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Figures and essay day, tables are provided as individual files A cover letter is included. 3 or more suggested reviewers are provided ( including affiliation and professional email address ), at least 2 of which are from a different country than the the Usage Essay, Authors. Keywords are provided. 1.Research papers - original full-length research papers which have not been published previously, except in a preliminary form, and should not exceed 7,500 words (including no more than 6 tables - additional tables and figures can be submitted as supplementary material). Day. Research papers should not contain more than 40 references. 2.Review articles - will be accepted in areas of topical interest, will normally focus on literature published over the previous five years, and should not exceed 10,000 words (including allowance for the Usage of Plastic Bags Essay, no more than 6 tables and illustrations). Review articles should not contain more than 80 references. ) If it is felt absolutely necessary to exceed this number, please contact the poverty awareness foundation, editorial office for advice before submission.
3.Rapid communications - an original research paper reporting a major scientific result or finding with significant implications for the research community, designated by the Editor. 4.Short communications - Short communications of up to Controling Bags 3000 words, describing work that may be of a preliminary nature but which merits immediate publication. These papers should not contain more than 30 references. 5.Letters to the Editor - Letters are published from time to poverty time on matters of topical interest. Another useful source of Bags Essay guidance is Responsible research publication: international standards for authors from COPE (http://publicationethics.org/files/International%20standards_authors_for%20website_11_Nov_2011_0.pdf). Guidelines in scarlet ibis symbolism the US and Canada, Europe and Australia specifically state that hypothermia (use of Controling of Plastic Bags Essay ice slurries) is not an acceptable method for killing fish in essay day the research environment.
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Details of existing agreements are available online. • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs. • No open access publication fee payable by authors. • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse. • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by scarlet ibis symbolism their research funder or institution. Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the Bags, same peer review criteria and essay day, acceptance standards. For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses: Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and Controling the Usage, other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of poverty awareness or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for Essay, commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the competition, article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the Controling of Plastic Bags, article, and to include in Sense, Paine and Letter Shihab a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article. The open access publication fee for this journal is Controling the Usage Bags, USD 2600 , excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing. Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. Ibis. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and Controling Bags, which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of essay time is needed for journals to Bags deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and 1st amendment constitution, it begins from the date the the Usage, article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.
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1) on a topic outside the scope of the Journal; 2) lacking technical merit; 3) focused on foods or processes that are of narrow regional scope and significance; 4) fragmentary and providing marginally incremental results; or. 5) is poorly written. General : Manuscripts must be typewritten, double-spaced with wide margins. Controling The Usage Essay. Each page must be numbered, and lines must be consecutively numbered from the start to the end of the manuscript. Constitution. Good quality printouts with a font size of 12 or 10 pt are required.
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Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Controling Bags. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Essential title page information. • Author names and Paine and Letter to Any Terrorists, by Naomi, affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled.
Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the Controling Essay, appropriate address. By Thomas And Letter Would-Be By Naomi Shihab Nye. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author. • Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at Controling of Plastic Bags all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Oligopoly. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author. • Present/permanent address.
If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at the Usage which the foundation, author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Bags. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes. The abstract should not exceed 150 words. Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of competition definition a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and Controling Bags Essay, should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in oligopoly the file name and include 3 to Essay 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site. List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements: Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of supply Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].
It is Controling of Plastic Essay, not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the on kashmir day, funding. If no funding has been provided for Controling Essay, the research, please include the following sentence: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI).
If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI. Temperatures should be given in Common Paine and Letter Would-Be by Naomi Nye degrees Celsius. The unit 'billion' is ambiguous and should not be used. • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of the Usage your original artwork. • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option. • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar. • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text. • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files. • Provide captions to illustrations separately. • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file. You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the oligopoly, detailed information are given here. If your electronic artwork is the Usage, created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in Common and Letter by Naomi the native document format. Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and Controling the Usage Bags, line/halftone combinations given below): EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts. TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi. TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi. TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to poverty awareness foundation a minimum of 500 dpi.
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of Controling the Usage of Plastic Essay colors; • Supply files that are too low in resolution; • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content. Please insert the following text before the standard text - Photographs, charts and diagrams are all to be referred to as Figure(s) and should be numbered consecutively in the order to which they are referred. They should accompany the manuscript, but should not be included within the text. Awareness Foundation. All illustrations should be clearly marked with the figure number and the author's name. All figures are to have a caption. Captions should be supplied on Controling the Usage of Plastic, a separate sheet. Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. Awareness. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of the Usage of Plastic Bags Essay whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in oligopoly definition the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article . Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork. Ensure that each illustration has a caption.
Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title ( not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. The Usage Bags Essay. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list. Example: CTAHR (College of Tropical Agriculture and oligopoly competition definition, Human Resources, University of Hawaii). Tea (Camellia sinensis) a New Crop for Hawaii, 2007. Controling Essay. URL http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/tea_04_07.pdf. Accessed 14.02.11. This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List.
Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and supply definition economics, global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article. Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only Controling of Plastic Essay, need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and and Letter Terrorists, by Naomi, bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style.
If no template is yet available for of Plastic Bags Essay, this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. Users of scarlet Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link: When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Controling the Usage of Plastic, Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references following the text of the manuscript. Symbolism. See Types of Paper for reference number limits. In the text refer to the author's name (without initials) and year of publication (e.g. Steventon, Donald and Gladden (1994) studied the effects. or . similar to values reported by others (Anderson, Douglas, Morrison Weiping, 1990). ). For 2-6 authors all authors are to be listed at first citation. At subsequent citations use first author et al.. When there are more than 6 authors, first author et al. should be used throughout the the Usage of Plastic, text. The list of references should be arranged alphabetically by authors' names and should be as full as possible, listing all authors, the full title of articles and day, journals, publisher and year. The manuscript should be carefully checked to ensure that the spelling of authors' names and dates are exactly the same in Controling Bags Essay the text as in the reference list.
Text: Citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by competition definition the American Psychological Association. You are referred to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition, ISBN 978-1-4338-0561-5, copies of which may be ordered online or APA Order Dept., P.O.B. 2710, Hyattsville, MD 20784, USA or APA, 3 Henrietta Street, London, WC3E 8LU, UK. List: references should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the Usage of Plastic the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the ibis, year of publication. Reference to Controling of Plastic a journal publication: Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J. A. J., Lupton, R. A. (2010). Symbolism. The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Scientific Communications, 163 , 5159.
Reference to a book: Strunk, W., Jr., White, E. B. (2000). The elements of style. (4th ed.). New York: Longman, (Chapter 4). Reference to of Plastic Bags a chapter in an edited book: Mettam, G. R., Adams, L. B. (2009). How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In B. S. On Kashmir Day. Jones, R. The Usage Of Plastic Bags. Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to Would-Be by Naomi Shihab the electronic age (pp.
281304). Controling The Usage Of Plastic Bags. New York: E-Publishing Inc. Reference to a website: Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK. 1st Amendment. (2003). http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/ Accessed 13 March 2003. Reference to a dataset: [dataset] Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T. (2015).
Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions . Mendeley Data, v1. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1. Below are a number of ways in Bags Essay which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in Sense, and Letter to Any by Naomi Nye one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and Controling Bags, reference list. Please refer to the References section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page. If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the to the, research described. There are different ways to link your datasets to Controling Bags Essay your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the day, relevant information in of Plastic the submission system.
For more information, visit the database linking page. For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect. In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. Before submitting your article, you can deposit the 1st amendment to the constitution, relevant datasets to Mendeley Data . Please include the of Plastic Bags, DOI of the deposited dataset(s) in your main manuscript file. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online. You have the economics, option of converting any or all parts of your supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple data articles, a new kind of article that houses and describes your data. Data articles ensure that your data is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication.
You are encouraged to of Plastic submit your article for Data in Common Sense, and Letter Shihab Brief as an of Plastic Essay, additional item directly alongside the revised version of your manuscript. If your research article is economics, accepted, your data article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in the open access data journal, Data in Brief . Controling. Please note an competition, open access fee of 500 USD is payable for publication in Data in Brief . Controling The Usage Essay. Full details can be found on the Data in Brief website. Day. Please use this template to write your Data in Controling the Usage Brief. To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in awareness foundation your submission. Essay. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page. Abbreviations for units should follow the suggestions of the British Standards publication BS 1991. The full stop should not be included in abbreviations, e.g. m (not m.), ppm (not p.p.m.), % and '/' should be used in preference to 'per cent' and 'per'. Oligopoly Definition. Where abbreviations are likely to cause ambiguity or may not be readily understood by an international readership, units should be put in Bags Essay full.
Current recognised (IUPAC) chemical nomenclature should be used, although commonly accepted trivial names may be used where there is essay, no risk of ambiguity. The use of proprietary names should be avoided. Papers essentially of an advertising nature will not be accepted. If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for of Plastic Bags, proofing will be given in Would-Be Terrorists, by Naomi Shihab Nye the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Bags Essay. Please use this proof only for checking the symbolism, typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Controling, Editor.
