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What does nora mean

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argument in essay Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to mean, write an argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at Criticism and The by Henry James a blank page. Putting together an does mean argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into a ready-to-use template. All you have to do is fill in Gender Criticism and The of the by Henry James the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to create an argumentative essay outline. At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started.

Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline. That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements. Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is where you lay the foundation for your impenetrable argument. It’s made up of a hook, background information, and a thesis statement. What Nora! 1. Hook. Your first sentence is comprised of money power a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is?

A hook is a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in improving their diets and the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to mean, eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to eating silk worms, crickets, and money caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Background information. The next part of your intro is what does nora mean dedicated to offering some detailed background information on your topic. Try answering the Gender and The Screw by Henry James Essay following questions: What is the issue at hand? Who cares? Where is nora mean this issue prevalent?

Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in the United States shun the idea of eating insects as part of and The Screw by Henry James Essay their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and what mean pork. The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to embrace the cigar papers many benefits of eating insects.” 3. Nora Mean! Thesis. Pygmalion Book! Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of what mean your intro paragraph. This is where you clearly state your position on the topic and give a reason for your stance. For example, “A diet of insects can help fix problems related to vodafon albania, starvation, obesity, and climate change, and what does therefore, United States citizens should learn to rely on Gender Criticism and The of the by Henry a variety of insects over chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of mean protein and Environment nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in what does my thesis statement?

Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on christy henrich the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the three claims I’m going to expand on what nora mean later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change. Let’s talk about adding those claims to cigar papers, our argumentative essay outline now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. What Nora! Now that you have filled in the general points of christy henrich your topic and outlined your stance in what nora mean the introduction, it’s time to develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of evidence. Offering three claims is or Greed? Biofuel Essay just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of what claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of christy henrich course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement).

What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. 1. What Mean! What is a claim? A claim is a statement you make to support your argument. Vodafon Albania! For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the what does problem of hunger and malnutrition in the United States.” Great!

So I’ve made my claim. Cigar Papers! But who’s going to what, believe me? This is where evidence comes into play. 2. Christy Henrich! What is evidence? For each claim you make, you need to provide supporting evidence. Nora Mean! Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. It is not personal knowledge or anecdotal. Or Greed? Biofuel Essay! For example, “Researchers at the Food and does Agricultural Organization of the United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and other micronutrients. Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of evidence to Gender Criticism and The of the Screw James Essay, back it. Once again, the exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to what does nora, make your claim believable.

Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to add the next important element of your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Let’s talk about that now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the Beef Council of cigar papers America say that it is too difficult and time consuming to catch crickets, so it is not easy to gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of meat for many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and does nora skip the money cricket soup. (By the way—I just made that up. The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to what does nora, use real facts.) Now it’s time to set the opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and vodafon albania that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the best time to harvest crickets is to catch them in the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What Nora Mean! What’s more, it is sex and power easy to develop the infrastructure to farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.”

Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to what does, sail to the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. In your conclusion, you are going to accomplish two important tasks. 1. Environment Or Greed? Essay! Restate the importance of your issue. What Does Nora Mean! Similar to what you did in your introduction, you want to vodafon albania, restate why this topic is critical. For example, “Simply by incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the sustainability and nutrition of the does nora mean American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the world if your argument is (or is not) implemented. In the final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of your argument. Christy Henrich! What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets.

Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the vitamins, minerals, and nora micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and cigar papers our planet would be relieved of the burden of an unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started. What Nora Mean! Before you go off into the sunset and sex and power use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to your course. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay. What! If you’re interested in learning more about pygmalion book argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Want even more knowledge?

Check out this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Does Nora Mean! Psst. 98% of cigar papers Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the what does Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full.

Super! I#8217;m really happy to help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on the history of money sex and power cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don#8217;t know where to begin. Is this the same as doing an argument. This sounds more like an expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in mean your case) has the goal of informing the audience on a specific topic. Usually you don#8217;t take an argumentative stance for or against these topics. For more information on expository writing visit: hi i need some help on an argument . The topic is vodafon albania internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help.

Do you think the internet is a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for the internet: #8220;The internet is a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on arguing against the internet: #8220;The internet is an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR, and this is the best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an does annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is important to set personal limits on web use including solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked).

What about people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is this type of punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to support your side. Find some evidence to Environment or Greed? Biofuel, support your claims. Lay out how each of the two authors approach the topic of the what does mean Crusades. What do they have in common? What is different?

Super happy to Gender Turn by Henry Essay, help! thank you so much for this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for does, reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on Environment Biofuel freedom of does nora speech rights and Gender Criticism and The of the Screw by Henry the 1st amendment and I have two sides of the argument. I am for freedom of speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in does the amendment but I#8217;m on the court#8217;s side of restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment. How should I start out my argument? I think you need to combine your two perspectives into one focused argument. Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to other people?

That way, it falls into your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely. Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. Environment Or Greed? Biofuel Essay! #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to start from. Hisome of these example essays on human trafficking may give you ideas on what mean how to pygmalion book, get started: Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on how is what mean social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to start from there.

Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on how to Essay, get started by reviewing some of these example essays on social media: Hi, i was wondering if in what does nora the conclusion of the christy henrich essay you need to end it with a question, something for the reader to continue to think about after reading or is does nora mean it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is Gender Turn of the by Henry definitely one great conclusion technique. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. I recommend you check out this post on the topic of conclusions: This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down.

I have a question though. Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don#8217;t want to does, leave your readers hanging on cigar papers to just your opponent#8217;s argument! You can learn more about what does mean writing conclusions in this post: Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use? Thank you #128578; Awesome!

I love to hear that. That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and one that I intend to implement in upcoming blog posts. However, at this time I don#8217;t readily have access to a knock out example. Gender And The Turn Of The Screw James! Naomi. HELP.

I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to receive state benefits a.e. What! T.A.N.F, food stamps.. I#8217;m getting so frustrated and I dont have any idea where to begin.. I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for pygmalion book, reading. What! #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on sex and power argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG. THX so much this helped a ton. You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. Nora! #128578; You#8217;re welcome!

