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Definition of labelling in sociology

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Labeling Theory: Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology: Blackwell

Definition of labelling in sociology

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Labeling Theory in Sociology - Definition and Discussion - ThoughtCo

bios resume pci This section describes how to view and/or modify the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) settings on the Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers. Definition In Sociology? The BIOS Setup utility reports system information and can be used to configure the server BIOS settings. BIOS has a Setup utility stored in the BIOS flash memory. The configured data is provided with context-sensitive Help and is stored in the system's battery-backed CMOS RAM. If the rene configuration stored in of labelling, the CMOS RAM is invalid, the gilgamesh theme BIOS settings default to the original state specified at the factory. The following topics are covered: You can access BIOS Setup utility screens from the following interfaces: Use a USB keyboard, mouse, and VGA monitor connected directly to the server. Use a terminal (or terminal emulator connected to a computer) through the serial port on the back panel of the server.

Connect to definition of labelling in sociology, the server using the Sun ILOM Remote Console. Descartes? To access BIOS configuration screens and to change the in sociology system’s parameters, complete the following steps: 1. Power on Essay on Racial or power cycle the server. 2. To enter the BIOS Setup utility, press the of labelling in sociology F2 key while the system is performing the power-on self-test (POST) FIGURE E-1). FIGURE E-1 Press F2 to Run Setup Prompt. When BIOS is started, the child case study main BIOS Setup utility top-level screen appears (FIGURE E-2). This screen provides seven menu options across the top of the screen. FIGURE E-2 BIOS Setup Utility - Main Screen. In Sociology? 3. Use the gilgamesh theme left and in sociology right arrow keys to select the different menu options. As you select each menu option, the top-level screen for that menu option appears. 4. To select an option on a top-level screen, use the up and down arrow keys to scroll up and down the gilgamesh theme options presented.

Only options that can be modified are highlighted when you press the up and down arrow keys. If a field can be modified, as you select the option, user instructions for definition of labelling in sociology, modifying the option appear in the right column of the screen. If a field is Obesity States Essay, a link to a sub-screen, instructions to press the Enter key to definition, access the sub screen appear in the right column. 5. Modify the setup field and press the Esc key to save the changes and exit the screen. Gilgamesh Theme? Some screens present a confirmation dialog box that enables unwanted changes to be retracted. 6. On sub-screens that only provide configuration information and cannot be modified, press the Esc key to exit the screen. 7. To continue modifying other setup parameters, repeat Step 3 through Step 6. Definition In Sociology? Otherwise, go to Step 8. 8. Press and release the right arrow key until the Exit menu screen appears. 9. Follow the instructions on the Exit menu screen to save or discard your changes and exit the BIOS Setup utility. TABLE E-1 contains summary descriptions of the top-level BIOS setup screens. See This Section.

General product information, including BIOS type, processor, memory, and time/date. Configuration information for on Racial in Airports, the CPU, memory, IDE, Super IO, trusted computing, USB, PCI, MPS and other information. Configure the definition server to clear NVRAM during system boot. Configure the boot device priority (storage drives and the DVD-ROM drive). Set or change the user and supervisor passwords. Essay On Racial Profiling In Airports? View the configuration of server chipsets. Save changes and exit, discard changes and exit, discard changes, or load optimal or fail-safe defaults. See BIOS Setup Utility Menu Screens for examples of each of these screens. The following figures show sample Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers BIOS Setup utility screens. Definition Of Labelling In Sociology? All settings are set to the optimal defaults at startup. The following topics are covered: The BIOS Main screens provide general product information, including BIOS, processor, system memory, and Obesity States system time/date.

The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the definition of labelling in sociology following BIOS Main screens. FIGURE E-3 BIOS Setup Utility: Main - System Overview. How Are? FIGURE E-4 BIOS Setup Utility: Main - Serial Number Information. The BIOS Advanced screens provide detailed configuration information for the CPU, memory, IDE, Super IO, trusted computing, USB, PCI, MPS and other system information. The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the following BIOS Advanced screens. FIGURE E-5 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Advanced Settings. Of Labelling? FIGURE E-6 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Configure Advanced CPU Settings. FIGURE E-7 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - On-board SATA Configuration.

FIGURE E-8 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - AHCI Port 0 Configuration. FIGURE E-9 BIOS Setup Utility: Advance - ACPI Settings. FIGURE E-10 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Advanced ACPI Configuration. FIGURE E-11 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Event Logging Details. FIGURE E-12 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - View Event Log. FIGURE E-13 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - IPMI Configuration.

FIGURE E-14 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - LAN Configuration. FIGURE E-15 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Total Number of Entries. FIGURE E-16 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Intel VT-d Configuration. FIGURE E-17 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - MPS Configuration. FIGURE E-18 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Configure Remote Access Type and Parameters. FIGURE E-19 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Trusted Computing Configuration. FIGURE E-20 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - USB Configuration. FIGURE E-21 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - USB Mass Storage Device Configuration. The BIOS PCI screen enables you to configure the server to clear NVRAM during system boot. The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the following BIOS PCI screen.

FIGURE E-22 BIOS Setup Utility: PCI - Advanced PCI Settings. The BIOS Boot screens enable you to in Airports, configure the boot device priority (storage drives and the DVD-ROM drive). The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the following BIOS Boot screens. FIGURE E-23 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Boot Settings. FIGURE E-24 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Boot Settings Configuration. FIGURE E-25 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Boot Device Priority.

FIGURE E-26 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Option ROM Configuration. FIGURE E-27 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Wake On LAN Configuration. The BIOS Security screens enable you to set or change the supervisor and user passwords. Of Labelling? The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have one BIOS Security screen. FIGURE E-28 BIOS Setup Utility: Security - Security Settings. The BIOS Chipset screens enable you to set the chipset parameters. The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the following BIOS Chipset screens. Descartes? FIGURE E-29 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - Advanced Chipset Settings. FIGURE E-30 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - CPU Bridge Chipset Configuration. FIGURE E-31 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - North Bridge Chipset Configuration.

FIGURE E-32 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - South Bridge Chipset Configuration. Definition? The BIOS Exit options enable you to save changes and about A Criticism of Parking Policies in Society exit, discard changes and exit, discard changes, or load optimal defaults (FIGURE E-33). To select and execute an in sociology option, follow these steps: 1. Profiling? Use the up and down arrow keys to scroll up and down the BIOS Exit options. 2. Press Enter to select the option. A confirmation dialog box appears (see FIGURE E-34) that enables you to save or cancel the changes and exit the Setup utility.

FIGURE E-33 BIOS Setup Utility: Exit - Exit Options - Save Changes and Exit. FIGURE E-34 BIOS Setup Utility: Exit - Save Configuration Changes and Exit Confirmation. At system startup, the BIOS performs a power-on self-test that checks the hardware on your server to ensure that all components are present and functioning properly. TABLE E-2 identifies the events that can occur during BIOS POST, as well as specifies whether these event can prevent the host from of labelling, powering-on. Boot continues on host?

User password violation. Attempt to enter password fails three times. Setup password violation. Case? Attempt to enter password fails three times. Correctable ECC (error correction code) error detected. Uncorrectable ECC error detected. No system memory. No physical memory detected in the system. No usable system memory. All installed memory has experienced an unrecoverable failure.

Hard disk controller failure. No disk controller found. Keyboard cannot be initialized. Boot media failure. Definition? No removable boot media is found. No video device. No video controller is Essay on Racial Profiling in Airports, found. Firmware (BIOS) ROM corruption. BIOS checksum fails and the boot block is definition of labelling, not corrupted.

System boot initiated. Initiated by hard reset. Boot process started by hard reset. Memory sizing is occurring. System firmware progress. Primary processor initialization. Primary CPU initialization. Essay About Of Parking Policies? System firmware progress. Initiated by warm reset.

Boot process started by definition of labelling in sociology warm reset. Embedded controller management. Essay? Management controller initialization. Secondary processor(s) initialization. Secondary CPU initialization asserted. System firmware progress. When BIOS initializes keyboard. Keyboard controller initialization. When BIOS initializes keyboard.

Option ROM initialization. BIOS initializes Option ROMs. System firmware progress. Option ROM space exhausted. BIOS cannot copy an option to the memory. User initiated system set up. Definition Of Labelling? End user initiated access to BIOS Set Up Utility. System firmware progress.

User initiated boot to OS. Fireworks? System boot initiated. System firmware progress. Of Labelling? No bootable media. Gilgamesh Theme? Nothing to boot from. PXE server not found. Of Labelling? Boot error - PXE server not found. F12 key was pressed but BIOS fails to boot from PXE server. ACPI Power state.

Soft-off power applied. Each power-on-self-test (POST) diagnostic is a low-level test designed to gilgamesh theme, pinpoint faults in a specific hardware component. If the of labelling in sociology POST diagnostics discloses an F1 or F2 error, it typically reports the following information about the error: When or where the error occurred. TABLE E-4 lists some of the F1 and F2 error messages that could appear during the POST diagnostics along with instructions for rene descartes, how to possibly resolve the error reported. The server supports four 10/100/1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet ports on the rear of the chassis. Of Labelling? For port locations, see FIGURE 1-2. The device naming for the Ethernet interfaces is reported differently by different interfaces and operating systems. See TABLE E-3 for the physical (BIOS) and logical (operating system) naming conventions used for each interface. Solaris 10 10/09. Oracle Enterprise Linux (OEL) 5.4 (64-bit) SLES 10 SP3 (64-bit) and.

VMware ESX 4.0 and gilgamesh theme ESXi 4.0. BIOS POST Error Message. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Protocol Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) QPI [ x ] Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to definition in sociology, continue. Check the fault management function and Essay A Criticism of Parking the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Of Labelling In Sociology? Note - Where QPI [ x ] equals 0 for QPI Link 0 or 1 for on Racial in Airports, QPI Link 1. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) PCI-E [ x ] Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue.

Check the fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - Where PCI-E [ x ] port number can range from definition of labelling, 1 to 10 depending on the PCI root port on IOH. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) ESI Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Thermal Error(Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the fault management function and child case study the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) DMA Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue.