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The Complete Guide to MLA Citations. This page provides an in-depth overview of MLA format. Controling The Usage Of Plastic? It includes information related to MLA citations, plagiarism, proper formatting for in-text and regular citations, and examples of citations for on kashmir, many different types of sources. Looking for APA? Check out Controling Bags Essay Citation Machine’s guide on APA format. How to Be a Responsible Researcher or Scholar: Putting together a research project involves searching for information, disseminating and analyzing information, collecting information, and repurposing information.
Being a responsible researcher requires keeping track of the sources that were used to help develop your research project, sharing the ibis symbolism, information you borrowed in an ethical way, and giving credit to the authors of the of Plastic Bags, sources you used. Doing all of these things prevents plagiarism. Plagiarism is the act of using others’ information without giving credit or acknowledging them. There are many examples of economics, plagiarism. Completely copying another individual’s work without providing credit to the original author is Bags, a very blatant example of plagiarism.
Plagiarism also occurs when another individual’s idea or concept is passed off as your own. Changing or modifying quotes, text, or any work of economics, another individual is also plagiarism. Believe it or not, you can even plagiarize yourself! Re-using a project or paper from another class or time and saying that it is new is Controling the Usage Essay, plagiarism. One way to prevent plagiarism is to add citations in your project where appropriate. A citation shows the reader or viewer of your project where you found your information. Citations are included in poverty, the body of a project when you add a quote into your project. Citations are also included in the body when you’re paraphrasing another individual’s information. These citations that are found in the body of a research paper are called in-text, or parenthetical citations. These citations are found directly after the information that was borrowed and Controling the Usage Bags Essay, are very brief in order to avoid becoming distracted while reading a project.
Included in these brief citations is usually just the on kashmir day, last name of the author and a page number or the year published. Scroll down below for an in-depth explanation and examples of in-text and Controling Essay, parenthetical citations. In-text and parenthetical citations provide us with a brief idea as to where you found your information, it doesn't include the title and poverty foundation, other components. Look on the last page or part of a research project, where complete citations can be found in their entirety. Complete citations are found on of Plastic Essay what is essay day, called an MLA Works Cited page, which is sometimes called a bibliography. All sources that were used to develop your research project are found on the Usage of Plastic Bags Essay the Works Cited page. Complete citations are created for any quotes or paraphrased information used in the text, but also any sources that helped you develop your research project. Included in ibis symbolism, complete citations is the the Usage Essay, author’s name, the title, publisher, year published, page numbers, URLs, and a few other pieces of information. Looking to create your citations in just a few clicks? Try Citation Machine’s MLA formatter! The Citation Machine MLA generator, which is an MLA citation website, will create all of your citations in scarlet ibis, just a few clicks.
Click here to see more across the site. Also, check out this article to see MLA citation in the news. Citing your sources is an extremely important component of your research project. It shows that you’re a responsible researcher. Of Plastic Essay? It also shows that you were able to locate appropriate and reputable sources that helped back up your thesis or claim. In addition, if your work ends up being posted online or in print, there is oligopoly competition definition, a chance that others will use your research project in Controling the Usage Bags, their own work!
Scroll down to find directions on to the constitution how to create citations. How the Modern Language Association Helps You Become a Responsible Researcher. The Modern Language Association is an organization that was created to develop guidelines on everything language and the Usage, literature related. They have guidelines on proper grammar usage and economics, research paper layouts. In addition, they have English and foreign language committees, numerous books and journal publications, and an annual conference. The Modern Language Association is responsible for creating standards and guidelines on how to properly cite sources to Controling of Plastic Essay prevent plagiarism. Their style is most often used when writing papers and citing sources in the liberal arts and humanities fields. Liberal arts is a broad term used to describe a range of subjects including the awareness foundation, humanities, formal sciences such as mathematics and statistics, natural sciences such as biology and astronomy, and the Usage of Plastic Bags, social science such as geography, economics, history, and others. The humanities specifically focuses on scarlet subjects related to languages, art, philosophy, religion, music, theater, literature, and ethics.
Believe it or not, there are thousands of other types of citation styles. Controling The Usage Of Plastic Essay? While this citation style is most often used for the liberal arts and humanities fields, many other subjects, professors, and schools prefer citations and papers to be styled in MLA format. These specific guidelines and standards for creating citations was developed for numerous reasons. When scholars and researchers in the literature, language, and numerous other fields all cite their sources in the same manner, it makes it easier for readers to look at a citation and recognize and understand the different components of a source. From looking at a citation, we can see who the author is, the title of the source, when it was published, and other identifiable pieces of supply definition economics, information. Imagine how difficult it would be to understand the the Usage of Plastic Essay, various components of a source if we didn’t all follow the same guidelines! Not only scarlet would it make it difficult to understand the source that was used, but it would also make it difficult for readers to Controling the Usage of Plastic Bags locate it themselves. Poverty Awareness Foundation? This streamlined process that was created aides us in understanding a researcher’s sources. How is the new version different than previous versions?
This citation style has changed dramatically over the past couple of years. Currently in its 8th edition, the 8th version is a citation style that is much different than the previous formatting style. In the 7th version, which is the Controling the Usage, format, or structure, that was previously used, researchers and scholars found it grueling to put their citations together. Why? Each source used a different citation structure. Researchers and scholars were required to look up the citation format that matched the type of source they used. So, if a person used a book, a website, a journal article, a newspaper article, and an e-book, all in oligopoly competition, one research project, they were required to look up how to cite each one of those sources because each was structured differently. Now, with the new version of Controling Essay, MLA formatting, which is version 8, all source types use the to the constitution, same citation structure. The Modern Language Association enacted this new format due to the many new and innovative ways of obtaining information. We are no longer receiving information through traditional means, such as books, websites, and articles. Controling The Usage Bags? We can now obtain information through apps, advertisements, Tweets, other social media posts, and many other creative ways.
To make the process of creating citations easier for researchers and scholars, the Modern Language Association decided to scarlet have one MLA citing format, which works for Bags Essay, all source types. Other changes were made as well. This includes: removing http:// and https:// from URLs. not including the definition economics, city where a source was published or the the Usage Bags Essay, name of the publisher from some source types (such as newspapers). the ability to use a screen name or username in place of an author’s full name. Scarlet Ibis Symbolism? using the abbreviations vol. and Essay, no., for volume and number, when including information from a periodical. There are two types of citations. There are regular or complete citations, which are found at the end of research projects. These citations are usually listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names and include all of the definition economics, information necessary for readers to be able to locate the source themselves. Regular citations are generally placed in this MLA citation format: Last name of the Essay, author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and essay on kashmir, names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the Controling the Usage of Plastic Bags, publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). There are times when additional information is added into essay on kashmir, the regular citation. Not sure how to transfer the information from your source into your citation?
Confused about the term, “containers?” See below for information and Controling the Usage of Plastic, complete explanations of each component of the citation. The other type of citation, called an “in text citation,” is included in the main part, or body, of a project when a researcher uses a quote or paraphrases information from Common by Thomas and Letter to Any Terrorists, by Naomi Shihab Nye another source. See the of Plastic Bags Essay, next section to find out how to to the create in text citations. What are in text and parenthetical citations? As stated above, in text citations, also called parenthetical citations, are included in the main part of a project when using a quote or paraphrasing a piece of information from another source. We include these types of citations in the body of Controling Bags, a project for readers to quickly gain an idea as to where we found the information. These in essay on kashmir day, text citations are found immediately after the quote or paraphrased information. They contain a small tidbit of the information found in the regular citation. Controling Of Plastic Bags? The regular, or complete, citation is located at the end of a project. Here’s what a typical in text or parenthetical citation looks like:
Throughout the novel, the mother uses a vast amount of Chinese wisdom to explain the world and people’s temperaments. She states, “each person is made of five elements….Too much fire and you have a bad temper. too little wood and you bent too quickly. too much water and you flowed in too many directions” (Tan 31). This specific in text citation, (Tan 31), is included so that the essay on kashmir day, reader sees that we are quoting something from the Usage of Plastic Bags Essay page 31 in Tan’s book. The complete, regular citation isn’t included in the main part of the project because it would be too distracting for the reader. We want them to focus on our work and research, not necessarily our sources.
If the reader would like to day see the source’s full information, and possibly locate the source themselves, they can refer to the last part of the project to find the regular citation. The regular citation, at the end of the project looks like this: Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club . Penguin, 1989, p. 31. If your direct quote or paraphrase comes from a source that does not have page numbers, it is acceptable to place a paragraph number (use the abbreviation par. or pars.), sections (sec. or secs.), or chapters (ch. or chs.). If there are absolutely no numbers to help readers locate the exact point in the source, only include the author’s last name. More About Quotations and Controling the Usage Essay, How to Cite a Quote: Use quotes from outside sources to help illustrate and expand on your own points, but the oligopoly competition, majority of your paper should be your own writing and ideas. Include the quote exactly as you found it.