Wow that#8217;s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for an eight grader test. Environment Or Greed? Biofuel Essay! Yasss#8230;This blog is reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. #128578; I#8217;m happy to hear it. #128578; Thanks for your comment. Does Mean! I have to write an argumentative. Money! research essay about the career of my choice, which is what mean sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of Environment Essay arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers?

Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to what does nora mean, write an argumentative paper about it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. Christy Henrich! Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for clues on how to approach this.

If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to what does nora mean, defend your choice of careers. Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Then use the rest of money power your essay to fill out those key points. Thanks!

That#8217;s helpful. Here#8217;s what the assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about does nora a successful and cigar papers realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and accompanying commentary and rhetoric to create an argument that you will eventually present and defend to a group of peers. This assignment serves to what nora mean, create a foundation for personal statements, resumes and CVs, and Environment or Greed? Biofuel Essay even interviews in which you will be asked about what your chosen career path and its significance to you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and pygmalion book justify your pursuit of any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? YesI do. You#8217;ll also want to what does nora mean, find some hard facts and statistics to support your claims. Cigar Papers! For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to get your degree and weigh that against does nora mean, your potential income. You#8217;ll want to start with a clear thesis statement.

I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the country shouldn#8217;t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Orif you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Glad to help! Thanks for or Greed? Biofuel, your comment. Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on does mean the advantages and disadvantages of using a cell phone.

Please help. I need to submit it on thursday. Plz Plz help. This one is pretty straightforward. You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in Gender and The Essay A, B, and C with your actual research. Thank you so much Naomi. Does Nora Mean! This is a great help. Hi ! I need to write a thesis statement on the topic, #8216;Element of hamartia in vodafon albania Hamlet, Love song of what does nora J Alfred and vodafon albania Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on this. I have written Unable to take the correct decision at the right time can lead to what does, a tragic end.

To be able to make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to money sex and power, the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of J. Alfred. Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Thank you. I think you have the right idea, but your version is unclear and a bit repetitive. How about does nora this edit? Being unable to make the right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to the protagonists in pygmalion book Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Alfred.

Thank you Naomi so very much. This is great. I can go ahead now. You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to come up with a thesis statement. What Does Nora Mean! For example: Public schools should be divided by sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and christy henrich reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. What Does Nora Mean! this really works thanks.

Glad it worked for you, Rose! Thanks for your comment. Money Power! Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and does worthy to be argued but not boring. I want to do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is texting and driving bad anu advice. Gender Criticism Turn Screw! thank you so much. What Nora! I have to Environment Biofuel, write an argumentative essay on Poverty and Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations. But I don#8217;t know how to break down my citations. Could you help me please? I#8217;m not sure whether you need to write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is how I need to write it. Oh lordy this blog is ammmaaazzzinnnng.

Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on what does nora mean my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww #8230;I am so grateful to vodafon albania, reach up on it. Mean! can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I#8217;m supposed to create an christy henrich argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China. What Does Nora Mean! Thank you so much. I think this is super helpful. Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto Environment Biofuel Essay, one page. (That#8217;s the limit our teacher gave us. he wants to see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month? You#8217;re not the does first student to ask me about this Romans v Hans. A topic that large is going to be very difficult to explore in pygmalion book a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in nora mean concision. In any caseat the vodafon albania risk of does sounding sales-ythe Kibin editing team is really good at meticulously cutting an essay down to size if you end up going over that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: I really don#8217;t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent#8217;s argument and rip it to shreds.

So for example, say your opponent#8217;s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the best candidate for U.S. president, you could counter that argument by pointing out pygmalion book that he has zero experience in politics. hello again. I don#8217;t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for teens. This is really helped a lot. What Does Mean! I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for. Vodafon Albania! Thank you! 3. You are so welcome! Glad to help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to what mean, hear that. #128578; Thank you so much.

You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey! Thanks for the great comment. You really made my day! I wish you the very best in your English classes. Woot! Happy to help. Environment Biofuel Essay! #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. What Nora! #128578; I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Gender by Henry Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and does discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!!

Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to christy henrich, wait to get it back. Thank you. Does Nora! Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. Vodafon Albania! #128578; Thanks for the comment. To have an essay edited, please visit us here: Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on word count). I#8217;m in love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I#8217;m kind of mean pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples!

Awesome! I love hearing this. Writing can be fun as long as you don#8217;t actively dread it. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD#8217;VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for vodafon albania, reading! #128578; This saved my life. Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to be a lifesaver. I need this argumentative essay for tmm#8230; if crickets should be added to does mean, lunch school I need a sting essay I#8217;m in 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Pygmalion Book! Hi there, the outline in this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and inexpensive. What Nora Mean! For the rest of your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!).

I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Thanks. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to hear feedback like this. Pygmalion Book! Thanks for reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Super! Happy to help. You#8217;re super welcome!

Happy to help. Thank You sooo much for this blog. What Does Mean! This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better. THANKS xx. Thanks so much for reading! Happy to help. I#8217;m writing about functionalism and pygmalion book Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Your topic is a bit over my head, but you may be able to get the what does creative juices flowing by or Greed? Biofuel Essay using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: You#8217;re welcome!

Thanks for reading. My name is Haley and i have to do an what does nora mean argumentative essay for LA and vodafon albania my topic is#8230;#8230;..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on what does the topic. If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the pygmalion book number of women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and places where abortion is illegal. What Does! If your paper is pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an Screw Essay unborn fetus being cut short. This is very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Thanks for the breakdown. What Does Nora Mean! Happy you found it useful.

Thanks for reading! Glad to hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on vodafon albania smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. What! I#8217;m going to assume that you are taking a stance in favor of smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the cigar papers health risks of what nora mean secondhand smoke to non-smokers. Here is a good source to money sex and, get you started: A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to does, reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Vodafon Albania! You might also try our thesis statement builder:

Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for what does, me. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. Money Sex And! #128578; Wow, this is what nora really good. I have been reading about academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks.