Check the of labelling in sociology SP event log for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Miscellaneous Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to on Racial Profiling, continue. Definition? Check the how are fireworks made fault management function and the SP event log in of labelling in sociology, ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) VTd Error (Please Check SP Log for of Parking Policies, more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Definition Of Labelling? BMC Not Responding. Note - This error message might display if during the on Racial SP/BIOS communication an of labelling in sociology internal error occurs. This error might require you to restart the SP. Primary Slave Hard Disk Error Primary Master Hard Disk Error Secondary Master Hard Disk Error Secondary Slave Hard Disk Error.

Press F1 to continue. Check the Essay on Racial Profiling in Airports SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - These type of error messages display when the BIOS is attempting to configure IDE/ATAPI devices in POST. 8254 timer error. Definition Of Labelling In Sociology? Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - This type of error typically indicates an error while programming the count register of channel 2 of the 8254 timer.

This could indicate a problem with system hardware. Descartes Dualism? RAM R/W test failed. Memory test failure. Press F1 to definition, continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for gilgamesh theme, more details. Note - This type of error typically indicates that the RAM read/write test failed. KBC BAT Test failed.

Keyboard controller basic assurance test error. In Sociology? Press F1 to gilgamesh theme, continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - Keyboard controller BAT test failed. Definition In Sociology? This error might indicate a problem with keyboard controller initialization. Display memory test failed. On Racial Profiling In Airports? Video display error.

Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. CMOS Battery Low. CMOS battery error. Definition? Press F2 to enter BIOS Setup Utility to load system defaults. How Are Fireworks? Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. If necessary, replace CMOS battery. CMOS Checksum Bad CMOS Date/Time Not Set. Press F2 to enter BIOS Setup Utility to load system defaults. Of Labelling In Sociology? Check the study SP event log in ILOM for more details.

Password check failed. Password check error. Press F1 to continue. Check the of labelling in sociology SP event log in ILOM for in Airports, more details. Definition? Note - This type of error indicates that the password entered does not match the password specified in the BIOS Setup Utility. This condition might occur for rene dualism, both Supervisor and User password verification. Keyboard controller error. Press F1 to continue. Definition Of Labelling In Sociology? Check the SP event log in ILOM for gilgamesh theme, more details. Note - This type of error indicates that the Keyboard Controller failure. This error might indicate a problem with system hardware.

S.M.A.R.T error on the drive. Definition Of Labelling In Sociology? S.M.A.R.T device error. Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - S.M.A.R.T. Essay Profiling? failure messages might indicate the need to replace the storage device.

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Infections following the application of leeches: two case reports and review of the literature. © Maetz et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012. Published: 25 October 2012. Since the definition in sociology 1980s, leeches have been ingeniously used in the management of venous flap congestion. The presence of anticoagulative substances in their saliva improves the blood drainage. Their digestive tract contains several bacterial species, the main ones being Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria, which contribute to rene dualism, the digestion of ingested blood. These bacteria can be the cause of infections. We report two cases of definition in sociology septicemia related to Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria that presented after leeches had been applied to congested transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps for delayed mammary reconstructions. Patient number 1 was a 55-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent a delayed breast reconstruction procedure. On the sixth postoperative day she showed a clinical presentation of septicemia.

Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria was identified in the patient’s skin and blood bacteriological samples. Her fever ceased after 4 days of antibiotic treatment. Patient number 2 was a 56-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent a delayed breast reconstruction procedure. On the seventh postoperative day we noticed that she showed a clinical presentation of how are fireworks made septicemia. Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria was identified in the patient’s blood cultures and local bacteriological samples. An antibiogram showed resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Her fever ceased on of labelling in sociology, the eleventh postoperative day after 4 days of antibiotic treatment. The rate of infection after application of leeches is not negligible.

The concentration of Aeromonas inside the digestive tracts of leeches largely decreases when the patient is under antibiotic therapy. These germs are sensitive to third-generation cephalosporins and States Essay fluoroquinolones and resistant to definition in sociology, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. We recommend preventive treatment based on classical measures of asepsis and on oral antibioprophylaxy with a fluoroquinolone during the study whole period of treatment by in sociology, leeches. Leeches have been used for therapeutic purposes since 3500 B.C. Their qualities were discovered in former Egypt, China and fireworks made India. A mural painting representing a nurse applying a leech to a patient’s forehead was discovered in a grave in Thebes (origin of the pharaohs of the 18th dynasty). The first written reference goes back to the second century B.C. and deals with the treatment of poisonous bites. The use of leeches reached a peak in the nineteenth century for various indications: laryngitis, ophthalmic problems, cerebral apoplexy, obesity, and in sociology mental disorders. In 1884, Haycraft discovered hirudin which is the main anticoagulative substance in Essay Profiling, leeches’ saliva [ 1 ]. In 1955, Markwardt was the first to definition of labelling, isolate hirudin from the pharyngeal glands of leeches. Nowadays, this substance is only produced by genetic engineering.

It was in 1981 that Foucher described for the first time the use of about of Parking leeches in the treatment of venous congestion during digital replantation [ 2 ]. Since then leeching has been used particularly for the treatment of venous drainage problems [ 3 ]. Leeches are divided hermaphrodite worms that feed on blood and they belong to the group of of labelling in sociology annelids. Many species are known and descartes the two most commonly used in definition in sociology, medical application are the Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana [ 4 ] . Made? Their length is about 12cm and their weight is 2g to definition in sociology, 5g. The mouth of the leech has three jaws; each jaw has approximately 100 tiny teeth. A leech also has a posterior suction device that it uses for stability. Medicinal leeches have two different mechanisms through which venous drainage can be achieved. The first mechanism is through the about of Parking Policies passive bleeding of the patient after each leech bite; this represents the majority of the of labelling average blood meal volume for on Racial a leech. They temporarily increase perfusion levels by actively drawing off blood and maintain physiologic requirements within the congested tissue. Laser Doppler flowmetry can demonstrate a significant increase in superficial skin perfusion around the leech bite [ 5 , 6 ]. Moreover, as the leech bite continues, it reduces congestion due to in sociology, the anticoagulant effect of child case leech saliva, which contains thrombin inhibitor hirudin, apyrase, collagenase, hyaluronidase, factor Xa inhibitor and definition of labelling in sociology fibrinase I and child case study II [ 2 ]. A leech consumes 5mL to of labelling, 15mL of gilgamesh theme blood and induces oozing on the site of attachment of between 50mL and 100mL of definition in sociology blood during the 24-hour to 48-hour period after the in Airports leech is detached. Venous congestion treated by in sociology, leeches. In France, medicinal leeches are supplied by Ricarimpex®.

Before being used, leeches are kept in dualism, a bowl of sterile water under refrigeration. It is recommended to store leeches at a cool temperature ranging from 5°C to 7°C (42°F to 45°F) and no higher than 20°C (68°F). The water should be changed every week and a bacteriological sample taken once a month. Leeches’ intestinal flora is composed of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria [ 8 ] making the digestion of sampled red blood corpuscles easier. Since 1983, many infections due to these germs have been described after medical application [ 9 ]. We report two cases of septicemia related to A. veronii that presented after leeches had been applied to congested transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flaps for definition of labelling in sociology delayed mammary reconstructions before reviewing the rene descartes international literature on the topic. The first patient was a 55-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent a mastectomy for a breast cancer followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Definition Of Labelling In Sociology? Three years after those treatments, she underwent a delayed breast reconstruction procedure with a pedicled TRAM flap. Due to a massive and immediate venous congestion, she had to undergo 12 hours later a second operation and the flap had to be moved back to the initial position.

Due to persistent venous congestion, a treatment with leeches was started 2 days after this second operation. Neither an intraoperative nor a patient-related risk factor could explain the observed venous congestion. On the sixth postoperative day, following 4 days of leeching, the gilgamesh theme vascular status of the flap improved, but the patient showed a clinical presentation of definition septicemia associated with 39.2°C hyperthermia, a white blood cell count of 27,44 10 9 /L and a C-reactive protein (CRP) level increased by rene descartes dualism, 153mg/L. While blood cultures and of labelling in sociology local bacteriological swabs were being analyzed, an United States, intravenous antibiotic therapy was started including vancomycin (1.5g/day) and cefotaxime (6g/day) for definition 10 days, and gilgamesh theme amikacin (350mg/day) for 2 days. A. veronii biovar sobria was identified in definition in sociology, skin and blood bacteriological samples. The fever ceased after 4 days of antibiotic treatment. After 10 days, oral clindamycin antibiotic therapy was prescribed for 10 days. The flap was moved back to the mammary position at day 12 after 48 hours of rene dualism apyrexia. The patient left the of labelling in sociology hospital at day 19. The second patient was a 56-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent a mastectomy for Essay on Racial Profiling in Airports a relapse after a first breast cancer treated by tumorectomy followed by radiotherapy. Despite the definition of labelling possibilities of immediate breast reconstruction, she refused to on Racial Profiling in Airports, undergo such a procedure.

Ten months later, she was motivated for a delayed procedure. Because we were not used to performing deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps at that time, she had a breast reconstruction using a pedicled TRAM flap. Despite the in sociology absence of intraoperative complications and patient-related risk factors, the fireworks flap presented an early venous congestion that was treated from the second to of labelling, the fifth postoperative day by leeching and heparin-moist gauzes. A partial necrosis settled in the mammary and abdominal area. On the seventh postoperative day, we noticed a clinical presentation of septicemia associated with 39.8°C hyperthermia, a white blood cell count of 15 ? 10 9 /L and a CRP level increased by 114mg/L. On the eighth postoperative day, a necrotic area excision was practiced, associated with an gilgamesh theme, intravenous probabilistic antibiotic therapy including amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4g/day) and gentamicin (160mg/day) for of labelling in sociology 2 days. A. veronii biovar sobria was identified in the patient’s blood cultures and local bacteriological samples. An antibiogram showed resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, which was stopped at day 10 and replaced by cefotaxime (6g/day) for 10 days followed by oral ofloxacin (400mg/day) for eight days. The fever ceased on the eleventh postoperative day after four days of antibiotic treatment. She left the on Racial in Airports hospital at day 20.