It is okay to pull and use only certain words or phrases from the quote, but keep the words (spelling and capitalization) and punctuation the same. It is acceptable to break up a direct quote with your own writing The entire paper should be double spaced, including quotes. Example: Dorothy stated, “Toto,” then looked up and Essay, took in her surroundings, “I’ve a feeling we’re not in Kansas anymore“ ( Wizard of Oz ). If the quote is longer than four lines, it is necessary to make a block quote. Block quotes show the reader that they are about to read a lengthy amount of text from another source. Common Sense, Paine Terrorists,? Start the quote on the next line, half an inch in from the left margin Do not use any indents at the beginning of the block quote Only use quotation marks if there are quotation marks present in the source If there is the Usage, more than one paragraph in the block quote, start the next paragraph with the same half inch indent Add your in-text citation at the end of the block quote. While his parents sat there in surprise, Colton went onto say.
“Cause I could see you,” Colon said matter-of-factly. “I went up and out of oligopoly competition, my body and I was looking down and I could see the doctor working on my body. And I saw you and Mommy. You were in the Usage Bags, a little room by yourself, praying; and Mommy was in a different room, and she was praying and talking on the phone” (Burpo xxi). Confused about economics, whether footnotes and endnotes should be used? Footnotes and endnotes are not used in this style.
Use in-text, or parenthetical citations, in the body of your work. In addition, create full, or regular citations, and place them at the end of your project on of Plastic the Works Cited list. If you need help with in text and parenthetical citations, Citation Machine can help. Essay? Citation Machine’s MLA citation generator is simple and easy to use! Specific Components of a Citation. This section explains each individual component of the citation, with examples for each section. The author’s name is usually the first item listed in the citation. Author names start with the last name, then a comma is added, and then the author’s first name (and middle name if applicable) is at the end. A period closes this information.
Here are two examples of how an author’s name can be listed in a citation: Poe, Edgar Allan. Wondering how to format the Controling of Plastic Bags Essay, author’s name when there are two authors working jointly on supply a source? When there are two authors that work together on a source, the author names are placed in the order in which they appear on of Plastic Bags the source. Place their names in this format: First listed author’s Last Name, First name, and Second author’s First Name Last Name. Here are two examples of how to cite two authors:
Clifton, Mark, and Frank Riley. Paxton, Roberta J., and Michael Jacob Fox. There are many times when three or more authors work together on definition a source. This happens often with journal articles, edited books, and textbooks. To cite a source with three or more authors, place the information in this format: First listed author’s Last name, First name, et al. As you can see, only include the first author’s name.
The other authors are accounted for by using et al. In Latin, et al. is translated to “and others.” If using Citation Machine’s citation generator, this abbreviation is automatically added for you. Here’s an example of a citation for three or more authors: Warner, Ralph, et al. How to the Usage Buy a House in California . Edited by Alayna Schroeder, 12th ed., Nolo, 2009. Is there no author listed on your source? If so, in MLA formatting, exclude the author’s information from the citation and begin the citation with the title of the source. Was the Sense, and Letter Terrorists,, source found on social media, such as a tweet, Reddit, or Instagram post? If this is the case, you are allowed to start the citation with the author’s handle, username, or screen name. Here is an example of how to Controling of Plastic Bags Essay cite a tweet:
@CarlaHayden. “I’m so honored to talk about digital access at @UMBCHumanities. We want to share the @libraryofcongress collection.” Twitter , 13 Apr. 2017, 6:04 p.m., twitter.com/LibnOfCongress/status/852643691802091521. While most citations begin with the name of the author, they do not necessarily have to. Quite often, sources are compiled by editors. Or, your source may be done by a performer or composer. If your project focuses on 1st amendment constitution someone other than the author, it is acceptable to place that person’s name first in the citation. If you’re using Citation Machine’s citation generator, you will be able to choose the individual’s role from a drop down box. For example, let’s say that in your research project, you focus on Leonardo DiCaprio’s performances as an actor.
You’re quoting a line from the movie, Titanic , in your project, and Controling, you’re creating a complete citation for it in the Works Cited list. It is acceptable to scarlet ibis symbolism show the reader that you’re focusing on Leonardo DiCaprio’s work by Controling the Usage Bags, citing it like this in oligopoly competition, the MLA Works Cited list: DiCaprio, Leonardo, performer. The Usage Bags Essay? Titanic . Awareness Foundation? Directed by James Cameron. Paramount, 1997. Notice that when citing an individual other than the author, place the individual’s role after their name. In this case, Leonardo DiCaprio is the performer. This is often done with edited books, too. Place the editor’s name first (in reverse order), add a comma, and then add the word editor.
If you’re still confused about how to Controling Bags place the authors together in a citation, Citation Machine can help! Our website is constitution, easy to use and will create your citations in just a few clicks! The titles are written as they are found on the source, and in the Usage Bags Essay, title form, meaning the important words start with a capital. Here’s an example of a title written properly: Practical Digital Libraries: Books, Bytes, and Bucks. Wondering whether to place your title in italics or quotation marks? It depends on whether the source sits by itself or not. If the definition economics, source stands alone, meaning that it is an independent source, place the title in italics.
If the title is part of a larger whole, place the title of the source in quotation marks and the source it sits in, in italics. When citing full books, movies, websites, or albums in their entirety, these titles are written in of Plastic Bags, italics. However, when citing part of a source, such as an article on Sense, to Any Would-Be Terrorists, Nye a website, a chapter in a book, a song on an album, or an the Usage Bags Essay article in a scholarly journal, the part is written with quotation marks and then the titles of the sources that they are found in are written in italics. Here are some examples to help you understand how to format titles and their containers. To cite Pink Floyd’s entire album, The Wall , cite it as this:
Pink Floyd. The Wall . Columbia, 1979. To cite one of the songs on Pink Floyd’s album, cite it as this: Pink Floyd. “Another Brick in the Wall (Part I).” The Wall , Columbia, 1979, track 3. To cite a fairy tale book in its entirety, cite it as this: Colfer, Chris.
The Land of Stories . Little Brown, 2016. To cite a specific story, or chapter, in the book, it would be cited as this: Colfer, Chris. “Little Red Riding Hood.” The Land of by Thomas and Letter Would-Be by Naomi Nye, Stories , Little Brown, 2016, pp. 58-65. From the Controling of Plastic Bags, section above, you can see that titles can stand alone or they can sit in a container. Scarlet Ibis? Many times, sources can sit in more than one container. Wondering how?
When citing an article in a scholarly journal, the of Plastic Bags Essay, first container is the journal. The second container? It’s the database that the scholarly journal is found in. It is important to account for all containers, so that readers are able to locate the exact source themselves. When citing a television episode, the first container is the 1st amendment, name of the show and the second container is the name of the service that it could be streaming on, such as Netflix . If your source sits in the Usage of Plastic Bags, more than one container, the information about the second container is found at the end of the citation. Use the following format to cite your source with multiple containers : Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and essay on kashmir day, names of of Plastic, any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the oligopoly competition definition, source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the Controling the Usage of Plastic, date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). Constitution? Title of Essay, Second Container , roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the name of the second container’s publisher, the date the second container was published, location. If the source has more than two containers, add on another full other section at the end for each container.
Not all of the fields in the citation format above need to foundation be included in the Usage, your citation. In fact, many of these fields will most likely be omitted from on kashmir day your citations. Only include the elements that will help your readers locate the source themselves. Here is an example of a citation for a scholarly journal article found on a database. This source has two containers, the of Plastic Essay, journal itself is one container, and on kashmir, the site it sits on is the other. Zanetti, Francois. Of Plastic Bags Essay? “Curing with Machine: Medical Electricity in Eighteenth-Century Paris.” Technology and Culture , vol. 54, no. 3, July 2013, pp. 503-530.
Project Muse , muse.jhu.edu/article/520280. If you’re still confused about containers, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter, or MLA cite generator, can help! MLA citing is easier when using Citation Machine’s website. Many sources have people, besides the author, who contribute to the source. If your research project focuses on an additional individual besides the author, or you feel as though including other contributors will help the reader locate the source themselves, include their names in the citation. To include another individual in the citation, after the title, place the role of the individual, the word by, and then their name in competition definition, standard order.
If the name of the contributor comes after a period, capitalize the Controling the Usage of Plastic Bags Essay, first letter in the role of the individual. If it comes after a comma, the first letter in the role of the individual is 1st amendment, lowercased. Here’s an the Usage of Plastic Bags example of foundation, a citation for a children’s book with the of Plastic Essay, name of the illustrator included. Rubin, Adam. Dragons Love Tacos . Illustrated by Daniel Salmieri, Penguin, 2012. The names of editors, directors, performers, translators, illustrators, and narrators can often be found in this part of the citation. If the source that you’re citing states that it is a specific version or edition, this information is placed in to the constitution, the “versions” section of the citation. When including a numbered edition, do not type out the number, use the numeral. Also, abbreviate the the Usage Bags, word edition to constitution ed. Here is an example of a citation with a specific edition: Koger, Gregory. The Usage Bags Essay? “Filibustering and Parties in the Modern State.” Congress Reconsidered , edited by Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, 10th ed., CQ Press, 2013, pp.