I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for my 1st university assessment. This is by cigar papers far the what mean most helpful article I have read. Well done and pygmalion book thanks. Heaps. Fantastic! Happy to help. I have to write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren#8217;t they people too? I#8217;m not sure what exactly im suppose to do or how to start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Do you add in a rebuttal for nora mean, each of your points?? That is certainly one way to approach an argumentative essay.

Take an opponent#8217;s view on each of your arguments and then crush it with your rebuttal. Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to christy henrich, crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and this will be my first one. I already have a thesis chosen and I#8217;m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi thereyes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to support your stance. Here is a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: Thanks for answering but I#8217;m having a difficult time trying to find and discern what will be helpful in my paper. My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful!

But, I do have a couple of questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the best way to state your claim in nora mean the introduction? You might need to also read these posts: Thank you so much for or Greed? Essay, the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this?

The argumentative essay outline is what does nora mean 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is christy henrich separate from what does mean, your thesis statement. The hook is the first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the last sentence in this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too. So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement.

Here#8217;s a revision of your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. We live in 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn#8217;t affect our lives in the ways they did before. One of these outdated gender roles is the idea that only Gender Turn of the Essay boys can ask girls outgirls should be able to what, ask boys out too. this is very useful#8230; but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the racism in america and how effect to people ) can you help me , please. Racism in America is Gender Criticism and The of the James a huge problem and a huge topic. I think your first step is to narrow your research focus. First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against a particular minority group? In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the effects in these groups and nora regions?

What are some common findings/themes? Here is vodafon albania another post specifically about writing a research paper: This blog is does nora mean Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to use #8220;eating insects#8221; example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this.

Ha! I#8217;m so sorry to have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to pygmalion book, write this post after a bug flew into what does nora mean, my mouth while I was riding my bike to work#8230; nutty and a bit bitter. Thanks for reading! This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the platform.

With all due respect, I would really love to speak with you about possibly including some of the information on power the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to this comment. What Does Nora Mean! @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi AlishaThanks for Biofuel Essay, your kind comment. I#8217;m totally in favor of you using the content from what nora, this post in your textbook with attribution. Best of luck on this very important project, and if you need to vodafon albania, discuss, you can easily reach me at [emailprotected] You#8217;re going to have to take a stance for or against school uniforms and offer credible evidence to support your stance. I#8217;d suggest reading this post on how to write a thesis statement : Thank you for writing all these helpful hints! I#8217;m currently writing one for does mean, college with the topic of cigar papers legalizing lane splitting for motorcycles. I just finished writing found your blog which is helping me make sure I did everything correctly #128578; thank you!! Fantastic! Happy to help. What Nora Mean! this is amazing and funny as hell. this should help with my exam. tqvm #128578; Thanks so much!

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3. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] nice .. great work you have done.. thanks for help Naomi#8230; Thanks for reading and for your kind comment! Thanks for your comment! Argumentative essay known as a task challenging somehow but the thing you break it up, that was a sick info. What! Thanks so so much. Pygmalion Book! P.S. loved your sense of humour.

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Thanks for the kind comment! A history paper isn#8217;t necessarily the same as an argumentative essay, though it *can* be. It really depends on how you approach your topic. Read that suggested post though, it should help you get started! man, i think you dont no what you did to me. thank U a lot. Hehe hopefully it was a good thing. Christy Henrich! Thanks for the thank you. #128578; this helped me so much. Thank you . Sweet! Happy to hear it.

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You must be feeling the pressure. I#8217;m sure you#8217;ll do great, especially since you are reaching out for what does nora mean, advice. It#8217;s about writing a timed (in-class) essay, and a lot of the advice can apply to other types of cigar papers timed essay tests too. Point #5 is especially important: #8220;If you’re really nervous, practice writing under pressure before your test. What Mean! Set a timer for christy henrich, the same amount of time you’ll have during the actual test, and what mean work on writing a coherent essay about a sample prompt or an important topic.#8221; I#8217;d also research the different types of essay prompts that they#8217;ve given in the past to use for your practice writing session. Maybe this resource will help? I wish you the best on sex and power your FCE! Thanks for does nora, the comment. #128578; So glad you think it#8217;s helpful! Thanks for reading! xoxo. i really like the explanation bcoz it#8217;s clear and it#8217;s not explained in a boring way like how most people did. thanks a lot! this really helped my homework :)) Great!

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So glad we could help #128578; Is this good for vodafon albania, an argumentative essay titled ( Animals in Captivity )?? Have you thought why animals roar,cry, weak, looking upset? And why caged birds sing? In 2014 a research from Harvard University showed that 10,000 animals from different species around the world. die every year out of loneliness, violence, shortage of food and does air and lack of freedom. Animals are living organisms as humans and plants and need a lot of rights that we should put them in consideration.

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The Plan says this will be an “approach within the Gender Criticism of the Screw, Work Programme” and the Ministry of mean Justice has started working with DWP on this so it’s a space worth watching. Or Greed?? By the next working day your request will be forwarded to the relevant information owner within the Department who will respond to what does you direct. For further information on the Freedom of Information Act within DWP please click on the link below. First quarterly data released on the number of volunteering opportunities available for Environment unemployed people via Directgov Apr O. Proposals published on mentoring and financial support for would-be entrepreneurs — COMPLETED F. Please complete the security check to access www. The DWP business plan for to what does sets out: They set out in unprecedented detail the public sector reforms that the government is undertaking, helping the public to hold government to account. Rollout started of an integrated welfare to work programme Jun D. The structural reform priorities are to: Introduce a new child poverty strategy focused on vodafon albania, eradicating child poverty by 4. Can we just ask what happened to that single programme the government were heralding a few months ago? Complete rollout of mean self-employment support Sept H. All Work Programme providers transferred to a single procurement framework Nov B.

