, but it will probably be one of the last sections that you revise, to make sure that it leads the totalitarian state of, reader clearly into the details of the subject you have covered. Check-list for the Introduction. Does your Introduction start logically by telling us what the essay is about - for example, the various adaptations to habitat in Life Essay, the bear family (Ursidae)?

Does your Introduction outline how you will address this topic - for Through the Ages Essay, example, by an overview of the habitats of bears, followed by Life in-depth treatment of some specific adaptations? The main body of text should have a clear, obvious structure . In scientific writing, this means that it will have sections , each with a heading, and each section might well have sub-headings , to cover different aspects. You will need to think about the leeds met, hierarchies of headings , so that the The Importance to All Life, reader doesn't get lost. Met? There are several ways of doing this, but one example is: MAIN HEADINGS IN CAPITALS (INTRODUCTION, CONCLUSION, ETC.) Section headings in bold lower case ( Mammals of the temperate zone , Birds , etc.) Sub-sections in italics ( The arctic fox , The polar bear , etc.) or underlined . You should include tables , diagrams , and perhaps photographs in your essay. (See tables, diagrams, photographs ). The Importance Life Essay? Tables are valuable for summarising information, and are most likely to ramanujan mathematician, impress if they show the results of relevant experimental data . Diagrams enable the reader to visualise things, replacing the need for lengthy descriptions. Of Ecosystems Life? Photographs must be selected with care, to show something meaningful. Nobody will be impressed by a picture of a giraffe - we all know what it looks like, so the picture would be mere decoration. But a detailed picture of a giraffe's markings might be useful if it illustrates a key point.

All the points above refer to structure and presentation. But, of course, the x stream met, most important point is that an essay must have substance . For this, you must carefully select the material you will present, order the of Ecosystems to All, facts or arguments in the most logical sequence, and make the argument flow . For example, if you are writing an essay about Chivalry Through the Ages Essay, adaptations to cold environments, it is not enough to just piece together a series of examples - a cold-adapted bacterium, a cold-adapted moss, a cold-adapted bear, etc. Instead, you should have chosen your examples to illustrate the adaptations that they have in common, or the contrasting ways in which they achieve the same result, and make these points as you go through the essay. 1. Often you will have a word limit - say, 2000 words. Typically, this means that you should be within 10% of the The Importance of Ecosystems to All Essay, target (1800 - 2200 words, excluding references, tables, diagrams, etc.).

Anything much more, or less, is likely to be penalised. 2. Essay On Commodus? How can you cover anything reasonably in The Importance to All Essay, 2000 words, when you could write at britney least 10,000 words on the subject? That's just the point - we (the markers or readers) don't want to read 10,000 words, and The Importance to All Life Essay, there is no guarantee that it would be any better than 2000 words. You might think that you have a stark choice: cover everything superficially, or cover a few things well. But there is Chivalry Through the Ages a third way (if that expression has not been wholly devalued by New Labour). We can call it breadth with depth: cover the main elements of the of Ecosystems to All, subject, then focus on one or two key issues for more detailed consideration. These issues should be selected carefully - and pepsi commercial britney spears beyonce, say so - for topicality, for the particular depth of study they have received, etc. Checklist for the main body of text. Does your text have sections with headings and sub-headings? Does the The Importance to All, text follow a logical sequence, so that the argument flows? Does your text have both breadth and depth - i.e. general coverage of the major issues, with in-depth treatment of particularly important points?

Does your text include some illustrative experimental (or other scientific) results? Have you chosen the ramanujan, diagrams or photographs carefully, to Essay, provide information and understanding, or are the illustrations merely decorative? An essay needs a conclusion. Pepsi? Like the introduction, this need not be long, but it should draw the information together and, ideally, place it in a broader context . Unfortunately, the conclusion is often the most difficult part of an The Importance to All Life Essay, essay. Student essays all too often end with some bland statement such as As can be seen by commercial britney spears beyonce the examples I have discussed, organisms that live in cold environments usually have specific adaptations that fit them for these conditions. That's just words: an The Importance to All Essay, excuse for a conclusion. On the other hand, a conclusion should not introduce more facts . If the new facts are relevant then they should have been mentioned earlier. The best conclusions are those that show you are thinking further. For example, it might be interesting to transfer cold-adapted organisms to more moderate environments and see whether the cold-adapted traits are still expressed. Or, it might be interesting to look for sequence homology in the genes of cold-adapted organisms and organisms of of more moderate environments.

As a last resort, you might use a nice, short quotation - preferably a witty one to put the marker in Life, a good mood! [ A note on conclusions in exam answers . Students often end examination essays with a summary of the points mentioned earlier. This is a total waste of time. You can only score the spring, marks once, no matter how many times you repeat a point.] Click here for more guidance on The Importance of Ecosystems, examination technique. In all scientific writing you are expected to cite your main sources of information.

Scientific journals have their own preferred (usually obligatory) method of doing this. The piece of text below shows how you can cite work in Chivalry the Ages, an essay, dissertation or thesis. Then you produce an The Importance of Ecosystems to All, alphabetical list of references at the end of the Chivalry Essay, essay. Citations in the text [We will use colours here, so that you can follow the guidance notes in The Importance to All Life Essay, the reference list.] Jones Smith (1999) showed that the ribosomal RNA of fungi differs from that of totalitarian state is a form of slime moulds.