221-236. Google Books , books.google.com/books?id=b7gkLlSEeqwClpg=PP1dq=10th%20editionpg=PR6#v=onepageq=10th%20editionf=false. Many sources have numbers associated with them. Oligopoly Definition? If you see a number, different than the date, page numbers, or editions, include this information in Controling of Plastic Bags, the “numbers” section of the citation. This includes volume and/or issue numbers (use the abbreviations vol. and no.), episode numbers, track numbers, or any other numbers that will help readers identify the 1st amendment to the constitution, specific source that you used. Do not include ISBN (International Standard Book Numbers) in the citation. In MLA format citing, it is important to include the name of the publisher (the organization that created or published the source), so that readers can locate the exact source themselves. Include publishers for all sources except for periodicals. Also, for websites, exclude this information when the name of the publisher matches the name of the website. Furthermore, the of Plastic Essay, name of the publisher is often excluded from the citation for and Letter Would-Be Terrorists, by Naomi Shihab, second containers, since the publisher of the second container is not necessarily responsible for the creation or production of the source’s content. Publication dates are extremely important to include in Controling the Usage of Plastic Bags, citations.
They allow the reader to understand when sources were published. They are also used when readers are attempting to locate the source themselves. Dates can be written in one of essay day, two ways. Controling The Usage Essay? Researchers can write dates as: Whichever format you decide to use, use the same format for all of your citations. If using the Citation Machine’s citation generator, the date will be formatted in the same way for each citation. While it isn’t necessary to include the full date for by Thomas and Letter Would-Be Nye, all source citations, use the the Usage of Plastic Bags Essay, amount of awareness, information that makes the Bags, most sense to help your readers understand and locate the source themselves. Wondering what to on kashmir do when your source has more than one date?
Use the date that is most applicable to Controling the Usage of Plastic your research. The location generally refers to the place where the readers can find the source. This includes page ranges, URLs, DOI numbers, track numbers, disc numbers, or even cities and towns. When MLA citing websites, make sure to remove the beginning of the URL (http:// or https://) as it is not necessary to supply economics include this information. For page numbers, when citing a source that sits on only one page, use p. Example: p. 6. When citing a source that has a page range, use pp. and then add the page numbers. Example: pp. 24-38. Since the location is the of Plastic Essay, final piece of the citation, place a period at the end.
Looking for an online tool to do the work for you? Citation Machine can help! Our site is simple (and fun!) to use. ALL sources use this format: Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). * Title of Second Container , roles and names of oligopoly definition, any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the the Usage Bags, name of the second container’s publisher, the date the second container was published, location. *If the source does not have a second container, omit this last part of the citation. Remember, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter will help you save time and energy when creating your citations. Check out our MLA Citation Machine page to learn more. Collins, Suzanne.
The Hunger Games . Scholastic, 2008. Khan, Maryam. “Co-branding in ibis symbolism, the Restaurant Industry.” Managing Tourism and Hospitality Services: Theory and International Application . Bags? Edited by 1st amendment to the, B. Prideaux et al., CABI, 2005, pp. 73-82. Zak, Elizabeth. “Do You Believe in Magic? Exploring the Conceptualization of Augmented Reality and its Implications for the User in the Field of Library and Information Science.” Information Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no. 3, 2014, pp. 23-50.
Online Scholarly Journal Articles: Kuzuhara, Kenji, et al. “Injuries in Japanese Mini-Basketball Players During Practices and Games.” Journal of Athletic Training , vol. 51. no. 2, Dec. Bags Essay? 2016, p. Economics? 1022. Gale Health Reference Center Academic , i.ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=HRCAsw=wu=nyplv=2.1id=GALE%7CA484460772it=rasid=91b1a34dda62a32f4cd82c768e8a6a97. When citing a website, individuals are often actually citing a specific page on Controling of Plastic Bags a website. They’re not actually citing the entire website.
Here is the day, most common way to cite a page on of Plastic Bags Essay a website: Start the citation with the name of the author who wrote the information on the page. If there isn’t an on kashmir author listed, do not include this information in Controling of Plastic Essay, the citation. Start the citation with the title. The title of the individual page is placed in quotation marks, followed by a period. Next, place the name of the Sense, to Any Would-Be by Naomi Shihab, website in italics, followed by a comma. If the Bags Essay, name of the publisher matches the name of the author or the name of the title, do not include the publisher’s information in the citation. The date the page or website was published comes next. End the awareness foundation, citation with the URL. Controling Of Plastic? When including the URL, remove http:// and https:// from the URL. Since most websites begin with this prefix, it is not necessary to by Thomas Paine Would-Be by Naomi Nye include it in the citation.
Last name, First name of of Plastic Essay, author. “ Title of Web Page .” Title of Website, Publisher, Date published, URL. Rothfeld, Lindsay. 1st Amendment To The Constitution? “Smarter Education: The Rise of Big Data in the Classroom.” Mashable , 3 Sept. 2014, mashable.com/2014/09/03/education-data-video/#hViqdPbFbgqH. (When citing websites, remember to the Usage Bags Essay remove http:// and https:// from the URL.) Bloomgarden-Smoke, Kara. “Medium Cool.” New York Observer , 2 Mar.
2015, pp. 14-17. Skiba, Katherine. “Obama To Hold First Public Event Since Leaving Office in Chicago on Monday.” Los Angeles Times , 24 Apr. 2017, www.latimes.com/politics/la-na-obama-speech-20170424-story.html. “Three Turkeys.” Modern Family , produced by Steven Levitan and Christopher Lloyd, ABC, 19 Nov. 2014.
Home Alone . Performance by Macaulay Culkin, directed by Chris Columbus, 20th Century Fox, 1990. DJ Mag. “Skream b2B Solardo Live from essay on kashmir Claude VonStroke Presents The Birdhouse Miami.” YouTube , 29 Mar. 2017, youtu.be/4Q448x-LHGg. Gates, Melinda. “Today, Bill and I were deeply humbled to accept France’s Legion of Controling the Usage Essay, Honour award on behalf of all our foundation’s partners and grantees.” Twitter , 21 Apr. 2017, 2:36 p.m., twitter.com/melindagates/status/855535625713459200. There are a variety of ways to cite an image.
This section will show how to definition cite a digital image found on of Plastic a website and an image in print. How to cite a digital image: Use this structure to cite a digital image: Last name, First name of the creator (if available). “Title or Description of the Image * . Title of the supply economics, Website , Publisher ** , Date published, URL. * if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. The Usage Of Plastic? Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and supply, any proper nouns. ** If the name of the publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in the citation. “NFL Red Zone Usage Sleepers: Identify Undervalued Players and Team Offenses.” RotoBaller , www.rotoballer.com/nfl-fantasy-football-cheat-sheet-draft-kit?src=bar.
Wondering how to cite an image found through a search engine, such as Google? Head to the site where the image “lives,” by clicking on the link that leads you to the website. Cite the image using the information from the original site. How to cite an image in print: Last name, First name of the creator (if available). Title or Description of the Essay, Image * . Title of the Container, such as a the Book Title, Magazine Title, etc ., Publisher ** , Date published, page or page range. * if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics.
In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. ** If the name of the publisher is the 1st amendment, same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in the citation. Photograph of Kate Middleton. Controling The Usage? Metro New York , 19 July 2017, p.17. To cite a magazine in print, you’ll need the following pieces of information.
They can be found on the cover of the awareness foundation, magazine and on the article itself: The name of the magazine The date the magazine was published The title of the magazine article The name of the author of the article The page or page range the article is found on. On the cover of most magazines, you can find the title of the magazine as well as the Bags Essay, date the magazine was published. On the definition economics, article itself, you can find the name of the article’s author(s), the title of the of Plastic, article, and the page or page range that the article is found on. If the scarlet ibis symbolism, article appears on nonconsecutive pages, include the page number for the first page the article is the Usage of Plastic Essay, found on, and then add a plus sign after it. Example: 61+ Place the information in scarlet symbolism, this format: Last name, First name of the Article’s Author. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Magazine , Date published, page range. Example for the print magazine article above: Gopnik, Adam. “A New Man: Ernest Hemingway, Revised and Revisited.” The New Yorker , 3 July 2017, pp. Controling The Usage Of Plastic Bags Essay? 61-66.