For our two patients, the sample was plated to definition of labelling, blood agar, Drigalski agar and made a brain-heart infusion. The isolate was identified by using a Vitek 2 Gram-negative card (bioMerieux Inc., Marcy L’etoile, France). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by using a 24-hour disk-diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar plates incubated at definition in sociology 37°C in an ambient air incubator. Similar cases of infections due to leeching on TRAM flaps have been described in in Airports, the literature [ 10 ]. It was in 1983 that Whitlock et al . suggested for of labelling in sociology the first time that there could be a risk of infection by gilgamesh theme, A. hydrophila attached to leeching. Whitlock showed the presence of A. hydrophila on the leech’s body by making bacteriological samples.

These bacteria can be pathogenic for the human body especially when the flap has a bad vascularization [ 9 ]. In fact, each leech’s bite potentially introduces the bacteria into definition of labelling in sociology tissue with poor microcirculation, setting the stage for a possible infection. In the Essay on Racial Profiling literature, many cases of infection after leeching have been described [ 11 ]: 18 cases in 1992 by of labelling, Lineaweaver [ 12 ], 19 cases in child case, 1996 by De Chalain [ 13 ], 7 cases in 2002 by Sartor [ 14 ], and definition of labelling in sociology 47 cases in 2007 by Obesity Essay, Bauters [ 15 ]. The rate of infection can be important varying from 2.4% to 20.0% according to the literature: 17% in De Chalain [ 13 ] and 3% in definition, Sartor’s cases [ 14 ]. De Chalain et al. [ 13 ] described 19 cases of leeche-related Aeromonas infection. The flap salvage rate in in The Essay, infected patients dropped to 30% compared to an 83% flap survival rate in uninfected patients. The severity ranges from mild cellulitis and trivial episodes of wound drainage to more serious infections with abscess, tissue necrosis, septicemia and meningitis [ 16 ]. Several infections were observed at the donor site and at other sites far from the flap [ 12 ]. Of Labelling In Sociology? Unlike our two patients, in general, many patient-related risk factors were found that could explain the infection rate: immune deficiency, diabetes, hepatobiliary disease (cirrhosis), obesity, and tobacco use. Infection starts most of the time during the first 10 days, but in how are, some cases infection can appear a few weeks after leeching [ 16 ]. In our two cases, the delay between leeching and the beginning of septicemia ranges from definition of labelling in sociology, 4 to 7 days. In Lineaweaver’s [ 12 ] series of gilgamesh theme 18 patients infected after leeching, this delay ranges from 1 day to 10 days.

In Sartor’s series [ 14 ] of definition of labelling in sociology seven patients infected after leeching, this delay ranges from 2 days to 11 days. Numerous germs have been identified from leeches [ 17 ]. Case Study? The saliva from H. medicinalis, which is the most commonly used medicinal leech in Europe and Northern America, was put into in sociology culture by rene descartes, Mackay et al . and in sociology they showed the presence of A. hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria [ 18 ]. The most common germ is States Essay A. hydrophila but other pathogens that cause wound infections following leeching include A. sobria [ 19 ], and there are isolated reports of Serratia marcescens [ 20 ] and Vibrio fluvialis [ 21 ]. A. veronii biovar sobria was found in definition in sociology, blood cultures as well as in local bacteriological samples of our two patients. R: Resistant, S: Sensitive. Before use and in order to gilgamesh theme, avoid human infection, some authors propose immersing leeches in a solution of antibiotics for a few days or in a solution of in sociology chlorhexidine at gilgamesh theme 1:5000 before therapeutic use. Use of povidone iodine is definition of labelling excluded due to its absolute toxicity on leeches.

Hokelek et al . consider that incubation of child case leeches with the appropriate antibiotics before application may contribute to prevent patients’ infection [ 24 ]. Leeches’ suction activity is preserved notwithstanding this treatment. Different solutions of definition in sociology antibiotics were compared and analyzed; their efficiency and their impact on bacterial concentration inside the leeches’ digestive tract was studied. The results showed that optimum eradication of A Criticism Policies in Society bacteria from leeches was obtained with a dosage of 500?g per mL of ciprofloxacin and definition in sociology 1000?g per Essay on Racial Profiling in Airports, mL of ceftriaxone. Hokelek proposed the use of of labelling a solution of antibiotics with ciprofloxacin that was superior to ceftriaxone. Rene Dualism? Despite these preventive measures, some infectious cases were identified. In fact, no solution of antibiotics can totally eradicate the bacterial flora from the digestive tracts of leeches. Lineaweaver [ 25 ] nevertheless noticed an important decrease in the concentration of definition of labelling in sociology bacteria inside the digestive tracts of leeches when the patient is under an effective antibiotic therapy. Consequently, only the dualism patients’ antibioprophylaxy is able to reduce the of labelling risk of infection.

In 2002, Chepeha et al . [ 26 ] used double coverage with ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis in eight patients treated for gilgamesh theme venous congestion with an average of 215 leeches per patient without any Aeromonas infection reported. In 2004, Whitaker et al . [ 27 ] proposed a prophylactic protocol for the patient based on definition of labelling, an intravenous antibioprophylaxy associating a fluoroquinolone such as ciprofloxacin and an aminosid during the complete period of Obesity in The United States leeching. This treatment is followed by an oral one until complete healing is achieved. In 2007, Knobloch et al . [ 28 ] recommended a prophylactic antibiotic therapy with fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as 500mg of ciprofloxacin three times a day for definition in sociology 7 days. In the presence of necrotic tissue or an open wound, oral antibiotic cover should be continued until wound closure. Effective antibiotic treatment may reduce the possibility of Aeromonas colonization of a devitalized portion of tissue and prevent late A. Gilgamesh Theme? hydrophila infection [ 29 ]. Established infection is treated with antibiotics such as third-generation cephalosporins, along with aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, tetracycline, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole [ 29 ]. As for our two patients, Hermansdorfer’s and Braga’s studies reveal that the Aeromonas is sensitive to fluoroquinolone, particularly ofloxacin and of labelling ciprofloxacin [ 23 , 30 ]. Obesity In The United Essay? Ciprofloxacin is the most recommended prophylactic antibiotic for leech therapy because studies have consistently shown 100% sensitivity of Aeromonas strains isolated from medicinal leeches.

So, an antibioprophylaxy with ofloxacin at 400mg/day or with ciprofloxacin 1g/day efficiently reduces the infection rate during the whole period of treatment. Tissue penetration is good and side effects are limited. Definition Of Labelling In Sociology? Ofloxacin has an excellent oral bioavailability (close to 95%) and how are made a lower cost considering the relatively few cases in which leeches are employed [ 31 ]. In 2011, Wang et al . described a ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant Aeromonas infection associated with leech therapy [ 32 ]. Studies that examined the antibiotic resistance profile of Aeromonas strains in industrial fish farms found a resistance to ciprofloxacin and to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole estimated to be 3% and 1%, respectively [ 33 , 34 ]. Currently, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistances in Aeromonas are rare. Definition In Sociology? In order to determine appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis on local resistance patterns, surgeons and infectious disease specialists have to collaborate. The increase in fluoroquinolone resistance needs to be cautiously monitored. The rate of infection after leeching is not negligible. It varies from 2.4% to A Criticism of Parking, 20.0% according to the literature [ 11 , 12 ]. The concentration of Aeromonas inside the in sociology digestive tracts of Profiling leeches largely decreases when the patient is under antibiotic therapy. These germs are sensitive to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones such as ofloxacin. We recommend preventive treatment based on classical measures of asepsis and on oral antibioprophylaxy with fluoroquinolones such as ofloxacin at 200mg twice a day during the whole period of treatment by of labelling, leeches. Written informed consent was obtained from the two patients for publication of these case reports and any accompanying images.

A copy of the written consent is Essay about A Criticism Policies available for definition review by how are, the Editor-in-Chief of this journal. Authors' original submitted files for images. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. BM and in sociology RA were involved in how are fireworks, patients’ management and wrote the manuscript. CBR also reviewed the literature. CBR operated on the first patient and JBA on the second one. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Whitaker IS, Rao J, Izadi D, Butler PE: Historical Article: Hirudo medicinalis: ancient origins of, and trends in in sociology, the use of medicinal leeches throughout history. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004, 42 (2): 133-137. Rene Descartes Dualism? 10.1016/S0266-4356(03)00242-0.

View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Foucher G, Henderson H, Maneaud M, Merle M, Braun FM: Distal digital replantation: one of the best indications for definition of labelling in sociology microsurgery. Int J Microsurg. 1981, 36: 240-243. Google Scholar Batchelor AG, Davison P, Sully L: The salvage of congested skin flaps by the application of leeches. Br J Plast Surg.

1984, 37: 358-360. 10.1016/0007-1226(84)90079-1. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Siddall ME, Trontelj P, Utevsky SY, Nkamany M, Macdonald KS: Diverse molecular data demonstrate that commercially available medicinal leeches are not Hirudo medicinalis. Proc Biol Sci. 2007, 274 (1617): 1481-1487.

10.1098/rspb.2007.0248. View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Hayden RE, Phillips JG, McLear PW: Leeches. Objective monitoring of altered perfusion in United Essay, congested flaps. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1988, 114 (12): 1395-1399. In Sociology? 10.1001/archotol.1988.01860240045021.

View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Scnabl SM, Kuntz C, Unglaub F, Polykandriotis E, Horch RE, Dragu A: Acute postoperative infection with Aeromonas hydrophila after using medical leeches for treatment of venous congestion. Arch Orthop Trauma surg. 2010, 130 (10): 1323-1328. 10.1007/s00402-010-1135-y. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Yantis MA, O’Toole KN, Ring P: Leech therapy. Am J Nurs. 2009, 109 (4): 36-42. 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000348601.01489.77. quiz 43 View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Graf J: Symbiosis of Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria and fireworks Hirudo medicinalis. The medicinal leech: a novel model for of labelling in sociology digestive tract associations.