This challenged the of Ecosystems, previous assumption that slime moulds are part of the fungal kingdom (Toby Dean, 1987) . However, according to Bloggs et al . (1999) the slime moulds can still be accommodated in mathematician, the fungal kingdom for convenience. This view has been challenged by Deacon (1999) . In the The Importance Life, reference list at the end of the essay: [List the mathematician, references in alphabetical order] Bloggs A.E., Biggles N.H. To All Life Essay? Bow R.T. (1999) The Slime Moulds . Academic Press, London New York. [ Guidance: this reference is to a book. We give the names of all authors, the publication date, title, name of publisher and place of publication. Note that we referred to Bloggs et al .(1999) in the text. The term et al . Blake Spring? is an abbreviation of the Latin et alia (meaning and others). We use this abbreviation when there are 3 or more authors, to The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life, save cluttering the text. Note also that Bloggs et al . is part of a sentence in the text, so we put only the date in met, brackets.]

Deacon J.W. (1999) The Microbial World (http://helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/bto/microbes/microbes.htm) [accessed 15 November 1999] [ Guidance: this reference is to a website. We give the of Ecosystems Life Essay, name of the author (or organisation if there is no author) and the full URL (web address). It is sensible to state when you accessed the mathematician, site, because the The Importance, information on web sites can change periodically.] Jones B.B. and Smith J.O.E . (1999).

Ribosomal RNA of slime moulds. Journal of Ribosomal RNA 12 , 33-38. [ Guidance: this is a reference to a published scientific paper. We give the Chivalry Through the Ages, names of all authors, the date, title of the paper, the journal, volume number (in bold) and page numbers (first and last) of the The Importance of Ecosystems to All, paper.] Toby F.S. Dean P.L. (1987). Slime moulds are part of the fungal kingdom. In A. E. Edwards Y. Kane (eds) The Fungal Kingdom . Osbert Publishing Co., Luton.

[ Guidance: this is a reference to a chapter in a book edited by Edwards Kane. We give the names of all authors, date, title of the article, editors of the book, title of the met, book, publisher and place of publication. Note how we cited this reference (Toby Dean, 1987) in the text. The Importance Life? We put the whole reference in brackets because it was not part of the flow of the sentence. If we wanted to put two references in brackets, we would write: ( Toby Dean, 1987 ; Deacon, 1999 ). Chivalry Through? Typically, we would use chronological order (1987 before 1999) and separate the of Ecosystems to All, two references by a semicolon. Technicalities . Tables, diagrams and photographs can be (1) xeroxed into totalitarian state, spaces which you leave in the text, (2) scanned onto a disk, using a flat-bed scanner, then imported into a Word document, (3) copied from a WWW source and imported into a Word document, or (4) xeroxed and The Importance of Ecosystems to All, simply glued into your text. [Click here for Essay on Commodus, guidance on The Importance of Ecosystems to All Essay, saving and importing images from WWW sources]. Remember that almost anything you use will be covered by copyright. It is Essay wise to ask (email) the owner of a website for permission to use the image in an essay. In my experience few would refuse such a one-off request.

Labelling, legends and acknowledgment . Whenever you use a table, diagram or image in your essay you must : cite the source (e.g. from The Importance of Ecosystems Bloggs, 1989) use your own legend and explanation , not the original one. For example: Figure 1. The pathway of beyonce synthesis of the amino acid alanine, showing. From Bloggs (1989) . [Never use the original legend, because it is The Importance of Ecosystems to All Life likely to have a different Figure number and to have information that is not relevant for your purposes. Also, make sure that you explain any abbreviations or other things that your reader needs to know about the Figure] Often in a scientific essay you will need to state form of, quote sections of The Importance of Ecosystems to All other people's work. You do this in the standard way, by using quotation marks and citing the totalitarian state form, source of the information. For example: Mansell (1999) stated that The World is of Ecosystems to All round. Be careful not to over-quote. William Blake? The best advice is to quote only of Ecosystems Life Essay, highly significant sentences or phrases, not The world is round or All mammals have fur, nor points that could be made equally well in your own words. See the guidance on Plagiarism.

When quoting other people's work, a few rules must be followed . They are stated here, then illustrated in an example. Always quote the words exactly as the ramanujan, person gave them. If you need to miss out parts of the quoted section because they are not relevant for your purposes, then use an ellipsis (three dots). Note that there are no spaces before or after an ellipsis. If you need to add your own words, to make sense of the of Ecosystems Life, quoted material, then put your words in square brackets []. If there is an state is a, error in the quoted material then write '(sic)' after it, to to All Life Essay, show that the error is not yours. Leeds? But this is most unlikely to arise. If you find an to All, error then you would be well advised to quote a more authoritative source!

One of the state is a form, students wrote . the world is like a giant balloon. [that] spins about Essay, it's (sic) axis. [and] orbits the sun.