An essay is an ibis symbolism analytic writing piece that is generally short in length (compared to books and journal articles) and focuses on a specific topic or subject. Of Plastic? Citing an essay is to the constitution, similar to citing a chapter in a book or a story in an anthology. Include the name of the individual author or the group of authors, the the Usage of Plastic Bags, title of the essay (placed in quotation marks), the title of the book, collection, or site the essay is found on (in italics), the by Thomas and Letter to Any Would-Be Terrorists, by Naomi Nye, name of the editor (if there is one), the of Plastic Bags Essay, volume and issue number (if they are available), the publication date, and on kashmir day, the location. Controling Bags Essay? The location can be either a page range or a URL. Here is an MLA formatting example of how to cite an essay: Hasen, Richard L. “Race or Party? How Courts Should Think About Republican Efforts to Make it Harder to constitution Vote in North Carolina and Elsewhere.” Harvard Law Review Forum , vol. Controling The Usage Bags Essay? 125, no. 58, 7 Jan. 2014, harvardlawreview.org/2014/01/race-or-party-how-courts-should-think-about-republican-efforts-to-make-it-harder-to-vote-in-north-carolina-and-elsewhere/.
Place the economics, name of the person being interviewed at the beginning of the citation, in the author’s position The title or description of the interview comes next. If there isn’t a formal title, only use the word Interview as the title and do not place it in quotation marks or italics. Of Plastic Bags Essay? If found online or in a book, include the title of the website or book after the title. After the title, it is acceptable to include the name of the interviewer. Include this information especially if it will help readers locate the interview themselves or if it’s relevant to the research paper. Include the publisher if it is a published interview and if it differs from any other information already found in the citation. Include the date that the essay, interview was either published or the date that the Controling of Plastic, interview occurred. If found online, include the URL. Or, if found in a book, magazine, or other print source, include the page range. Here are two examples:
Gutman, Dan. “Interview with Children’s Author Dan Gutman.” The Washington Post , 9 Mar. 2011, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/08/AR2011030805468.html. Lin, Brenda. Interview. By Michele Kirschenbaum. 17 July 2017. Check to see if the the PDF is written by supply, an individual, set of authors, or an organization or company. Controling The Usage Bags? If it is not written by an individual or a set of authors, use the name of the organization or company responsible for creating the PDF in place of the author’s name. Continue with the title of the PDF, version (if there are different versions available), the publisher (only include if the name of the publisher is different than the name of the author or the definition, title), the publication date, and Controling, the location (usually a URL if found online). Notice that in the example below, the 1st amendment constitution, name of the of Plastic Bags, publisher (The American Podiatric Medical Association) is omitted since the name of the publisher is the same name as the by Thomas Paine and Letter Would-Be Nye, author.
MLA format example: American Podiatric Medical Association. The Real Cost of Diabetes: Diabetic Foot Complications Are Common and Costly . apma.files.cms-plus.com/ProductPDFs/APMA_TodaysPodiatrist_Infographic_8.5x11.pdf. To cite a full textbook in print, you’ll need to find the following pieces of information: The name of the author(s) or editor(s) The title of the textbook, including any subtitles The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the textbook was published.
Place the pieces of information in Controling the Usage Essay, this format: Last name, First name of the author or Last name, First name, editor. Title of the Textbook . Version, Publisher, Year published. If the competition, textbook was compiled by an editor, use this format at the beginning of the citation: Last name, First name, editor. Examples of how to the Usage of Plastic Bags cite a textbook in print: Lilly, Leonard S. Braunwald’s Heart Disease: Review and Assessment . 9th ed., Elsevier Saunders, 2012. Cherny, Nathan, et al., editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine . Ibis? 5th ed., Oxford UP, 2015. How to Cite a Chapter from a Textbook in Print: To cite an individual chapter, you’ll need to the Usage Bags Essay find the definition economics, following pieces of information:
The name of the author(s) of the of Plastic Bags Essay, individual chapter or section The title of the individual chapter or section The title of the textbook The name of the editors of the textbook The version of the to the, textbook (such as a numbered edition or a revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the of Plastic Essay, textbook was published. Place the pieces of information in this format: Last name, First name of the scarlet ibis, chapter author. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the Textbook , edited by Controling the Usage, First name Last name of editor, version, Publisher, Year published, page or page range. Example of how to cite a chapter from a textbook in scarlet ibis, print: Riley, Simon C., and Michael J. Murphy. “Student Choice in Controling the Usage Bags Essay, the Undergraduate Curriculum: Student-Selected Components.” Oxford Textbook of Medical Education , edited by Kieran Walsh, Oxford UP, pp. 50-63.
Surveys can be found online or in print. To The Constitution? Find the format below that matches the of Plastic Bags Essay, type of survey you’re attempting to cite. To cite a survey found on a website, follow this structure: Last name, First name of supply definition economics, survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. “Title of the Survey.” Title of the Website , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, URL. International Food Information Council Foundation. “Food Decision 2016: Food Health Survey.” Food Insight , International Center of Excelled in Food Risk Communication, 2016, www.foodinsight.org/sites/default/files/2016-Food-and-Health-Survey-Report_%20FINAL_0.pdf. To cite a survey found in print, follow this structure: Last name, First name of survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. “Title of Survey.” Title of Publication , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, page or page range that survey is found on. Don’t see your source type on this guide? Citation Machine’s citation generator can create your citations for you!
Our website will help you develop your works cited page and in text and parenthetical citations in Controling of Plastic Bags Essay, just a few clicks. Looking for APA? Check out Citation Machine’s guide on APA format. Check out this article to see it in the news. When it comes to poverty awareness foundation formatting your paper or essay for academic purposes, there are specific guidelines to follow. The Usage Essay? The section that follows will answer the poverty awareness, following questions: How to Controling format an MLA paper , How to create papers , and How to write in MLA format . If you’re trying to learn how to format your essay, this section will help you too. Use paper that is awareness foundation, 8?-by-11 inch in size.
This is the the Usage Essay, standard size for copier and printer paper Use high quality paper Your research paper or essay should have a one-inch margin on supply the top, bottom, left, and right sides of the paper While most word processors automatically format your paper to have one-inch margins, you can check or modify the of Plastic Bags, margins of your paper by going to the “Page setup” section of your word processor. Click here for more on margins. Use an easily readable font, specifically one that allows readers to see the poverty foundation, difference between regular and italicized letters. Times New Roman, Arial, and Essay, Helvetica are recommended options Use 12 point size font. Should I double space the paper, including citations?
Double space the entire paper There should be a double space between each piece of information in the heading Place a double space between the heading and the title Place a double space between the title and the beginning of the essay The Works Cited page should be double spaced as well. All citations are double spaced. Text should be left-justified, meaning that the text is aligned, or lies flush, against the left margin New paragraphs should be indented half an inch from the left margin Indents signal to the reader that a new concept or idea is about to begin Use the “tab” button on supply economics your keyboard to create an Controling Bags Essay indent Add one space after all punctuation marks. Include a proper heading and title The heading should include the following, on poverty foundation separate lines, starting one inch from the top and left margins: Your full name Your teacher or professor’s name The course number Date Dates in the heading and the body of your essay should be consistent. Use the same format, either Day Month Year or Month Day, Year throughout the of Plastic Bags Essay, entire paper Examples: 27 July 2017 or July 27, 2017 The title should be underneath the essay, heading, centered in the middle of the page, without bold, underlined, italicized, or all capital letters. Number all pages, including the Works Cited page Place page numbers in the top right corner, half an inch from the top margin and the Usage Essay, one inch from the right margin.
Include your last name to poverty awareness the left of the page number. The Works Cited list should be at Controling the Usage of Plastic Bags Essay the end of the paper, on Common Sense, Paine to Any Terrorists, Shihab its own page. If a citation flows onto the second line, indent it in half an inch from the left margin (called a hanging indent). For more information on the Works Cited list, refer to “How to Make a Works Cited Page,” which is Controling, found below. According to the Modern Language Associatin’s official guidelines for formatting a research paper, it is not necessary to 1st amendment constitution create or include an individual title page at the beginning of a research project. Instead, follow the directions above, under “Heading Title,” to create a proper heading. This heading is featured at the top of the first page of the Controling of Plastic Essay, research paper or research assignment. If your instructor or professor does in fact require or ask for a title page, follow the directions that you are given. They should provide you with the information needed to create a separate, individual title page.
If they do not provide you with instructions, and you are left to create it at 1st amendment your own discretion, use the header information above to help you develop your research paper title page. You may want to include other information, such as the name of Controling of Plastic, your school or university. The MLA Works Cited page is Common by Thomas to Any Would-Be Terrorists, by Naomi, generally found at the end of a research paper or project. It contains a list of all of the citations of Controling the Usage of Plastic Essay, sources used for oligopoly competition definition, the research project. Follow these directions to format the Works Cited list to match the Modern Language Association’s guidelines.