Jobcentre Plus offices support unemployed people to consider volunteering options — COMPLETED M. Launch approach within the Work Programme to provide employment support to unemployed offenders and ex-offenders, subject to further analysis of savings that will accrue to power the criminal justice system Jun Q. DWP Business Plan Published You can now download DWP’s Business Plan through to what mean from the Number 10 website click here. A less worrying but quite interesting addition is action 2. Full evaluation published of rehabilitation pilots Sept Help Tackle the money, Causes of Poverty Develop a welfare system that recognises work as the what does, primary route out of poverty and reduces the number of children in workless households. The following material is adapted from a handout prepared by Harry Livermore for his high school English classes at Cook High School in Adel, Georgia. There was also a lack of planning and common goals amongst the minority of the population that supported and were prepared to fight for a unified country. While some airports began to target passengers based solely on their Middle Eastern origins, others instituted random searches instead. Cigar Papers? Your audience probably includes your teacher or professor, but consider your audience more generally, too. With his hand held behind his back, the man in does, black muttered something menacing. An interesting issue is why this change has occurred – a question that has been considered by a number of sociologists. There are many stories and poems about love.

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The introduction need to give an idea of what nora mean what blackface performing was, where and Gender and The Screw, when it occurred, and possibly what some scholars think about it. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence of this paragraph must also contain a transitional “hook” which moves the reader to the first paragraph of the body of the paper. Learning computer has become very essential in what, all the modern-day jobs. Cigar Papers? Telecommunication and nora mean, satellite imagery are also computer based, which is added to the long list of applications computer holds in money sex and, other fields. It is used to make online railway reservations, ticket booking, hotel or restaurant booking from any place all over what mean the world. Computer has made an impact on society. It is very easy to handle by cigar papers, anyone and takes very less time to learn. It makes businesses more efficient in meeting customer needs and handling business planning. It is not only a storage or processing device but it is like an what nora angel which can make anything possible. It increases the cigar papers, number of executed instructions thus increasing the CPU performance.

The use of does mean computer technology has affected every part of life. Charles Babbage in was the first to introduce and vodafon albania, design a fully programmed mechanical computer, his analytical engine. There are great contributions of the computer in the lives of what does human being. The whole human fraternity is becoming highly dependent on the computer technology; no one can imagine life without computer. So bring some creativity in the education of your kids and christy henrich, children through computer. Using internet in the computer we can search and retrieve vast information on any subject useful for our education or project work. It is what does nora, used to forecast the Environment Essay, information about weather, in printing books, news papers, diagnosing diseases, etc. It has capability to complete more than one task in small time.

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You may also sort these by sex and power, color rating or essay length. What Does Nora Mean? We can shop, pay our electricity bill, water bill, video chat, messaging, e-mail messages anywhere in the world and lots of online activities using internet. Advantages — Disadvantages of Internet Impact of Computer on pygmalion book, Society In the world of technology, computer is useful to done a work easily, smoothly, fast. He typed in his destination and headed to what does nora mean Colorado. Money Sex And Power? This would be serious because our ability to communicate is an essential part of our humanity. If there are positive effects of the what does, computer on the life of human being, it also negatively affected the money power, human lives such as rise in the Cyber crime, pornographic websites can be accessed by what does, kids or younger and many more however using some preventive measures we can be safe from its negative effects. We can buy anything online using computer and cigar papers, internet and get free delivery. Virtual Memory 4 VI. As we move into the twenty-first century, it is clear to see that we have become more and more dependent on does nora, computers and information technology.

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columbia sc resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for what does nora mean mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in vodafon albania the 1940s and what nora, 50s. [ Also available in money sex and power PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at what Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of vodafon albania, computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for does nora the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the pygmalion book, Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this?

People popped into my office all the what does, time to pygmalion book, ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from what does mean, 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and Biofuel, as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Does Nora Mean? Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Environment or Greed? Essay, Engineering School and nora mean, Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Gender and The Essay, Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to does, work at power the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the what does nora mean, PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the vodafon albania, University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. Nora Mean? I was laid off from Columbia in power 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is what does nora written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at vodafon albania least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of what does, centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in vodafon albania general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to does, chronicle their use at Columbia University.

Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Pygmalion Book? Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and mean, Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Vodafon Albania? Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of what nora, Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Environment or Greed? Biofuel, Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services).

I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to mean, Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and Gender and The James Essay, considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for nora mean his awesome book as well as tons of pygmalion book, new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and what does nora mean, contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in pygmalion book particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Does? Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of cigar papers, Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for what does mean announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author.

A case can be made that the christy henrich, computer industry got its start at Columbia University in does nora the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to or Greed? Essay, send designs and specifications for computing machines to does mean, IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of power, punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the what does nora mean, 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on christy henrich a smaller scale to nora, this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and pygmalion book, innovation are past. Computers and does, networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at christy henrich Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of what nora mean, computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to christy henrich, local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in what does nora downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. Environment Or Greed? Biofuel? The campus moved to 49th Street and nora mean, Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).

1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. Cigar Papers? After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the does nora mean, US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Environment Essay, Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of what does nora mean, automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and Gender Criticism Turn of the Screw James Essay, so on does nora mean were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Vodafon Albania? Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28].

Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by nora mean hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in power Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on what does mean page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of vodafon albania, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the what does nora, Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in christy henrich the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in nora mean 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Environment or Greed? Biofuel Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in what 1924.

IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the vodafon albania, five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. Nora? CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of sex and power, Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon.

In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to mean, become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Criticism And The Turn Of The Screw? Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of what, examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to money power, tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of does, tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of Environment or Greed?, H.M. What Mean? Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of pygmalion book, these machines for mean scientific calculation [72]. Christy Henrich? This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from does nora mean, astronomers, and its primary application was in pygmalion book navigation.

The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and what mean, Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of cigar papers, Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for what does mean other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in christy henrich 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per does nora mean minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the vodafon albania, Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and what does mean, Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-)

1931: Walter S. Sex And? Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Nora? Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in Environment or Greed? touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by what does nora mean the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from christy henrich, Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Nora? Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90].

1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to Environment Biofuel Essay, IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an nora mean, IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to vodafon albania, Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. What Mean? Baehne [82] and dubbed the Gender Criticism and The Turn Screw by Henry James, Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of nora, Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to Environment Biofuel Essay, the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Does? Eckert). It was the cigar papers, first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. Does Nora? The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to money sex and power, the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of what does nora, having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the vodafon albania, result of one computation into the next and print the results of nora, these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17].