Infect Immun. 1999, 67 (1): 1-7. Gilgamesh Theme? PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Whitlock MR, O'Hare PM, Sanders R, Morrow NC: The medicinal leech and its use in plastic surgery: a possible cause for infection. Br J Plast Surg. 1983, 36 (2): 240-244. 10.1016/0007-1226(83)90100-5. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Bourdais L, Heusse JL, Aillet S, Schoentgen C, Watier E: Leech-borne infection on a TRAM flap: a case report.

Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2010, 55 (1): 71-73. 10.1016/j.anplas.2009.05.001. Of Labelling In Sociology? View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Whitaker IS, Oboumarzouk O, Rozen WM, Naderi N, Balasubramanian SP, Azzopardi EA, Kon M: The efficacy of medicinal leeches in in Airports, plastic and reconstructive surgery: a systematic review of 277 reported clinical cases. Microsurgery. 2012, 32 (3): 240-250. 10.1002/micr.20971. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Lineaweaver WC, Hill MK, Buncke GM, Follansbee S, Buncke HJ, Wong RK: Aeromonas hydrophila infections following use of medicinal leeches in replantation and flap surgery. Ann Plast Surg. Definition Of Labelling? 1992, 29 (3): 238-244. 10.1097/00000637-199209000-00008.

View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar De Chalain TM: Exploring the Essay in Airports use of the definition in sociology medicinal leech: a clinical risk-benefit analysis. Descartes Dualism? J Reconstr Microsurg. 1996, 12 (3): 165-172. Definition Of Labelling In Sociology? 10.1055/s-2007-1006471. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Sartor C, Limouzin-Perotti F, Legre R, Casanova D, Bongrand MC, Sambuc R: Nosocomial infections with Aeromonas hydrophila from leeches. Clin Infect Dis. 2002, 35 (1): E1-E5. 10.1086/340711. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Bauters TG, Buyle FM, Verschraegen G, Vermis K, Vogelaers D, Claeys G: Infection risk related to the use of medicinal leeches. Pharm World Sci.

2007, 29 (3): 122-125. 10.1007/s11096-007-9105-3. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Ouderkirk JP, Bekhor D, Turett GS, Murali R: Aeromonas meningitis complicating medicinal leech therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2004, 38 (4): e36-e37. 10.1086/381438. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Whitaker IS, Kamya C, Azzopardi EA, Graf J, Kon M, Lineaweaver WC: Preventing infective complications following leech therapy: is on Racial Profiling in Airports practice keeping pace with current research?.

Microsurgery. 2009, 29 (8): 619-625. 10.1002/micr.20666. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Mackay DR, Manders EK, Saggers GC, Banducci DR, Prinsloo J, Klugman K: Aeromonas species isolated from medicinal leeches. Definition Of Labelling? Ann Plast Surg. 1999, 42 (3): 275-279. 10.1097/00000637-199903000-00008.

View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Fenollar F, Fournier PE, Legre R: Unusual case of fireworks Aeromonas sobria cellulitis associated with the of labelling in sociology use of leeches. Essay About Policies? Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999, 18 (1): 72-73. 10.1007/s100960050232. In Sociology? View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Pereira JA, Greig JR, Liddy H, Ion L, Moss AL: Leech-borne Serratia marcescens infection following complex hand injury. Br J Plast Surg. 1998, 51 (8): 640-641.

10.1054/bjps.1998.0128. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Varghese MR, Farr RW, Wax MK, Chafin BJ, Owens RM: Vibrio fluvialis wound infection associated with medicinal leech therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 1996, 22 (4): 709-710. Profiling In Airports? View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Haycox CL, Odland PB, Coltrera MD, Raugi GJ: Indications and of labelling in sociology complications of medicinal leech therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995, 33 (6): 1053-1055. 10.1016/0190-9622(95)90320-8. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Hermansdorfer J, Lineaweaver W, Follansbee S, Valauri FA, Buncke HJ: Antibiotic sensitivities of Aeromonas hydrophila cultured from medicinal leeches. Br J Plast Surg. 1988, 41 (6): 649-651.

10.1016/0007-1226(88)90176-2. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Hokelek M, Guneren E, Eroglu C: An experimental study to sterilize medicinal leeches. Eur J Plast Surg. 2002, 25: 81-85. 10.1007/s00238-002-0348-x. Descartes? View ArticleGoogle Scholar Lineaweaver WC, Furnas H, Follansbee S, Buncke GH, Whitney TM, Canales F: Postprandial Aeromonas hydrophila cultures and in sociology antibiotic levels of enteric aspirates from medicinal leeches applied to patients receiving antibiotics. Ann Plast Surg. 1992, 29 (3): 245-249. 10.1097/00000637-199209000-00009. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Chepeha DB, Nussenbaum B, Bradford CR, Teknos TN: Leech therapy for patients with surgically unsalvageable venous obstruction after revascularized free tissue transfer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.

2002, 128 (8): 960-965. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Whitaker IS, Izadi D, Oliver DW, Monteath G, Butler PE: Hirudo medicinalis and the plastic surgeon. Br J Plast Surg. 2004, 57 (4): 348-353. 10.1016/j.bjps.2003.12.016. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Knobloch K, Gohritz A, Busch K, Spies M, Vogt PM: Hirudo medicinalis – leech applications in plastic and reconstructive microsurgery – a literature review. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 2007, 39 (2): 103-107.

10.1055/s-2007-965138. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Ardehali B, Hand K, Nduka C, Holmes A, Wood S: Delayed leech-borne infection with Aeromonas hydrophila in case study, escharotic flap wound. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2006, 59: 94-95. 10.1016/j.bjps.2005.04.030. Definition Of Labelling In Sociology? View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Braga A, Lineweaver WC, Whitney TM, Follansbee S, Buncke HJ: Sensitivities of Aeromonas hydrophila cultured from medicinal leeches to oral antibiotics.

J Reconstr Microsurg. 1990, 6 (2): 135-137. 10.1055/s-2007-1006813. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Wolfson JS, Hooper DC: Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1989, 2: 378-424. View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Wang EW, Warren DK, Ferris VM, Casabar E, Nussenbaum B: Leech-transmitted ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011, 137 (2): 190-193. 10.1001/archoto.2010.257. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Akinbowale OL, Peng H, Grant P, Barton MD: Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance in motile aeromonads and pseudomonads from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms in how are made, Australia.

Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2007, 30 (2): 177-182. 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2007.03.012. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Penders J, Stobberingh EE: Antibiotic resistance of motile aeromonads in indoor catfish and eel farms in the southern part of the Netherlands. Definition Of Labelling? Int J Antimicrob Agents. How Are Fireworks Made? 2008, 31 (3): 261-265. 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2007.10.002. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the definition of labelling in sociology Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on rene descartes dualism, LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit. By continuing to use this website, you agree to our Terms and definition of labelling in sociology Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy. © 2017 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Part of Springer Nature.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and in sociology, marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to United format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and in sociology, sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to Choose the Profiling, Best Resume Format.

Use the chart below to definition of labelling in sociology get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for about Policies presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the of labelling, in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to descartes dualism create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by of labelling resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant).

This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in Essay about of Parking Policies, terms of your promotions and definition, upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for gilgamesh theme entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the definition of labelling in sociology, candidate in terms of the in The United States, skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . Definition Of Labelling In Sociology? The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the resume in about A Criticism Policies in Society, order of most relevant to least relevant skills.

Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. Definition? “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for Essay the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is of labelling in sociology beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. Descartes Dualism? I am in the midst of a big career change into a new industry. Of Labelling In Sociology? I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility.

I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. On Racial? I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of definition qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.)

This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the Essay A Criticism of Parking Policies, reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and definition of labelling in sociology, well-developed skill set. I want to A Criticism Policies transfer to a different industry. Definition Of Labelling In Sociology? I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of rene descartes dualism our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you!

PS. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to definition of labelling Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and Essay on Racial Profiling, now in definition in sociology, school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt!

We suggest using a combination format. Best of gilgamesh theme luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and development. Definition Of Labelling? I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to Obesity in The United States elementary age. Definition? Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for how are made more info: For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by in sociology them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them.

Should the child case study, internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to in sociology be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and gilgamesh theme, got out in 2013.

From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to in sociology make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to rene stay on top of definition in sociology my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at how are made, night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is.

Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for definition of labelling my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. Case? This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Definition In Sociology? Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in gilgamesh theme, the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year.

I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an definition entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on Essay on Racial in Airports, the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and in sociology, writing experience. Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over gilgamesh theme, 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block.

Recently received my AA degree. Definition Of Labelling? I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for on Racial Profiling in Airports many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on of labelling, the job hunt!

Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and gilgamesh theme, before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Definition? Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. A Criticism Of Parking Policies? However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on of labelling in sociology, the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence.

Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of rene dualism Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). Definition Of Labelling? After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from rene descartes 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of definition in sociology English as a Second Language. Rene Dualism? I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume. In Sociology? I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and in The United Essay, why I would be a good fit for definition in sociology any given position, but I’m sure my resume is about in Society holding me back. Any ideas.

Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to get back into definition of labelling in sociology, communications or office management, then it might be better to child use a functional format. Of Labelling In Sociology? This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of how are made your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in definition, your cover letter, check out how are fireworks this how-to guide: While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to definition go back to finding an office job or something related and Essay, need help deciding what type of in sociology resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the about Policies in Society, traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format.

Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at of labelling, the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in gilgamesh theme, this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable.

Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on definition, the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. Dualism? Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in of labelling in sociology, a call center. How Are Made? Many of these could potentially be transferable. In Sociology? Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field!

If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of rene descartes dualism Use and Privacy Policy. Play the definition in sociology, One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to about A Criticism in Society make your resume 6 second worthy!

3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is definition of labelling a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of Essay on Racial Profiling in Airports errors throughout. Definition? See why. How to Modify and Essay A Criticism of Parking Policies, Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to definition in sociology make small modifications to rene unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job.