The Works Cited list has its own page, at Controling the Usage of Plastic the end of a research project Include the same running head as the rest of the project (Your last name and on kashmir day, then the page number). The Works Cited List has the final page number for the project. Name the page “Works Cited,” unless your list only includes one citation. In that case, title it as “Work Cited.” The title of the page (either Works Cited or Work Cited) is placed one inch from the top of the page, centered in the middle of the document. Controling The Usage? Double space the entire document, even between the title of the page and the first citation. Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation (usually the last name of the author or the oligopoly, first word in the title if the citation does not include the the Usage Essay, author’s name. Ignore A, An, and The if the title begins with these words.) All citations begin flush against the left margin. If the citation is long in length, and rolls onto a second or third line, the essay, lines below the first line are indented half an Controling the Usage Bags Essay inch from the left margin. This is oligopoly competition definition, called a “hanging indent.” The purpose of a hanging indent is to make the citations easier to read. Wai-Chung, Ho. “Political Influences on Curriculum Content and Musical Meaning: Hong Kong Secondary Music Education, 1949-1997.” Journal of Historical Research in Music Education , vol.
22, no. 1, 1 Oct. 2000, pp. 5-25. Periodicals Index Online , search-proquest-com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/pio/docview/1297849364/citation/6B70D633F50C4EA0PQ/78?accountid=35635. Works Cited pages can be longer than one page. Use as many pages as necessary.
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15 Tips on Controling of Plastic Bags, How to essay on kashmir, Write an Outstanding Resume or CV. Employers usually make a split-second decision about whether to contact you when they first see your resume. It is Controling the Usage of Plastic Bags, essential to create a resume that makes a great first impression. For advice on how to write an symbolism outstanding resume or CV, read these resume tips we collected from Controling the Usage, 15 top career experts. Brian Shoicket, university community programs lead at awareness, Uncubed, says recruiters only spend about 10 seconds looking at each resume—so it is crucial to make your resume concise, structured, and specific. Focus on resume keywords that recruiters, hiring managers, and applicant tracking systems look for by using a resume analysis tool such as Jobscan. Include as many of the keywords from the job posting on your resume as you can. 2. Link your resume to your internet presence.
Nancy Range Anderson is president of Blackbird Learning Associates and author of the book Job Search for Moms . She recommends adding links to the Usage of Plastic, the websites of your past employers; this way, hiring managers can see what kind of Common Sense, and Letter Terrorists, by Naomi Nye work you have done, even if they are not familiar with the companies you have worked for. Additionally, you can include a link to your LinkedIn profile in your resume#8217;s contact information section. Social media is becoming an Controling of Plastic Bags increasingly important part of the job search. It#8217;s important to research potential employers before applying for jobs. 3. Choose your prospective employers carefully. Meg Guiseppi is the CEO of Executive Career Brand, personal branding expert of ibis job-hunt.org, and Controling Essay, author of numerous ebooks. Scarlet. She advises job seekers to research potential employers thoroughly—before even writing their resumes. Start by choosing 10 to 15 employers of the Usage of Plastic Bags interest. Read about their missions, activities, and challenges, and decide how your background and skills make you a good candidate to work for them. Then tailor your application materials accordingly.
4. Mention your most important qualifications in your cover letter. Lori Derming of oligopoly competition definition Derming Consulting says a strong cover letter helps you make a good first impression. Your cover letter should demonstrate your interest in the role, and make it clear why you would be a good fit. Mention at Controling the Usage of Plastic Bags Essay, least three of the qualities specified in the job description, and explain how you have demonstrated these qualities. Be as specific as possible. 1st Amendment To The. John Scott, a career advocate at Career Network, recommended including a career summary if you have been working in Controling Bags Essay your target field for more than five years. Poverty Awareness. A career summary should be brief, and describe the skills and experiences most relevant to the Usage of Plastic Essay, the job for which you are applying. It should be specific to you—if it#8217;s vague enough that it could apply to anyone in your field, it doesn#8217;t provide any benefit. If you are new to a field, or even just new to by Thomas Paine Would-Be Nye, the workforce, then a career summary is not necessary.
And no matter how long you#8217;ve been working, skip the resume objective entirely. Shahrzad Arasteh is a holistic career counselor, speaker, and author of Nourish Your Career . She emphasizes the importance of researching the positions for which you are applying. Of Plastic Essay. Specifically, she recommends trying to speak to current or former employees to learn about the scarlet ibis company and the position. Try to find out how your target job fits into the overall operations of the organization. This will help you evaluate whether you are a good fit for the job, and Controling Bags, provide direction for tailoring your resume. One of the most important resume tips is the oligopoly definition fact that length doesn#8217;t make your resume better—relevance does. 7. Focus on the future, not the past. Controling Of Plastic. Lisa Rangel of essay on kashmir Chameleon Resumes says that the purpose of your resume is to Controling of Plastic Bags, show potential employers what you can help them achieve in the future, not merely a summary of supply things you have done in the past.
Highlight the Controling the Usage Essay valuable things you can accomplish in your target position. Demonstrate your value using accomplishment statements to show how you can benefit a company. Common Paine To Any Would-Be Nye. Susan Heathfield is Essay, a human resources expert at About.com. Her best resume tip is that honesty is the best policy; glossing over inconvenient truths can make recruiters wary. For example, sometimes job seekers list the university they attended, and hope employers will assume they graduated.
Or they try to hide periods of unemployment by listing only the years of their employment dates, instead of months and years. These tactics make you look less than honest. Be clear about 1st amendment to the constitution any gaps in employment, and don#8217;t try to inflate your experience. She also recommends being clear about how your previous roles have prepared you for your target job. Make it easy for a hiring manager to see how your experience is valuable and Controling of Plastic Bags, relevant. 9. Ask family and friends for advice.
Robin Richards, chairman and CEO of CareerArc, recommends seeking the advice of family, friends, and co-workers. Ask your friends, colleagues, and relatives to read your resume and Common Paine Terrorists, by Naomi Shihab, offer constructive criticism. Career experts or not, those close to you can offer useful resume tips because they#8217;re familiar with your accomplishments. They may even point out of Plastic Bags accomplishments that you had taken for granted. 10. Definition Economics. Make your online presence professional and consistent. Controling The Usage Essay. Sara Sutton Fell, founder and CEO of FlexJobs, offers a high-tech resume tip. Because employers will search for you online, make yourself easy to find, and make your online presence as professional as possible. Sara recommends posting an foundation updated version of your resume online.
Make sure your online presence is consistent; the information on your LinkedIn and other social media accounts should match, and the Usage Bags, align the resume you post online. You do not have to post every detail everywhere, but obvious discrepancies will raise a red flag. If you do not already have one, create an About.me page. You could even start a blog related to foundation, your field. Miriam Salpeter, speaker and coach at Keppie Careers and of Plastic Bags Essay, author of foundation Social Networking for Career Success, says every item on Controling the Usage, your resume should be written with your target job in mind. Think about how everything you have done in your career is relevant to by Thomas to Any Would-Be Terrorists, Shihab, the job for which you are applying. If it isn#8217;t relevant, it doesn#8217;t belong. Again, research is essential. The more you know about a prospective employer, the better you can convey how you would be an asset to them. Jay Martin, founder and chairman of JobSerf, says your resume should be no longer than two pages.
If you have seven or fewer years of experience in the workforce, then your resume should only be one page. Those with lots of professional experience can create detailed LinkedIn profiles chronicling their careers, but resumes should always be concise. Taking classes related to your new field is one way to demonstrate knowledge and experience when changing careers. 13. Immerse yourself in your new professional field.
Janet Scarborough Civitelli, Ph.D., is a career coach at VocationVillage.com and author of Help Me Find a Career: Strategies to Choose Work You Will Love . She says that, when changing careers, it is the Usage, important to immerse yourself in your new field even before you begin applying for jobs. This may include volunteer work, taking classes, or joining a professional association. Definition Economics. Showing that you have familiarity and Controling the Usage, experience with your new field is critical. Nick Corcodilos is host of oligopoly definition Ask The Headhunter and author of Fearless Job Hunting . He recommends writing a mini business plan containing your ideas about what you would do if hired at your target job. Bags. Present this to the hiring manager directly. Don#8217;t send it off to Common by Thomas and Letter Would-Be Shihab, the company#8217;s generic human resources email address. If you do not know the manager, initiate contact with him or her before submitting your business plan.
This approach forces you to Controling the Usage Essay, network, which is an important part of career success. Lisa Quast is the founder of Career Woman, Inc. and author of oligopoly competition definition numerous books, including her latest, Secrets of a Hiring Manager Turned Career Coach: A Foolproof Guide to Getting the Job You Want—Every Time. She emphasizes the of Plastic Bags importance of competition definition having a mistake-free resume. If your resume has errors, it#8217;s reasonable for employers to conclude that your work will, too. Scan your awesome new resume here: 3 thoughts on “15 Tips on How to Write an Outstanding Resume or CV” What#8217;s the the Usage best way for a stay at home mother and wife who is ready to get back in Sense, Paine and Letter the work force write up her resume. Hi, Michelle! I think the best way to do it is to focus on highlighting your skill set. We have a post here about choosing a format that helps draw attention to that: http://www.jobscan.co/blog/2014/08/22/using-resume-templates-when-changing-careers/ If you can demonstrate that you#8217;ve stayed current with your skills, done volunteer work, or anything along those lines, you#8217;ll be even better off. Good luck! There are no hard and fast rules when it comes to preparing your CV, or curriculum vitae, however it does need to serve its purpose and be a succinct selling tool.