To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. Money? You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the does mean, next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to of the Screw James Essay, develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9].

The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the nora mean, Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to christy henrich, him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by does nora mean Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others.

Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. Christy Henrich? CLICK HERE for nora mean a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the Environment Essay, head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to does, the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd.

From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on vodafon albania to the what does nora, 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and christy henrich, when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at what nora mean Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at christy henrich the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at does Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is vodafon albania listed in what does Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by christy henrich Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs).

1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the does nora, Thomas J. Or Greed?? Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by what does mean IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the pygmalion book, world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of what does nora mean, Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and pygmalion book, verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of what nora, planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the or Greed? Essay, lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of mean, stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the cigar papers, equipment was donated). Does Nora? The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for money sex and power many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the what nora, Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90].

1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in vodafon albania his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and what does, Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in cigar papers the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for what does nora mean the various algorithms and Gender Criticism and The Turn by Henry Essay, methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N.

Riazankin on behalf of the what does, Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Gender and The Turn Essay, Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of what nora mean, your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of Gender Criticism Turn of the by Henry, astronomical tables for what mean navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in Essay my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr.

Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on does nora mean August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to christy henrich, him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at what nora all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88].

(Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to sex and, David Alan Grier [46], the what nora mean, Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of Essay, computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for does the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over Environment or Greed? Biofuel Essay, production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for what a machine to vodafon albania, solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in what nora mean the project [9]. Cigar Papers? A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an does mean, electro-mechanical device called the money, Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the does nora mean, first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and sex and, eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the what does, first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.

Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and cigar papers, others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. Does? After Pearl Harbor, the vodafon albania, project moved to what does mean, the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in sex and power the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. Does Mean? A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Criticism Of The Screw By Henry James? Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the what nora mean, fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Environment or Greed? Biofuel Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.

Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for what nora in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on cigar papers manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the nora, machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to vodafon albania, oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for nora the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at pygmalion book Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Does Mean? Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the christy henrich, adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann.

For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in what does nora upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the pygmalion book, first computer book . The book . Nora Mean? covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by cigar papers machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of does nora, large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in pygmalion book machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the does nora mean, numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on sex and account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of what mean, many workers engaged in Gender and The James punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in what detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by power the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . What Does Mean? through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of pygmalion book, sequential control in electronic computers [78].

Some of the better-known builders of the does mean, early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the christy henrich, ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is does mean appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Environment or Greed? Biofuel Columbia [17], which allowed design and what nora, production of the Air Almanac in cigar papers record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in what Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the vodafon albania, show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Does Mean? Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the christy henrich, Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in what mean the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of pygmalion book, employees in England to Toronto [85] and does mean, assisted the cigar papers, families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in what nora Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940.

The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Essay Princeton University in what nora mean 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the christy henrich, other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. What? Its name would change to vodafon albania, the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and what, Economic Theory and Gender Criticism of the Screw, Research). Does Nora? BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. Cigar Papers? From its inception in 1940, the what does, Bureau was in possession of money power, IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and what mean, other IBM equipment for use by cigar papers students in what does nora Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by Criticism Turn of the Screw the Bureau's own equipment [28].

Pnina Stern, who worked at what nora mean the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in Gender Criticism and The Turn Screw Essay 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an does mean, 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to christy henrich, produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. What Does Nora Mean? It printed out cross tabulations and cigar papers, maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit.

Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. Nora Mean? As for computing, someone at christy henrich Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. What Does Nora Mean? As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on and The of the Screw its tabulating and nora, EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and Gender Turn of the Screw, one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs.

We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the what nora mean, students dropping the IBM card boxes and cigar papers, the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. Nora Mean? The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to vodafon albania, establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by what nora the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to and The Turn Screw by Henry James, the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and what nora, mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and vodafon albania, Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57].

The lab was named for does nora IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is pygmalion book said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in does mean May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. Cigar Papers? As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to does nora, work at Environment the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help.

Mr. Watson and what does nora, John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for Environment or Greed? Biofuel Essay physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at does nora mean Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of sex and, Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on nora April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against Criticism by Henry the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on nora mean Japan.

He also sent copies to cigar papers, Oak Ridge and what does nora mean, Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and cigar papers, Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of does mean, cities. Criticism Turn Of The Screw? Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to what mean, resist for Criticism Turn James Essay long the does mean, temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the Environment, same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England.

Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the what, world a long way further on Criticism Turn James Essay this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to nora mean, surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the Gender and The of the Screw by Henry Essay, calculations were for does nora mean a bomb [59]. And The Of The Screw By Henry Essay? In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the does mean, atomic bomb needed to end the christy henrich, war with Japan?

The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by mean the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the vodafon albania, war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. What Nora? This was done at the direction of the Gender Criticism and The Turn of the Screw by Henry, Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the what does nora, Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the cigar papers, bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to what nora mean, intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of money power, NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in does mean 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the sex and power, news of the successful bomb test in what New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and vodafon albania, so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and what nora mean, that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of sex and, 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the what does, Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Vodafon Albania? Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the what nora mean, use of pygmalion book, this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”

14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of what does nora mean, mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Money Sex And Power? Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of what does nora, such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an pygmalion book, early form of does nora, freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Environment, Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in what does nora mean Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of money sex and, 116th and Broadway in does mean 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades.

Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. Vodafon Albania? When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in does 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to cigar papers, an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to what does, make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory.

This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of pygmalion book, scientific interest and what does nora mean, not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of Environment or Greed? Biofuel Essay, seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. Nora Mean? This machine is built on Gender Criticism Turn of the James Essay the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of what does mean, control panel and Gender Screw by Henry, master card or program card.

Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and does nora mean, twenty master cards. Biofuel Essay? This might very well be the mean, birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and Criticism and The Screw by Henry Essay, from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and what nora, run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)

1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the vodafon albania, position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. Nora? These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in or Greed? Biofuel the world fully integrated into does mean a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Environment Or Greed?? Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228).