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400 pound ceo essay His Weak, His Dumb, His Fat, His Lazy: An Introduction to George Saunders. George Saunders is a new author who has garnered praise from such literary luminaries as Tobias Wolf and Thomas Pynchon. Both The New Yorker and Harper's Magazine have named him one of the most important new writers of our time because of definition his witty and thought-provoking fiction. His only book, CivilWarLand in in The United States Essay Bad Decline: Stories and a Novella, is plastered with kind blurbs on front and back. Publisher's Weekly notes his feverish imagination and heart-melting prose (46). Joanne Wilkinson, a reviewer for Booklist writes, These stories are inventive, hilarious, and terrifying (792).

Indeed, Saunders' work is at once incredibly funny and morbidly dour. Reviewers have noted time and time again that the CivilWarLand collection is a strange juxtaposition of feelings #150; happy and sad #150; that captures readers. Definition? It is impossible to read his stories without finding yourself feeling deep sympathy and compassion for otherwise repellant characters. While Saunders is a master of absurdity, irony, and Essay in Airports, satire, his real talent is showing us that these elements can work together to create emotionally charged pieces that hit deeper than the old funny bone. In Sociology? Saunders was born in 1965. He grew up in Chicago, and gilgamesh theme, has had a typically atypical writer's life.

He got his undergraduate degree in Geophysical Engineering from the Colorado School of Mines. Afterward, he spent two years in the Sumatran jungle exploring for oil. Upon returning to definition in sociology, the states, he worked various odd jobs, such as doorman, convenience store clerk, guitarist in a bar band, knuckle-puller in gilgamesh theme a slaughter house, and technical editor at an engineering firm. During this period, he returned to school at definition of labelling, Syracuse University, where he received a graduate degree in writing. He has a wife and two daughters, and now teaches writing at Syracuse University. Aside from being picked by The New Yorker and Harper's Magazine in 1999 as one of the most important up-and-comers in contemporary fiction, he has published several stories in notable periodicals.

In 1994 he won the National Magazine Award for The 400-pound CEO, and in 1996, the year CivilWarLand in Bad Decline was published, he won the same award for his novella, Bounty. Even after three years without a follow-up to CivilWarLand , Saunders is in The United States Essay still a hot commodity. He is remains quite talked about, and his more recent stories are up for awards. Still, Saunders has an awareness of his place in literary history. He draws from other writers, while innovating and creating fiction that feels very modern.

Judith Wynn, in her piece for the Boston Phoenix, notes that Saunders had plenty of in sociology time to read and write during his stay in Sumatra. Essay About A Criticism Of Parking Policies? He said, At first I'd imitate Conrad and Somerset Maugham because I was in Asia (Wynn). That imitation soon gave way to original fiction, influenced by Saunders' favorites, Thomas Pynchon and Toni Morrison. Of Labelling In Sociology? In addition to his confessed influences, Saunders is on Racial in Airports often compared to Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. The comparison is apt, and a reader is hard-pressed not to of labelling, think of Vonnegut classics like Slaughterhouse Five when reading Saunders' work. Saunders says that he likes the about A Criticism of Parking in Society, way Pynchon warps reality, you can't read it as realism or as pure fantasy (Wynn). Saunders, too, is interested in blurring those lines. Of Labelling? Like Pynchon, he works with popular culture and brings in elements from the in The States, scientific world. In Bounty, the McDonald's restaurants have been commandeered by a group of religious fanatics called The Guilters.

Saunders writes, In Guilter epistemology the arches represent the twin human frailties of arrogance and definition, mediocrity (123). The Wavemaker Falters begins with a scene full of pseudo-scientific lingo to describe the, presumably, technically complicated simulated Spanish trout stream. The stream is located in a theme park that, through the wonders of modern technology, reproduces the Basque countryside. About A Criticism? Also, both writers have an definition, affinity for setting up conspiracies and secrets in their stories. In CivilWarLand in Bad Decline, the nameless narrator is caught in a cover-up involving a deranged security guard, the gilgamesh theme, theme park owner, and multiple murders. Saunders' protagonists each try to in sociology, keep something hidden from others, be it immoral, embarrassing, or just insane, and succeed to varying degrees.

Pynchon is descartes dualism suitably impressed with Saunders' efforts, writing that Saunders is telling just the kind of stories we need to get us through these times ( CWL ). The Toni Morrison influence manifests itself a little more rarely than Pynchon's influence, but she is of labelling nevertheless a powerful presence in the book. Child Case Study? Saunders takes her ghosts and incorporates them into his stories. That is not to say that you will find Beloved roaming around in CivilWarLand, but the way that Saunders portrays and uses ghosts in his stories is very identifiably in in sociology the vein of Morrison. Ghosts appear in United Essay CivilWarLand in Bad Decline and again in The Wavemaker Falters. In CivilWarLand the narrator is the only person who can see the Civil War era family who walk the grounds. Later in the story, Samuel, the of labelling in sociology, deranged security guard, shoots a teenager, who immediately becomes a ghost, visible only to descartes dualism, the narrator. In The Wavemaker Falters the narrator, Mr. Guilt, is visited several times by the ghost of in sociology Clive, a boy he accidentally crushed to death in the pool's wavemaker unit. Like Morrison, Saunders is concerned with presenting the ghosts as though they could be real: Even though he's dead, he's still basically a kid.

When he tries to be scary he gets it all wrong. He can't moan for beans. He's scariest when he does real kid things, like picking his nose and wiping it on the side of his sneaker. Rene Descartes Dualism? (39) This strategy of characterization is, in part, what makes Beloved such a memorable character, and Saunders uses it effectively. The result is an emotion in Saunders' work that is similar to Morrison's, and a further skewing of the boundaries between reality and fantasy. Add to the ability to represent the paranormal Saunders' concern for in sociology, downtrodden protagonists, and we can see another connection to child case, Morrison's writing. Bounty contains a full-blown slave narrative, and Downtrodden Mary's Failed Campaign of Terror is a nearly absurd story of a woman who has fought her whole life for survival. What keeps it from definition in sociology being just another funny story is the how are fireworks, deep sympathy Saunders elicits for Mary, in a way that is of labelling in sociology reminiscent of Morrison's effect, if not her exact techniques. While Morrison and Pynchon top Saunders' list of major influences, it is undeniable that his stories seem to draw from Vonnegut. They share a similar clean prose style. Saunders has said, I have this anal thing about sentences (Wynn). In addition, both of them use their clean styles to Obesity in The States, create zingers and one-liners that are absolutely hilarious.

A good example of the way Saunders' prose affects the humor in his stories is in the opening of The Wavemaker Falters. Mr. Guilt is monitoring the trout stream when a young nun dives in to commit suicide. Guilt jumps in definition in sociology after her, and pulls her out of the water: Finally I get her out on made the pine needles and she comes to definition of labelling, and spits in Essay in Airports my face and says I couldn't possibly know the darkness of her heart. Try me, I say. She crawls away and starts bashing her skull against definition of labelling in sociology, a tree trunk. The trees are synthetic too. But still. Case Study? (35) While the passage is full of irony, and not a hint of in sociology melodrama or sarcasm, it is the capping, But still, that serves as the punchline. The humor is conscious, and while we can occasionally see both Saunders and Vonnegut working for a laugh, for the most part the in Society, humor is entirely enjoyable.

Another point where Vonnegut and Saunders intersect is in their affinity for stories with a moral/ethical message. Vonnegut's alternative title to Slaughterhouse Five is definition in sociology The Children's Crusade , a cutting commentary on World War II and a lucid illustration of Vonnegut's anti-war views. Gilgamesh Theme? Similarly, Saunders creates stories that rail, at least thematically, against discrimination, slavery (both physical bondage and governmental/corporate domination), and more general human tendancies toward cruelty. It is difficult to read a story by either author without feeling that you have been slipped a mickey of social instruction while you weren't looking. They both conflate typical realist or naturalist stories with elements of absurdity and science fiction in a way that makes many readers react to definition of labelling, the work as if it were straight science fiction. But neither Vonnegut nor Saunders are just science fiction.

In brief, concise pieces, the two authors venture into dualism, territories that are supposed to remain separate. Saunders has been concerned by his inability to write a novel, and laments his lot as a literary pamphletist (PORT). Both writers also have similar ideosyncratic relationships with popular culture. For Vonnegut, the of labelling, world is a Howard Johnson's. For Saunders, it is a theme park. And the theme park is not a bad metaphor for States Essay, Saunders' collection. Each of the stories, six in all, and the novella, Bounty, present another facet of Saunders' world. The book is a freak show of the guilty, the downtrodden, the revolting, and the heartwrenching. As a spectator it is difficult to not turn away in sadness because Saunders deftly elicits a real sympathy for his characters.

Sure, they might be unduly guilt-ridden, they might have claws for feet, they might not be well-educated or pretty, and definition in sociology, they might be incredibly overblown, but they still manage to possess a certain human dignity and convey the weight of their stories onto gilgamesh theme, the reader's shoulders. While Saunders exhibits plenty of correlations to more established authors that give his fiction a certain clout in of labelling in sociology the literary world, his use of different techniques and motifs makes his writing incredibly unique. The stories in CivilWarLand in Bad Decline are cut from the same mold. They echo each other throughout the book, giving way to an overall view of humanity that is at the same time bleak and positive. There are some similarities that are very evident in all of the CivilWarLand stories. Each is narrated in the first person point of view, and Essay Profiling, all of these narrators, save one, are pitiful men. From Jeffrey, the 400-pound CEO, to Cole, the definition, claw-footed protagonist of Bounty, Saunders' primary male characters are always plagued by how are, financial, personal, or emotional problems.

Mr. Guilt, in The Wavemaker Falters, is a prime example. He is riddled with guilt over the accidental death of a teenage boy, Clive. Clive was crushed in the pool's wavemaker unit, and has, literally, haunted Guilt ever since. Guilt has lost his sexual desire, a metaphor for his lust for life, because of the incident, and as a result his wife has embarked on a sultry affair with Guilt's arch-nemesis, Leon.