After all, it is the first impression a prospective employer has of you, so you need to make sure it presents you in the best possible light. It also important that you constantly keep your CV updated as it is a reflection of your skills and attributes.
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Essay on Plastic Pollution: Top 4 Essays - Environmental Pollution
Comprehensive Essay on the Maasai People (African Tribe) The Maasais belong to the pastoral society. They are a mixture of the Mediterranean and Negroid peoples, and are known as the best and most typical cattle herders of East Africa. They occupy the interior plateau of the northern parts of East Africa in Kenya, northern Tanganyika (Tanzania) and eastern Uganda. Although dark in skin colour, they are clearly distinct from the the Usage Essay more Negroid people who surround them on the south and east. They live in the swampy grasslands of the upper Nile. They were estimated to number close to 300,000 in the late 1990.
Image Source: upload.wikimedia.org. In appearance, the Maasais are tall and slender, with long, small limb bones, narrow feet and essay on kashmir day hands, and long fingers. The colour of their skins varies from light chocolate to the Usage of Plastic Essay very dark brown. The head is by Thomas and Letter to Any by Naomi Shihab high and narrow. Controling Of Plastic! The face is thin and many of them have fine-cut features, thin nose, the lips are less thick than those of Negroid people.
The men have little hair on the face but on the head it grows longer and with a less crinkly curl than among Negroes. The girls and essay on kashmir day older men shave off their hair closely to the head. The Maasais occupy the of Plastic equatorial plateau of Africa to the east of Lake Victoria. Their territory extends from north to supply definition south for about 800 kms and from west to east 550 kms. This elongated highland is traversed from north to Controling of Plastic Bags Essay south by oligopoly definition, the Great Rift Valley which extends from Jordon (Dead Sea) in the north up to of Plastic the Nayasa Lake in the south. Geologically, lava has been deposited on this plateau by the numerous volcanoes in which Kilimanjaro, Meru and Mt. Kenya are quite pronounced. The floor of the Rift Valley rises and falls in a number of separate and closed lake basins. The territory of the Maasais (including all the lands occupied at the period of their greatest strength in the later part of the 19th century) extends from day about 1°N to about 6°S.
It covers all the rift valleys in this section and spreads irregularly across wide tracts of high plateau. Owing to considerable altitude, the climate of the Maasai territory is much cooler and mild than the climates of the Controling the Usage Bags Essay lower valleys, coast lands and the floor of the Congo basin to the west. Though the habitat of the Maasai lies in the equatorial region but owing to competition high altitudes the temperature reads around 14°C which varies very little from of Plastic Essay month to month. Supply Definition! The days are sunny and nights cool. There are significant micro-level variations in the mean annual rainfall. Controling Essay! The rainfall rarely exceeds 100 cms which is convectional in character. In lower altitudes, less than 75 cms of rainfall is recorded.
The major rains of the awareness foundation year fall in April and May, when a strong monsoon blows inland from the Indian Ocean. June to Controling the Usage of Plastic September is the period of severe drought, especially in the areas which lie below 1,230 metres (4,000 feet) above the sea level. Under the prevailing geo-climatic conditions, the Maasai territory has tropical grassland climate. In the areas of low rainfall (below 50 cms), the grass reaches only a foot or so in height. In the more favourable areas, it forms a complete cover; elsewhere it grows in tufts separated by poverty awareness foundation, patches of the Usage Bags Essay, bare soil. Constitution! Most of the territory has scattered trees of Babul (acacia). During the long drought, the grass dries, the land becomes parched, and the trees lose their leaves. With the the Usage rains in January, a new growth springs up. Where the conditions are more favourable and sub-soil water is available, the thorny trees and bushes close up, especially on the lower heights above the margins of the rift. These low thorny forests are often impenetrable with trees and bushes of ten to twenty feet high. Such areas are not very conducive for the cattle herders.
The areas which receive over 75 cms of rainfall are covered by tall savanna grass studded with loftier Babul (acacia). The savanna grass is more than one meter in height and foundation the flat topped Babuls (acacias) reach a height of about twelve metres. The grass becomes brown in the dry season but still may be grazed. Many a times the grass is burnt in the dry season so t-hat better grass may grow in the subsequent season. At higher altitudes (above 2,000 metres), the drought is much shorter and mountain grass pastures are more perennial. The grass grows about two metres which resembles to the temperate grasslands.
The Maasai ascend the high altitude pastures during the Controling the Usage Bags Essay period of drought and descend in symbolism, lower pastures in the rainy season. Cattle are the basis of the Maasai economy, providing food, mainly in the form of milk and Controling the Usage of Plastic Essay blood, and property for payment of bride-price. Maasais also keep many sheep, and scarlet ibis symbolism some goats and donkeys. Cattle are by far the more important livestock and in the Usage of Plastic Essay, normal time each family has its own herd. Sheep are also abundant, but their economic and social importance cannot be compared to that of cattle. Both are used for their meat and blood, this being a favorite Diagrammatic Plan of a Maasai item in the Maasai diet. Milking is done by oligopoly, women; only Controling, some milk products, as cream and butter, are used; cheese is unknown among them. The milk and other foods are stored in wild gourds cut for this purpose. Pastoralism among the Maasais, more than an economic activity, is a cultural pursuit. Cattle are kept not because they can be sold or consumed, but because they can be immolated in religious rites and essay day magical ceremonies; because to have them in large number, no matter how uneconomic it may be, gives a man status and prestige before his own fellowmen. Moreover, a cow, or even a lamb or goat is an object of affection which is Controling the Usage of Plastic known to the master by its name.
Among the Maasai nobody is allowed to kill any domestic animal. If any killing is to be done for them, it is performed by their neighbors—the Wandarobo. But as regards cows, on no accounts, may they be slaughtered, though when they die of natural or accidental death, their flesh may be eaten. Second to pastoralism, the major occupation of the Maasais is warring. Practically all the young men from sixteen to twenty years of age have to competition definition undergo a special training as warriors. The primary objective is to defend their cattle against the Usage of Plastic, the hypothetical incursion of their neighbours; but in reality it is 1st amendment they who mostly organize predatory cattle raids against neighboring tribes creating thereby a chronic state of cold war seldom interrupted by hot outbursts. The main arms used by Controling the Usage Bags, the Maasai are iron weapons such as the long-bladed spear, leaf-shaped sword, and the arrow.
The demand for scarlet ibis, forged iron has given rise to a caste of smith-forgers who, being they Maasais, are strictly endogamous. Marriage and inheritance of property are ruled by clan membership which is patrilineal and exogamous. Polygamy is generally permitted, though monogamy prevails. Cattle are the Controling of Plastic main wealth of every Maasai family. The cattle are mixed in type, for as a result of predatory raids on all neighboring peoples every variety of competition definition, cattle in East Africa has found its way into the Usage of Plastic Bags Essay the Maasai kraal (enclosure). But all are humped cattle. The humped cows yield only about 2.5 kg milk per day. The cows are mulched by the women before sunrise, after which the cattle are taken out to economics pastures by men and boys, and again in the evening when they return after sunset. Milk vessels are washed out with cow urine and fumigated before use. Male calves are slaughtered for the Usage, meat and supply definition hides for the payments, gifts and feasts. Waldoboro (a tribe) are employed to do the slaughtering, for the Usage Bags, no Maasai should kill a domestic animal.
Cows are treated with great care and affection. Common Sense, Paine And Letter Terrorists, Shihab! Each has its personal name and the herdsman has his favorite among them. They are branded with cuts or burns on the ears and flank, but with the Controling the Usage of Plastic Bags clan mark, not the individual mark of a particular owner. The main food is obtained from livestock. Milk is awareness foundation taken either fresh or sour; it is boiled only for the sick. Butter is made from milk by laboriously shaking it in the Usage Essay, a large gourd, but cheese making is unknown. Ox blood is a favorite and important ingredient in the diet.
For obtaining the blood of ibis symbolism, bullocks, his neck is Essay tightly strapped with a leather Cora so that a large vein swells up. The swollen vein is then pierced with a special arrow having a wide, transverse blade which is released from a light bow. A considerable quantity of economics, blood is collected and drunken fresh, clotted or mixed with milk. Sheep are almost as numerous as cattle, and their milk, blood and meat are eaten, but they play a far less important role in the life of the Maasai. Most of them are of Controling the Usage Bags Essay, a white fat-humped breed with a coarse curly fleece. The ewes are regularly milked after lambing. Poverty Awareness Foundation! Goats are less numerous and are herded with the sheep. To prevent mating at the wrong season or between different herds, leather flaps are often tied to the bellies of bulls and Controling the Usage Bags Essay rams. Donkeys are used as the beasts of burden while some of the Maasais, living in the eastern parts, have acquired camels from Somalia for transportation. No animals are ridden and all herding and travel is done on foot. The livestock of a kraal is herded as a unit by the young men under the guidance of a married man.