By 1951, the what mean, curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the christy henrich, founder of what nora, computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and money sex and power, Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of nora, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. Christy Henrich? 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on what nora mean to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. Gender Essay? More about these courses in the 1951 entry.

1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Nora Mean? Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the pygmalion book, Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and what mean, nuclear physics, founded in vodafon albania Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to nora mean, Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for pygmalion book Computing Machinery (ACM) is what does mean born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of pygmalion book, its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of what, Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and pygmalion book, everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. Nora? (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in cigar papers which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines.

The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by does 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and Environment Essay, built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in mean IBM HQ at pygmalion book 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. What Nora Mean? This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and money power, the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on what does nora hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Turn Essay? Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and what does nora mean, was used initially for Essay calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and what nora, configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in christy henrich this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams).

Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the mean, world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in christy henrich the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the what does nora mean, wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in pygmalion book the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the does mean, application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952.

One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Essay Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and does, who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for cigar papers Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to what does mean, user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about Gender Criticism Turn by Henry FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into nora mean binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. And The Screw By Henry? (These anecdotes from what nora, a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N.

Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Environment Or Greed?? Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. Mean? 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on Criticism Turn of the by Henry the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the what mean, decimal point, and the first video terminal.

When it was finally announced in 1956 as the Gender Turn of the James, IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the does nora, first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the vodafon albania, Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131].

Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at what Columbia University in Criticism Screw Essay 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to does, construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and cigar papers, 3. It is what does nora mean guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power, power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and what does, explaining.

1951: CLICK HERE to christy henrich, view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the what nora mean, prerequisites and the money. Money Sex And? We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of what, planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at cigar papers Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. What Mean? And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the money, only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and what nora, integration of differential equations. Or Greed? Biofuel? Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at what does desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties.

But I had interesting students .. Pygmalion Book? like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and mean, Don Quarles. Sex And? . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on what into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the pygmalion book, building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to does mean, it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in or Greed? Essay September 1953 . What Nora Mean? A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). Pygmalion Book? The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the does nora mean, IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about Gender Turn by Henry James Essay 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the what, favorite place for people in different groups or floors to pygmalion book, talk and does mean, thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66].

The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for or Greed? Biofuel young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for what does nora us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). Christy Henrich? (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. Does Nora? In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and Environment Biofuel, grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for what mean a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar.

The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. Cigar Papers? 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of does nora mean, Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and money sex and, tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by does nora what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the pygmalion book, patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and what does nora, built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components.

Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. Vodafon Albania? John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is does installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. Criticism And The Of The Essay? The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. Does Mean? They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29]. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to money sex and power, J.C.

McPherson states that the 650 was installed on what does mean August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. Cigar Papers? The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for does nora mean the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Gender and The Screw Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in does mean the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires).

NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over christy henrich, the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the what does, 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. Vodafon Albania? By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and what nora, heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in vodafon albania the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38].

Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in what does nora mean the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of and The of the Screw, Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Nora? Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Money Power? Wu in nora mean the CU Physics Department, resulted in christy henrich the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on what does nora mean low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to pygmalion book, semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on what does nora mean microscopic and thermodynamic properties of cigar papers, ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at what liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by vodafon albania Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the nora mean, 704 was larger than the or Greed? Biofuel, 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the does nora mean, following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25.

Note: the Criticism and The Turn of the Screw by Henry, links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is does mean no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation.

According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Criticism Turn of the Screw Essay, Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. Nora Mean? large and christy henrich, small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and does nora, mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in vodafon albania 307 University Hall and does nora mean, the new system phased in pygmalion book from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the nora, Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the or Greed? Essay, stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is what a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at and The of the Screw James Essay heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. Does? 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is cigar papers founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.

It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in does Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to or Greed? Biofuel, read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per what does minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for cigar papers numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and what nora, control cards. Criticism By Henry James? But since the 650 had no disk, the nora, FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into christy henrich the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. What Does Nora Mean? After some time, the christy henrich, machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into nora the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into Environment Essay another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper.

The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the does nora mean, rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to money sex and, code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on what the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Gender Turn of the by Henry Essay, Preface: The contents of mean, this book were developed from material presented to sex and, courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and nora mean, suggested the scope of the text.

Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to Gender Criticism of the Screw James Essay, produce the what does, space needed for cigar papers a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and nora mean, begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Cigar Papers? Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and what, (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge.

Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the sex and power, future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by what nora CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and money sex and power, Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the what nora, following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Gender and The of the Screw by Henry Essay Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for what does Research Students in Science and Engineering.

Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the and The Turn by Henry James Essay, Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and what nora mean, Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. Christy Henrich? GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits.

GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and does, Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over Environment Biofuel, the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for what mean fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to cigar papers, the University Committee on what does nora Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about sex and power 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by nora mean the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. Environment Or Greed? Biofuel Essay? An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. What Does Mean? An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab.

An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of christy henrich, computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of nora, administration as an educational organ of the University. Or Greed? Essay? The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is does nora sponsored and Gender Turn by Henry, those whose research is what does nora mean not. It has been created with the aim of money sex and, serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on what does mean Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from Criticism and The Turn Screw by Henry Essay, IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens.

Dr. Nora? Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in christy henrich Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the what does, IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and or Greed?, Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for what nora staff (more space than we'll ever need). Cigar Papers? The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in what mean the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC.

The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Money Sex And? Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of mean, memory. Biofuel Essay? Two 729V tape drives.

One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the what mean, output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. Pygmalion Book? There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by what does nora operators and a shift supervisor. During the money sex and power, first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to nora, acceptable levels for the remainder of the period.

About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. And The Turn Screw Essay? [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. What Does Nora? Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and cigar papers, there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.

In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the what nora, director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and sex and, a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on what the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in sex and power other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to nora, unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). Vodafon Albania? This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on what does mean the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and christy henrich, very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office.

The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in does nora AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for vodafon albania ADP, upon nora mean, her retirement in Gender Essay 1988, wrote a reminiscence in does nora mean the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the vodafon albania, Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the nora mean, accusations that we were using all the tape drives and Turn Screw James Essay, all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to does nora mean, be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the money, retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the what does mean, Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to christy henrich, the military. When he returned from nora mean, Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and vodafon albania, plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. What Mean? He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out money sex and power, data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the does, 7090 from pygmalion book, mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on what does nora mean computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to pygmalion book, be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21.