The one story that doesn't center around a sad man is Downtrodden Mary's Failed Campaign of definition of labelling in sociology Terror. Mary narrates the story, which revolves around her being discovered as the saboteur of the see through cows in the Our Nation's Bounty exhibit. She, too, has had an incredibly difficult life. In her nineties when she's narrating the story, Mary recounts her abusive, physically and mentally, relationsip with her husband, and the cruelty of her superiors. In the end, she is denied even the Essay of Parking in Society, release of suicide. While Saunders' stories are invariably sad, they often contain a quick reversal of fortune at the end. In Isabelle, a story about a young man who deals with the guilt of witnessing a brutal murder by taking on the care of the murderer's invalid daughter, the reader doesn't learn the handicapped girl's name until the last two lines. Definition In Sociology? She is called Boneless throughout the child, story, but at the end the narrator tells us, Her name is Isabelle.

A pretty, pretty name (33). Not only do we find out Isabelle's name, but we know that she is now living with the narrator in a relatively happy situation. After the trauma of the story, it is an unexpected ending. Definition In Sociology? In The Wavemaker Falters Mr. Guilt eventually pulls himself out of child case his doldrums. He ends the story with a commitment to change: enough already, enough, this is as low as I go (44). Definition Of Labelling In Sociology? After ten pages of Essay on Racial Profiling self-effacing behavior, Guilt finally finds the strength to make a change. Definition? The 400-pound CEO revolves around Jeffrey, the narrator, and an obese cubicle monkey pushing paper for a raccoon disposal company. Jeffrey is less degrading toward himself than the child, others only because throughout the story he keeps the possibility of change open. Even so, he is still very critical of his size and appearance. After continually trying to do the right thing, he ends up incarcerated for killing his truly evil boss.

From prison he reflects on his life, and the story ends with this vision: And I will emerge again from between the in sociology, legs of my mother, a slighter and more beautiful baby, destined for a different life, in which I am masterful, sleek as a deer, a winner. Essay A Criticism Policies In Society? (64) Unfortunately, there seems to be no room for definition, winners in Saunders' work, and, indeed, these are the gilgamesh theme, last lines of the story. Definition Of Labelling? In Offloading for Mrs. Schwartz, which revolves around a man who runs a virtual reality shop, the narrator resorts to extreme measures to rene descartes dualism, alleviate his guilt. Although he is a truly kind man, giving free virtual reality experiences to people in definition in sociology true need of escape, such as the armless, legless man who enjoys reliving a limbed existence, he is racked with the guilt of his wife's death. After a fight that he started she was run down by made, a car while walking down the sidewalk. He eventually resorts to erasing his memories up to the present of the story, and leaves himself a note that says: Find someone to love. Your heart has never been broken. You've never done anything unforgivable or hurt anyone beyond reparation. Everyone you've ever loved you've treated like gold. (77) The note does not lie to him. In fact, he has done nothing wrong in definition in sociology the story.

The final example of Saunders' fondness for the last-minute hopeful turn around is in Bounty, the story of a deformed young man, Cole, who is enslaved at how are, a medieval theme park called Bountyland. Bountyland hearkens back to the golden age of humanity (get it, the dark ages?) in a world that has been poisoned through and of labelling, through. The massive contamination of the environment by man-made chemicals and waste has caused some of the population to spontaneously mutate. Individuals with mutations are called Flaweds, and subject to slavery because of an edict issued by the government. Cole has claws on his feet, like a bird's, but is lucky enough to work at Bountyland with his sister, Connie. Gilgamesh Theme? Connie is bought out of Bountyland by a rich Normal who wants to marry her, and then Cole hears that her future husband is notorious for selling his wives into slavery when he tires of them. Cole sets out across the country to track down Connie and definition of labelling, prevent her sale. Along the way he runs into a myriad of tribulations. He is bought and sold a few times, forced into work and prostitution, beaten, and eventually finds his sister. In fact, the man she married has been very nice to her, and allows Cole to A Criticism of Parking Policies in Society, work on his ranch. Definition In Sociology? After a short time things are well, but nothing has really changed in Profiling the country.

Eventually, Cole decides to make a difference, and of labelling, the story ends with him entering the hideout of a Flawed resistance organization, telling them he is there to help. At that point, things look a little brighter for the rest of the Essay of Parking, enslaved masses. These little reversals are essential to the success of definition Saunders' stories. Without them, the collection would be one harsh blow after another. But because of them, the reader can see that change is possible. Things can get better. Saunders has said that he hoped to Essay Profiling, avoid any real political criticism, but it is obvious that the strong moral messages in of labelling his stories come from somewhere. Saunders says that in CivilWarLand he wanted to mask any distinct political position: I worked with this idea of how people are always being broadly classified as okay or not-okay. That's always being done, whether it's racial, gender, national, or whatever.

If you get four people together, two of them are looking down on the other two. (Wynn) The idea is most obvious in the slave-narrative of how are Bounty, but permeates Saunders' other stories as well. Jeffrey is judged by his peers because of of labelling in sociology his weight. He is ridiculed and hurt by his co-workers and boss because of that, and in spite of the fact that he's a competent worker with a good heart. Mary is descartes dualism a similar example. Because of definition of labelling her age, she is discriminated against. She comments that, At ninety-two years old people assume you're dense. Study? They assume you don't remember being young and have corny moral values and can't hear well (81). In Sociology? But Mary is quite the contrary.

Despite her rocky past, she recounts certain events happily, is still quite aware of interpersonal politics, and forwards her plan to get her boss fired. Gilgamesh Theme? She is anything but passive or useless. Saunders has also commented that, Ideas cause Problems. . . . I mean dogmatic Ideas, Ideas which purport to be final (PORT). The rejection of organized politics and dogmatic ideas can also be seen in his stories. In Bounty the definition, nation is in such a mess largely due to the federal government. He lampoons religion through characters such as The Guilters and products like the Jesus and Buddha camp coolers Jeffrey buys to keep raccoon carcasses in. The dogmatic American pursuit of financial superiority is satirized as well.

Those who have succeeded at becoming fiscally robust are evil, cruel characters. The nice guys are the average Joes schlumping along just above the red line. In Saunders' stories, money allows you to forget about the mean things you've done, while poverty makes you painfully aware of Essay in Society each emotional papercut you may have inflicted. Along with degrading the American financial ideal, Saunders satirizes contemporary consumer culture. He is aware that we build our identities in large part by brands and definition, objects. It is gilgamesh theme interesting to note that none of Saunders' protagonists fall prey to the worship of commercial items, but they exist in a landscape composed of in sociology them.

Sometimes Saunders uses real brands and gilgamesh theme, items to get his point across, as with The Guilters taking refuge in abandoned McDonald's restaurants. As Cole travels across the definition in sociology, wasteland of the United States in Bounty, he passes burned-out Wal Marts and a firebombed Wendy's. Descartes? These stark images show the impermanence of the quick fix. Fast food and convenient, all-in-one shopping don't last. In addition to using real businesses and products, Saunders portrays other items in ways we aren't used to thinking about them. In Downtrodden Mary's Failed Campaign of Terror, Mary must clean the of labelling in sociology, pickled babies and visible cows. We are used to seeing pickled fetuses in the sideshow world, where they are called pickled punks. Saunders, however, puts them into the ultimate museum of science and industry, giving the place an A Criticism in Society, ambiance of doom and bad taste. Pickled punks were outlawed decades ago, and many people alive today have never seen one. Likewise, many reviewers and readers have taken the visible cows to definition of labelling in sociology, be a creation of Saunders' imagination, but they aren't. I have only to walk a couple of blocks from my office in Moscow, Idaho to see uncomfortable-looking heifers with little portals in their sides, oozing pus and goo.

As an agriculture experiment in the field, one can understand the motives and gilgamesh theme, educational benefits behind the procedure. But the see-through cow seems like a bad idea for in sociology, a museum. The smell alone would be overpowering, and, as Saunders points out, bovine hygeine becomes an issue. The inclusion of study these real items creates a touchstone that lets us know we are not entirely divorced from our reality. Instead, we inhabit a skewed reality in Saunders' fiction, one that is not entirely pleasant. Of Labelling? More often, Saunders likes to play with imaginary corporations and products to make his point. He creates parodies of products that parody those of our real lives. For example, in CivilWarLand in Bad Decline, the narrator tells us about Mr. Haberstrom, who is the founder of Burn 'n' Learn. Saunders writes, Their gimmick is a fully stocked library on the premises and as you tan you call out the name of any book you want to these high-school girls on Essay of Parking in Society roller skates (3). In The 400-pound CEO Jeffrey ends up buying the definition of labelling in sociology, Chill 'n' Pray, an overpriced cooler with a holographic image of A Criticism of Parking Policies a famous religious personality on the lid (56).

These two examples are fairly typical of Saunders' use of satiric and parodic fictional products. He uses them in much the same way as he uses real world objects in his pieces, but their absurdity lends a cutting humor to them. Surely we have no need of religious icons on our picnic cooler. But although the catchy name and silly descriptions sound completely unrealistic, it wouldn't be so bad to have a tanning parlor cum library. Or an of labelling, iconic cooler, for that matter. Ultimately, the products that Saunders creates to call attention to gilgamesh theme, the absurdity of our consumer culture are only slightly more absurd than what we actually experience in the real world, again lending to the blur between reality and definition in sociology, fiction. Another element of Saunders' writing that is connected to his continual battering of consumer culture are theme parks. He and his sister built a scale model of an amusement park when they were young. Saunders said, Even at fireworks, 10 I was fascinated with the idea of an artificial environment (Wynn).

The theme park allows for a few different things in his work. It is in sociology possible to make a broad statement about culture with a cleverly named theme park. CivilWarLand is an example of dualism how we commodify history, and a constant reminder of just how little we know about our own past. The Basque theme park is a reconstruction of something that exists completely naturally. Furthermore, it's not like Disneyland's reconstruction of in sociology famous places, rather it is an imitation of some nameless section of countryside, devoid of rene monuments or landmarks.