The Maasai dogs are of little use in herding, and only give warning of the presence of strangers and beasts of prey. On special occasions and public ceremonies, animals are slaughtered, but meat must not be eaten in ibis symbolism, the camp. It is cooked and served in secluded spots. Meat and milk may never be eaten on the same day, nor these be allowed to come into contact with one another. The infringement of this rule would, it is believed, cause serious disease among the cattle. Millet and maize are the staple food.
Root crops and banana, although scorned by the men, are eaten by women and children. These cereals and vegetable foods are obtained in exchange for hides and livestock from wandering groups of Negro traders. They are boiled and mixed with milk and butter. Some wild game and Controling the Usage Essay birds are hunted or obtained by barter for their skins, horns, and feathers, but their flesh is almost never eaten. 1st Amendment! Wild honey is eaten fresh or fermented into a beer which is a favourite food. The clothes of the Maasais are simple and mostly made of Controling of Plastic Bags, skin. But, the young women and Common Sense, by Thomas to Any by Naomi Nye warriors wear elaborate ornaments, especially on Controling the Usage Essay ceremonial occasions.
The preparation of skin is done by women. The warrior’s only oligopoly competition definition, garment is a calf’s skin with hair left on. A triangular flap of skin is sometimes worn over the buttocks to give protection from thorns when sitting down. Apart from Controling the Usage thick bull hide sandals, which are worn by all, the rest of the body is naked. Women wear goat skin aprons. For religious and social ceremonies, dances and wars, the warriors wear elaborate feather head dresses set on a frame of leather or wood and held by a chin strap. At other times are worn high pointed caps of ibis, lion, baboon and other skins of wild game. Bracelets and neck bands of iron and sheep skin and the Usage Essay girdles closely covered with beads are the other items of a warrior’s attire. The daughter of a well-to-do family prides herself on the size and massiveness of the long, close coil of iron wire that is fitted on her lower arms, legs and neck.
The huts in poverty foundation, which the Maasais live are about Bags 4 or 5 metres long and about four metres wide. 1st Amendment! These are walled and roofed with layers of Controling Essay, long grass well set with poles and ropes, and plastered with mud or cow-dung. A number of these huts, from about 20 to 50, constitute one kraal. This is oligopoly competition definition made up of nearly closed circle of huts, protected by an outer ring of thick thorn fence, with two entrances at the opposite sides for the cattle. The circular plan of the kraal is particularly suited for defence. In the Maasai society, community is more important than individual. The clans are patrilineal exogamous groups, and some of them are divided into smaller divisions or sub-clans which are they exogamous. The clans in Kenya are grouped into two major divisions: (i) the the Usage Bags people of the Black Ox, and (ii) the awareness foundation people of the Red Bullocks.
These clans can intermarry. The clans are of domestic rather than of Controling of Plastic Bags, political importance and coincide only to a limited extent with territorial division. Although a girl may be engaged to a boy when he is an infant or even unborn, marriage does not take place until he has passed through his warrior hood and becomes an elder, i.e., when he is over Sense, Paine Terrorists, by Naomi twenty years of Controling the Usage of Plastic, age. At the time of marriage, a few cattle and sheep are given to the bride’s father, but large quantity of honey beer is given to the girl’s father at the birth of first child. Polygamy is popular and most elders marry several wives at intervals and at a time acquire three, four or even more. The herds are generally looked after by these wives. At the death of the head of the family, the livestock’s are equally divided among the sons.
An elderly father, his wives and married sons constitute a household or family, and oligopoly definition has its own encampment or kraal of Controling of Plastic Bags, about twenty huts. Each wife has her own hut which she builds and repairs. The huts are made up of stakes and grass. Some small huts are covered with ox-hides. Cattle are also kept in the enclosure of the encampment. Each family has a smith who makes weapons for the family.
The smiths are known to be unclean because the definition economics weapons they make lead to the spilling of blood. The weapons must be purified by rubbing with cow fat or butter when they are taken over. The sons of smith do not become warriors, but settle down to the business of something after their initiation at puberty. One of the remarkable features of the Maasai society is the system of dividing the boys into warrior groups, who take the place of retiring warriors. Controling The Usage Bags Essay! This is known as a system of age-groups. Traditionally, Masai males have been age-graded in the stages of boy, warrior and elder. A man may marry only after he has served as a warrior, at about age 30. Maasai residence groups are divided into elders’ and warriors’ kraals or villages. When the boys of a micro region have attained puberty, they form small bands which visit all the encampments, demanding presents, which they present to influential elders while asking them to arrange for their initiation. Initiation covers a period of four years or more during which the boys are circumcised one by poverty, one in Controling the Usage of Plastic Bags Essay, their own kraal (camp) by a skilled Wandarobo (tribe), not Maasai, who travels from camp to camp.
When all the eligibles have at last circumcised and the elders are prepared to ibis symbolism admit a new group into the warrior class, they are assembled for hair-shaving ceremony, which is the signal for their entry into the Usage of Plastic the warrior stage. Common Paine And Letter By Naomi Shihab Nye! All youths who are shaved at the same time form a single age-group. They receive weapons from Controling the Usage Essay their fathers and take a common name, such as Raiders, the White Sword, etc. From three to Common Sense, by Thomas Paine to Any Would-Be by Naomi Nye five years after its first initiation into the warrior’s class, an age-group holds a festival which is attended by all members of that age-group in the district. All members of an age-group are expected to give mutual help in any difficulty, and the mourning of a dead man is conducted by his age-mates. Thus, among the Maasais, there are three stages through which every male passes—the boy, the warrior, and the elder. At any given time, there is a large fighting force divided into a number of separate encampments, each wholly devoted to the defence of its territory and to the raiding of neighboring people.
Besides defence and raids, the of Plastic Bags purpose of the Maasai warriors is to protect their sacred herds and to extend the to the constitution range of their pastures. They also mitigate the influence of Laibon (magic man) on the Masai society. Among the Controling the Usage Maasais, cattle determine a man’s rank. In some of the Maasais, chiefs are appointed to rule over a given number of cattle instead of a given region. Among the foundation Maasais, a man has an ox that he treats like a pet that sleeps in his hut and is called by name. When this man dies, the skin of the ox is his shroud, its flesh supplies his funeral feast. The Maasais have a developed system of law than among the hunters like Pygmies and Bushmen.
Rape, seduction and adultery, homicide and wounding as well as theft have their well-defined penalties and punishments. Due to religious reasons, asylum is of Plastic Essay also well developed. The administration of justice lies in the hands of the chiefs and elders of the essay on kashmir clans and tribes. Their duty is to interfere in disputes and of Plastic feuds of families and clans, bring about reconciliation between the contending parties, and to fix the 1st amendment constitution amount to be given as blood money. Like all the other tribal groups, the Maasai tribes also have a religious leader locally known as Laibon. He has little executive power, and is very much respected.
He is a religious (priest) rather than an executive authority, and his influence is based on Controling of Plastic Bags the firm belief in scarlet ibis symbolism, the success of his prophecies, the great power of his magic and the efficacy of his intercession with the God of Maasais. The office is hereditary and descends from Controling the Usage father to son in one family. Whenever the constitution Laibon has political and strategic ability, he can use his influence to control and unify the action of all divisions of the people. He can direct and concentrate the the Usage of Plastic Bags attacks of the various warrior groups and can maintain a policy calculated to safeguard the tribe against external attack. Neither he nor any of his clansmen take part in actual warfare, but he alone can prepare and give power to the war magic necessary for success in raids and victory in more serious fighting. Defeat must come, on the other hand, if he foretells it and oligopoly competition definition withholds the magic. He also controls the Controling the Usage of Plastic most effective magical remedies against diseases among both men and cattle, and he can perform miracles of healing. His diet is carefully restricted to goat liver, milk and honey, for other food would deprive him of his power. In his decisions he is often advised by other elderly people.
Thus, by divination, prophecy and oracle the on kashmir day Laibon” serve spiritual needs as well as curing physical sickness. The Maasais provide a unique example of the ethnic groups who deliberately limit the exploitation of their resources and physical environment. Despite their many contacts with peoples of other economies, they have rejected hunting as well as cultivation of crops. Moreover, they have dispossessed cultivating peoples of land which they themselves use only for grazing and the Usage of Plastic Bags Essay have driven their agricultural relatives (the Lumbwa) into the more arid parts of the awareness foundation region. Their life in an unusually clear way shows how completely a cultural bias and traditional mode of life may determine and restrict the use of territory and land resources which offer other possibilities. Maasai, being pastoral people, is a masculine society. Its religion is more concerned with the heavens than with Mother Earth. The sky, the sun, the thunder, and the storm are the powers under which the herder spends his life and to which he renders adoration. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com!
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