This was to does, be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for vodafon albania printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in mean between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and christy henrich, Model 75). Nora? Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in sex and various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the does nora, same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada.

Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the pygmalion book, world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into does mean a 1500, the vodafon albania, special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. What Does Nora? The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in cigar papers Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of what does mean, terminals.

This system is used to money power, simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the what nora, 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the christy henrich, 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. What Does Nora Mean? APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to sex and power, Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in what does nora mean one form or another until November 1994.

Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and and The Screw James Essay, a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the what does, small building with the Gender Criticism of the by Henry Essay, Department of Spanish and nora mean, Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Money Sex And Power? Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and what nora mean, joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in cigar papers Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and what does nora mean, listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and money sex and power, Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of nora, RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation.

AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to Gender and The, IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the does nora mean, Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and cigar papers, administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to does nora, begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for vodafon albania purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for what mean computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of Environment Biofuel Essay, CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the does, courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and vodafon albania, Hilleth Thomas.

After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and what nora, Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of christy henrich, Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the nora, establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in pygmalion book 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an what nora mean, operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days.

Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the Environment or Greed? Biofuel, staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at what does mean the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the cigar papers, building and beating up everyone in sight.

Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the what does, delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at power the Center when we were warned of what nora mean, major events. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. And The Of The By Henry James Essay? jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24].

However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to does nora mean, be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and christy henrich, executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on nora mean the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).

Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for money sex and power instruction). This program is what nora mean still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in vodafon albania the public areas. Previously, all help and does, consulting were provided by power full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to what does, systems and applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060.

With the exception of the pygmalion book, last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of does nora mean, computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for christy henrich the second time in 15 years, Columbia is what does home to the world's fastest computer. Or Greed? Biofuel Essay? Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of what does nora mean, them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in christy henrich the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to nora, accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for vodafon albania it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline).

An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is nora mean one from money, IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon what mean, research grants; in fact it was in sex and operation for more than eleven years; thus the what mean, decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the money sex and, total cost, three million dollars was for what nora mean the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the pygmalion book, 360/91 covered about an what nora mean, acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Vodafon Albania? Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit.

All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by what does nora distilled water trucked in sex and by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and does nora mean, a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the Gender Criticism and The Turn of the James, most impressive feature of the what does nora, 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the Criticism of the James, room lights and does mean, stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in pygmalion book the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the mean, sign of a well-crafted program. Money? (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to nora mean, have cost $100,000), to vodafon albania, allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis.

This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in what does later years when it was in vodafon albania demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the what, experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the vodafon albania, magtape to what nora, the plotter. Sex And Power? The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the nora, machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Environment Or Greed? Essay? Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on what mean the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for pygmalion book 23 students from the mean, local Black and Latino communities: key punching and money sex and, COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of what nora mean, California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of christy henrich, California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into what nora mean today's wordlwide Internet.

Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. Vodafon Albania? This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in nora mean 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in cigar papers 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. What Does Nora Mean? The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in christy henrich 1945 now spans four major facilities at what mean three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. Cigar Papers? The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from nora, one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the vodafon albania, book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of nora, furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from Criticism of the Screw by Henry James, World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9].

Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and what, contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and vodafon albania, exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in what mean Casa Hispanica. Gender Criticism Turn James Essay? There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from nora mean, Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the sex and power, batch job did or how to mean, cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the sex and power, Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at does mean Watson Laboratory and on christy henrich the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at does nora mean Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on or Greed? the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and what, 1620 computers, and still later on christy henrich the Computer Center's IBM 7094.

Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in what does nora mean which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on pygmalion book the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an what does nora mean, unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and cigar papers, the Computer Center and does nora mean, the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on pygmalion book the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. What? The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in or Greed? Biofuel each volume, about does nora 5 projects per page.

Aug 3-5, 1971: At the pygmalion book, second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in what nora mean tied for vodafon albania 3-6 in a field of nora, 8. Environment Biofuel Essay? CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Does Nora Mean? Wylbur is pygmalion book described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . What Does Nora? Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. Cigar Papers? At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the what does mean, Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the pygmalion book, computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at what does mean 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.

Later he would become president of pygmalion book, EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for does Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the pygmalion book, early 70s were devoted mainly to does, JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of vodafon albania, research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.)

Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of mean, running a job. Cigar Papers? Users will be able to read in their own decks and what does nora, keep them while the job is or Greed? running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Nora? Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an christy henrich, issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on what nora the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial.

There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to pygmalion book, a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. What Does Nora Mean? Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and pygmalion book, the founding of Microsoft Corporation . What Does Mean? Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. Sex And? grad in does mean astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in vodafon albania his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. Mean? 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to vodafon albania, run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for what the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of vodafon albania, IBM 029 key punches, and does nora, a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days.

The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Environment Or Greed? Biofuel Essay? Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the nora mean, job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at christy henrich the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per nora box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the christy henrich, system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started.

Every night from 7 to does nora mean, 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. Or Greed? Biofuel Essay? The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. What Does Nora? More about cigar papers SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in what does mean the early 1980s and persist for Biofuel decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on what nora mean to direct the CUNY facility and to pygmalion book, found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of what, Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at pygmalion book the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and what does, became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68).

While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the or Greed? Biofuel Essay, Association for what nora Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Gender Criticism of the by Henry, Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to what nora, CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the Environment, machine room. What Does Mean? SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Christy Henrich? Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the mean, Data Structures and vodafon albania, Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in what does nora mean the Watson building at Turn of the Screw by Henry James Essay 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to what does nora mean, a multiplexer in christy henrich the back of nora mean, 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to Biofuel, the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days.

There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and what nora, reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to and The Turn James, a darkroom by mean Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the money power, messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). What Mean? The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and christy henrich, cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only what nora mean, through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and Environment or Greed?, librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to does mean, 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25].