Bountyland may be the most disturbing theme park. Amidst the decay of pseudo-post-apocalyptic America, Bountyland shows how plentiful our nation once was. It does that by recreating the Dark Ages, providing prostitutes, safe orgies, and any other distraction desired by their clientele. Of course, all of the definition of labelling, service is provided by enslaved Flaweds. These environments allow Saunders to create worlds that are not restricted to reality, wherein he can place any manner of child case study bizarre incidents or characters. In Sociology? As a reader, we cannot argue with what he does in Essay in Airports his theme parks. Again, if Disney can recreate Africa in Florida, then just about definition in sociology anything is possible in amusement parks. They are, by definition, a place where we go to depart from reality and indulge in a fantasy.

Saunders uses other types of attractions for fireworks, much the of labelling in sociology, same purposes. The museum in Downtrodden Mary's Failed Campaign of Terror and case, the virtual reality arcade in Offloading for definition, Mrs. Schwartz work very similarly to the theme parks. Gilgamesh Theme? The museum is full of exhibits that teach you about science and nature, but it is filled with bizarre displays like the Pickled Babies and the visible cows. The arcade is also warped.

Saunders doesn't try to make fun of contemporary video games as much as he points out the truly bizarre desires that we could fulfill via virtual reality. Examples of the definition of labelling, module titles include, Bowling with the United States Essay, Pros, Legendary American Killers Stalk You, Violated Prom Queen, Sexy Nurses Scrub You Down, Viennese Waltz, and more. Definition? Through the use of rene descartes dualism theme parks, the museum, and the arcade, Saunders also shows how seemingly perfect environments are never so. Even in definition of labelling the virtual world, where everything can be controlled by a human being and no physics or weather are going to affect performance, things are not alright. Saunders shows us not that we want our fantasies to be warped in some way, but that we are sold distractions that may not be the most ethically sound. About Policies In Society? Of course, much of what makes Saunders' writing so interesting is the ways in which he revels in the bizarre and disturbing. The grotesque runs through Saunders' stories to further shock us into his world. By including imagery of legless mules, deformed characters, indefensible corporate practices, and a fair smattering of gore and violence, Saunders creates a world full of the definition of labelling in sociology, undesirable detritus of how are fireworks our reality.

Reviewers have picked up on the grotesque content of the stories, and it has become a hallmark of any discussion of Saunders. It amplifies the in sociology, pitiful nature of his protagonists. They are caught in a world without beauty. Rather, they must deal with the about A Criticism Policies, constant ugliness of life, and we can sympathize with them for having a difficult time. The inclusion of the grotesque with such gusto further blurs the lines between the real and the unreal in Saunders' stories. Definition In Sociology? Because his world is such a mixture of actuality and fantasy, most reviewers have labeled him a science fiction writer. David Gates, writing for Newsweek, calls his settings a cybernetic, post-apocalyptic dystopia (62). While stories like Bounty and Offloading for Mrs. Schwartz take place in a future incarnation of our world, the rest inhabit a space that is descartes less obviously science fiction. In this respect, the comparison to Vonnegut is especially useful.

Like Vonnegut, Saunders blurs the lines between reality and fantasy through the use of satire, absurdity, and the grotesque. The result is a universe that is at once recognizable and completely foreign. Saunders describes this situation by definition of labelling in sociology, noting that what IS is, at least for me, indiscernable, transient, etc. He says that he creates his stories by selecting things from the real world, intuitively (PORT). He has been influenced by Essay A Criticism of Parking Policies in Society, our media, and the recent boon in reality-based sensationalism. Of Labelling In Sociology? Saunders says, We have lost the ability to simply not go places. To say: Why in the world do I want to broadcast that? (PORT). That statement makes it difficult to reconcile Saunders' own use of the bizarre, sensational, and grotesque. Gilgamesh Theme? But in another statement he describes the concept of poshlust : Nabokov describes it this way: Once there was a young prince who fell madly in in sociology love with a princess.

Everyday he could be seen swimming in how are made her moat, tenderly caressing a swan, to convince her of his goodness. Poshlust is of labelling this: The swan was fake, put in fireworks made the moat by the prince. (PORT) Poshlust is Saunders giving us visions too terrible to actually exist so that we will realize what kind of world we live in. He displays his fake swans, in the form of deformed characters, horrid business practices, and of labelling in sociology, rampant commercialism, so we will see and rene dualism, hear his call for change. Because of poshlust we can understand that in a room with four people, two will be looking down on the others. You are right to in sociology, think that if Saunders' work doesn't make you feel incredibly sad, then you don't get it. His sorry, sorry characters are incredibly loveable, and he almost makes you believe that your love, as a reader, will help them get along. His stories resound with a heartfelt emotion that is only enhanced by the bizarre, grotesque, genre-bending, and absolutely hilarious elements. Gilgamesh Theme? Indeed, Saunders is writing stories to of labelling, get us through these times. He writes checklists that we can review to make sure we are still on track for being a good person. He warns us of impending troubles, and reminds us that the dualism, worries of the past are not behind us.

Gates, David. Definition? Cyberdrudges of Dystopia. Rev. of CivilWarLand in Bad Decline: Stories and rene descartes, a Novella by George Saunders. Newsweek 22 Jan. 1996: 62-3. PORT at MIT Project: Dialogue 5 with George Saunders. 5 Mar. 1997.

Internet. Of Labelling? 26 Nov. 1999. Available: Rev. of CivilWarLand in Bad Decline: Stories and a Novella by George Saunders. Publisher's Weekly 13 Nov. 1995: 46. Saunders, George. Essay On Racial? CivilWarLand in Bad Decline: Stories and definition in sociology, a Novella . New York: Riverhead Books, 1996. Wilkinson, Joanne. Rev. of Essay Profiling in Airports CivilWarLand in Bad Decline: Stories and a Novella by George Saunders.

Booklist 1 Jan. Definition Of Labelling? 1996: 792. (This piece is case no longer available online, as far as I can tell.)

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Developing Self and Others Essay Sample. AC1.1 Identify your own learning style(s) and the learning style(s) of another member of the team. AC1.2 Using a simple technique for identifying own development needs and in sociology the development needs of another member of the team. AC1.3 Identify potential barriers to learning. AC1.4 Explain how barriers to learning can be overcome.

Section 2 Know how to develop self and others to rene descartes dualism, achieve organisational objectives AC2.1 Briefly analyse learning/development options to meet need(s) of self and another member of the team AC2.2 Identify support mechanisms for the development of self and another member of the team AC2.3 Prepare a development plan to achieve a learning objective for self or another team member AC2.4 Describe a method that could be used to monitor the definition in sociology development of self and another member of the team Conclusion. This assignment discusses the elements to be considered when developing yourself and others. How Are Fireworks. Firstly, identifying learning styles using the Honey and Mumford Learning Styles Questionnaire, and then identifying development needs derived from the SWOT analysis. Potential barriers to in sociology, learning and how they can be overcome are discussed. Developing self and others can be achieved by analysing learning options, identifying the support mechanisms available and developing a personal development plan. This is a living document that considers potential barriers and how they can be overcome. It can be monitored and reviewed to ensure it is a working document.

Introduction. The Western Trust’s vision is “To provide high quality patient and child case study client-focused Health and Social Care services through well trained staff with high morale” They hope to achieve this by developing growth and development of staff. With this in mind this assignment discusses how to develop yourself and others when a front line manager. AC 1.1 Identify your own learning style(s) and the learning style(s) of another member of the team. Understanding our naturally preferred learning style maximises learning potential. In 1986 Honey and Mumford developed a Learning Style Questionnaire building upon Kolb and Fry’s Experiential Learning Cycle (1975) (appendix 1). In Sociology. explains, “Kolb says that ideally this process represents a learning cycle or spiral where the learner ‘touches all the bases’, ie., a cycle of experiencing, reflecting, thinking, and acting.

Immediate or concrete experiences lead to observations and reflections. These reflections are then assimilated (absorbed and translated) into abstract concepts with implications for action, which the person can actively test and study experiment with, which in turn enable the creation of new experiences. Definition Of Labelling In Sociology. “ Honey and Mumford identified four styles of learning (‘activist’, ‘reflector’, ‘theorist’, and Essay ‘pragmatist’) which had much in common with Kolb’s work and had strong correlations with the of labelling learning cycle. My colleague and descartes dualism I completed the questionnaire and definition in sociology the scoring to identify our learning styles (appendix 2). The implications of the preferred learning styles are outlined in appendix 3. Rene Descartes Dualism. Highest scores as reflectors mean we can make the best use of this style. Of Labelling. Reflectors like to view the situation from different perspectives. They like to collect data, review and think carefully before coming to any conclusions. How Are Fireworks. They enjoy observing others and of labelling will listen to their views before offering their own. Observation skills are listed on personnel specification for care assistant (appendix 4). Monitoring and evaluating are specific duties listed on how are fireworks made, DCW job description (appendix 4).

These are duties suited to reflectors. Definition Of Labelling In Sociology. To become more effective learners in other situations my scores reflect the need to develop both the theorist and pragmatist styles of learning. My colleague’s scores reflect that she could benefit from development in all four learning styles (appendix 1 – scoring). AC 1.2 Using a simple technique for study identifying own development needs and the development needs of another member of the team. SWOT analysis is a structured planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in definition in sociology a business venture. It can be completed for a product, place or person. SWOT analysis came from the research conducted at Stanford Research Institute from Essay of Parking Policies in Society 1960-1970 using data from the fortune 500 companies and definition in sociology is credited to Albert Humphrey. The following development needs for my colleague and in Airports me were identified using the definition of labelling in sociology SWOT (Appendix 5). In The. Care Assistant:

Report writing: All employees of the trust are legally responsible for all records held whether paper or electronic. Progress reports are completed daily in the form of client daily records, behaviour books and reviews. Part of the care assistant role is to contribute to this reporting. Of Labelling. Communication Skills: My colleague has difficulty speaking out. She feels that her language skills need developed to be able to communicate effectively with other professionals and parents. Rene Descartes Dualism. Knowledge of clients/behaviour plans: Part of the job specification is knowledge of behaviour management. My colleague is of labelling, new to the role and is unfamiliar with the behaviour modification plans set out for gilgamesh theme all clients as yet. Personal: Level 5 management qualifications: progression to the level 5 qualification on definition, completion of level 3. This qualification is required to progress into management roles and will further develop my sells and confidence. Learning disability developments: With the demands of the Obesity United States day to definition of labelling in sociology, day running of the centre it is difficult to about A Criticism of Parking Policies in Society, keep myself up to date on latest legislative and academic developments in learning disability. Academic and peer reviewed journal subscriptions would help.

Interview training: Practical interview skills training to enhance confidence at higher level interviews and how to plan and definition in sociology present myself appropriately for interview. AC 1.3 Identify potential barriers to learning. Potential barriers to learning are listed below. Learning Styles: Both myself and my colleague are Reflectors in the Honey and Mumford LSI. We may have difficulty with activities such as role play or leading discussions.

If learning was presented in the activist style which we both scored least in, we would find it challenging. For example, I would find role playing at interview skills training challenging. How Are Fireworks. Financial Constraints: The Trust is cash releasing at present and training is definition of labelling in sociology, not priority therefore the funding for Obesity courses or journal subscriptions may not be available. Time /Excessive workloads: In this period of cash releasing cover is not always available for vacant posts putting extra pressure on the rest of the team. If working in pressured teams with deadlines and little flexibility then it may be impossible to get released for training. Motivation: if individuals lack motivation chances are they will not identify opportunities for growth or push themselves forward. This could be because they lack confidence, fear of failure, personal issues, stagnation in the workplace or the fear of definition of labelling in sociology, taking on something new. Lack of advancement: Staff can undertake training to enhance their skills and career progression. If there are no opportunities to gilgamesh theme, apply skills learned they may be lost. I have applied for secondment opportunities which have been denied as there was a lack of available staff with relevant qualifications/skills to of labelling, cover my post.

AC 1.4 Explain how barriers to learning can be overcome. Personal Learning Styles: A reflector needs to develop assertiveness, participate in group situations more fully, take more risks and not be so cautious. Developing the qualities of fireworks, being open to change, taking a lead role, brainstorming and new experiences may help us to definition of labelling, develop. This is an activist preferred style of learning. Financial Constraints: Forward planning, that includes developing in-house training at less cost, for relevant other training. Making use of skilled staff by made encouraging a programme of shadowing and mentoring for in sociology the less experienced.

Access funding training programmes such as essential skills programmes which are free. Time/Excessive Workloads: If possible workload easement would benefit whole team. Replace absent staff. About A Criticism Policies In Society. In our team, my colleagues and in sociology I agreed to cover each other for short courses of benefit. Lack of in The, Advancement and motivation: Training of junior staff within in in sociology team would mean that if secondment/ promotional opportunities were to arise there is fireworks made, a suitable skill mix to draw from. Job enlargement means that employees could expand their role and perhaps take on extra responsibility, with no extra pay, to gain new skills.

This can also enrich the day to day work experience and confidence. A good line manager will value training and developing staff which improves motivation. In Sociology. Supervision: Gaining feedback from line manager and raising concerns can help remove any barriers for learning. Section 2: Know how to develop self and Essay on Racial Profiling others to achieve organisational objectives AC 2.1 Briefly analyse learning/development options to meet need(s) of self and another member of the team Learning development options to of labelling, meet the in The States needs of my colleague: Report Writing: Shadowing senior staff when it comes to of labelling, writing reports. She will get an idea of the required language, information and style of writing.

She could be released to read historic reports. Allow her to begin writing reports with assistance and then oversee all reports until competent. Gilgamesh Theme. She may wish to employ self-directed learning at home to definition of labelling, enhance her skills. Communication skills: Communication skills are listed in how are fireworks made job spec. Definition Of Labelling. Essential skills course in communication is available in partnership the Trust or community groups. This course will develop both written and verbal skills. Participants can work towards a level 2 qualification. This course is funded however requires interested staff be released 4hrs for 20wks Behaviour management: Time allocated to read behaviour guidelines for all clients and getting to know individuals.

Shadowing the more experienced staff for on the job learning. Direct supervision when working with challenging behaviour until confidence grows. Mentoring and regular supervision to deal with any problems that arise and highlight what is going right. In-depth formal behaviour training when available. Personal.

Learning disability developments: Subscribe to relevant journals. Make time weekly/monthly to research developments in private and voluntary sector with the aim of descartes, setting up networks. Definition. Networking: develop practical supportive networks both within the Trust and externally. Contact relevant people and introduce yourself explaining job role and what you hope to achieve. This would help develop my role in sourcing opportunities for our clients. AC 2.2 Identify support mechanisms for the development of self and another member of the team There are many support mechanisms available to both myself and my colleague through the Trust to meet our learning needs. As a day care worker I am a direct support for the care assistants. I oversee all work and ensure it is to a high standard. I value and gilgamesh theme encourage learning and development as does my supervisor. I have a supportive and effective supervisor that I can turn to.

As we work in a busy centre with many different roles these are rotated so that all staff become familiar and proficient in all roles. Support is offered at our team meetings where we discuss performance and standards. Good communication and good will ensures a positive working environment. Supervision is a mechanism for gaining feedback on performance and support used by the Trust. Of Labelling In Sociology. My colleague and I receive supervision at descartes dualism least 4 times a year or more regularly if required. The appraisal and development review scheme (appendix 6] is linked to the Trust’s Aim, Core values and corporate objectives. It is a formal yearly meeting with line manager designed to in sociology, support staff in understanding clearly what is expected of them, the part they play in gilgamesh theme their team and organisation.

It also supports staff development so that they can be effective in their current role and prepare for of labelling future roles within the Trust. Personal development plans created at the appraisals for myself and rene dualism my colleague and are living documents subject to monitoring and review. There is shared responsibility with managers to ensure development objectives are met. AC 2.3 Prepare a development plan to achieve a learning objective for self or another team member Personal development is a structured process undertaken by an individual to in sociology, reflect upon their own learning, performance and/or achievement and to made, plan for their personal development according to the Quality Assurance Agency (2000). By considering my strengths, weaknesses my short, medium and long term objectives as well as potential barriers to learning I completed a personal development plan for myself (appendix 7) and included my last appraisal document (appendix 8). I have been a day care worker for definition of labelling 4 years. Job progression is my aim. My short term objectives: enlarge my current role so I am competent and Obesity in The States familiar with the role of definition, a Senior Day care Worker. I need to be familiar with the day care standards to do this.

I can action this immediately by downloading a copy of the standards to read and absorb. Learning will be on-going with the help of the Senior DCW and manager at no cost. Increased knowledge will also develop my role. Medium term objectives: Trust Interview skills training. If the course is run and I can get released I hope to complete this within 6 months. It is a one day course initially with a follow up mock interview course if required. Develop networks to have a range of internal and external contacts to liaise with and draw upon to support our clients. Long term objectives: Level 5 Diploma in Health Care management in Sept 13 (from appraisal appendix 7). This course did not run this year and child case study my senior is on of labelling, the waiting list for study the next course. In Sociology. It may not be possible for both of child case study, us to get released.

Possibly referred until 2014 for this training if funding and backfill cover available. This plan is to be reviewed every 3 months. AC 2.4 Describe a method that could be used to monitor the in sociology development of self and another member of the team Once learning objectives are identified reviewing, monitoring and evaluating progress is child study, important to reach targets. The Trust appraisal and review process (appendix 6) is in place to support, review and monitor progress. My colleague and I are subject to this process. Before the meeting with your manager you consider if you have met your objectives rom the last year, what you enjoyed, what skills do I need, personal goals for next year and educational needs. At the meeting achievements from the previous year are recorded and goals set for definition in sociology the coming year. Case Study. This is a living document which is subject to review at any time. Both manager and individual have a responsibility for ensuring the personal development plan is in place.

Monitoring ensures that actions are being taken and that learning implemented. Monitoring can be done through observation, meeting standards, evidence based practice, improved competency and learning logs. Definition In Sociology. A learning log or journal, such as the one for this course, is a useful way of recording and reflecting on what has been learned and how that learning can be applied. Learning Log is a journal which evidences your own personal learning and skills development. When you learn something new complete the gilgamesh theme log. This can then be reflected on periodically to definition in sociology, gain insight about how you learn, how you have developed, if the learning been beneficial and do you need to plan further training. Conclusion. Both my colleague and I are naturally drawn to the reflector style of learning.

Using this knowledge we have learned a lot about gilgamesh theme ourselves and how we learn. It has challenged both of us to definition of labelling in sociology, develop the other learning styles to become more rounded in our learning skills. Rene Descartes Dualism. The SWOT analysis is a useful technique to focus our attention on planning our development needs. It gave a clear picture of weaknesses that need to be developed by more training or experience. Definition Of Labelling. We were then able to how are fireworks made, identify potential barriers to learning and think about how to overcome these in the workplace. Developing ourselves and others should be a continuing process that involves the first line manager and in sociology those they support. Individuals must take responsibility for their own development as they know best what they need and must take control of the direction they want to go. The Trust offers many support mechanisms to facilitate growth and development. A personal development plan is used to achieve a learning outcome.

It is a living document that can be monitored and reviewed to ensure learning is achieved. Individuals can complete learning logs to chart their personal development and progress. By completing this unit I have been able to put in place a personal development plan for myself and case study my colleague back in of labelling the workplace. This has gone a long way to renewing enthusiasm and morale. Feeling recognised and valued is a wonderful by-product of developing self and others. Corporate Information, (accessed 06.02.13] Kolb learning Styles , (Accessed 06.02.2013). Personal Development Planning: guidance for on Racial institutional policy and practice in higher education [accessed 06.02.13] McLeod, S. A. (2010).

Kolb | The Learning Style Inventory. [accessed 01.02.13] Western Trust Management Statement [accessed 06.02.13] Currie,D. ,2006 Introduction to in sociology, Human Resource Management a guide to personnel in child practice. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development Martin, M., and Jackson, T., 2002 People and Organisations Personnel Practice. Definition Of Labelling. 3rd ed. London: CIPD Torrington, D., and Hall, L., 1987. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Developing Self and gilgamesh theme Others. essay editing for only $13.9 per in sociology, page.

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