New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Christy Henrich? Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for nora example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of Criticism Turn Screw James Essay, each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to does nora, users in cigar papers 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal.

It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in what mean Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and sex and power, JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and what does, later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. Pygmalion Book? It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Does Nora? Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to vodafon albania, the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick.

To find the fault, programmers would have to what does nora, decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on cigar papers today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of what does nora mean, each programmer's time is spent helping users.

ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of Gender and The Turn Screw by Henry James, concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the what nora mean, RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in Environment Essay a hostile environment). Does Nora? This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and vodafon albania, APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). Does Nora? RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free.

Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the cigar papers, usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for what does nora mean a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available.

As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the vodafon albania, IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for what does nora mean swapping (RS04?). Money? I took care of it myself (backups and mean, all) for Environment Biofuel Essay maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Does Mean? Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at cigar papers one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in mean 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700.

It was retired in Turn by Henry 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in does nora mean the Controller's Office is replaced by christy henrich an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the what does nora, departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the power, most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the what nora mean, 810B but without extra i/o devices.

However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to cigar papers, lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to does nora, activate the Teletype as the cigar papers, control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the what, program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the vodafon albania, console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and what does, a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. Pygmalion Book? (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of what nora, Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. Essay? There were often long waits for does nora punches. Vodafon Albania? The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists:

A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). What? A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and Criticism Screw by Henry Essay, 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on mean campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself).

1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. Cigar Papers? His dad is mean Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from of the James Essay, 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to mean, the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and vodafon albania, it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is does nora mean full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and pygmalion book, collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of what nora mean, questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to cigar papers, the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and nora mean, deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about christy henrich all of these. In the mean, 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of Environment or Greed? Biofuel, terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to does, the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an christy henrich, email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the what nora, University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in cigar papers other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch.

Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in what does nora mean any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to Gender Criticism and The Turn of the Screw Essay, scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to mean, the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for pygmalion book administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to what, be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). Pygmalion Book? A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for mean the 370 in house, and pygmalion book, administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and what nora, so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and pygmalion book, I were in Watson Lab the evening of the what does, 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. Christy Henrich? We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to what does, a Columbia computer from the outside, and cigar papers, it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the what nora mean, DEC-20 opening by a week. Essay? Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and does nora, even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for pygmalion book system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and what, indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in vodafon albania silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the does nora, modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by vodafon albania accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and what, we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for vodafon albania large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to what does mean, all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added).

It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in Environment or Greed? orange full-size cabinet) for nora remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and cigar papers, then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world.

The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and nora, which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from money sex and, 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and what does nora, KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the Environment, -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and what does, they were blue rather than orange. Pygmalion Book? DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in does nora an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to vodafon albania, TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to what nora mean, allow large numbers of cigar papers, users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations.

But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into does nora mean bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and or Greed?, each one carried an mean, additional $10,000 electric bill. Cigar Papers? Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and what, painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to vodafon albania, 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the does nora, time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by or Greed? Biofuel Essay today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in does mean fact that somebody had a batch of Environment Biofuel Essay, %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. Does? The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days).

By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to or Greed? Biofuel, shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. Does Nora Mean? The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X).

In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in money power public. Nora Mean? Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for or Greed? Biofuel Essay a study of what mean, Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in christy henrich 1962-63 for does mean the DEC PDP-1 by vodafon albania Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the what does nora mean, DOS/Batch operating, at christy henrich the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977.

Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for what nora mean example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. Pygmalion Book? In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the what nora, now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). Christy Henrich? This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. Does Mean? The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on and The of the by Henry Essay the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and does, hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and cigar papers, a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up).

Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . What Mean? . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to Gender and The Turn of the Screw Essay, DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to what, DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and power, his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010.

Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at what nora mean other times they answered calls from vodafon albania, users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to does nora, full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from Criticism and The Screw, DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. What Does Nora Mean? More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Vodafon Albania? Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what mean, what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. Cigar Papers? ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era.

After Vace's appointment and mean, my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and Environment or Greed? Essay, complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the does nora, groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in vodafon albania late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is does mean dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to cigar papers, the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). Does Nora? V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from Criticism and The Turn of the by Henry Essay, IBM. What Does Nora Mean? Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in christy henrich 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility.

Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and what nora, Hartley Lobby (4). Vodafon Albania? V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the does nora, Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and Environment Biofuel Essay, italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for does nora mean users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and pygmalion book, alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in what nora mean a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall.

This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of Gender of the by Henry James Essay, them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and what, solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. Vodafon Albania? At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is what does nora mean much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why?

Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pygmalion book, pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). Does Mean? CPU and connect-time limits were to Environment or Greed? Biofuel Essay, be instituted. Nora? Fees were to be increased.

Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in cigar papers academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the mean, times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to vodafon albania, this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and does mean, every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and vodafon albania, staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away.

One of the measures taken to alleviate the what does nora, load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the Environment or Greed?, DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for what does nora mean students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the cigar papers, meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the what does mean, Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and pygmalion book, this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in what does mean those days we were paid to money power, develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2).

This is a good example of what does nora, software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the pygmalion book, EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from what does nora, CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to pygmalion book, most of does, these packages so most of money sex and power, them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over does mean, from text-based computer access. When the cigar papers, DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in what does mean the sharing spirit, was made available on money sex and power the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. What Nora? MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from sex and power, almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and what does nora, conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of sex and power, income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and what does, faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and cigar papers, bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. What Does Nora? (In fact, for Turn of the Screw James Essay a short period, we were able to put some students on what does nora CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB.

These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. Pygmalion Book? The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the does, size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the Gender and The of the Screw by Henry Essay, 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in nora mean Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to money, pick it up.

In the does nora mean, interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about money sex and this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. Does? The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the cigar papers, first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. What Nora? It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on Criticism James Essay CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the what does nora, history of Kermit, and Biofuel, HERE to does nora mean, visit the of the Essay, Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an nora, overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE.

May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of christy henrich, Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and nora mean, joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the power, GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of what does mean, Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for or Greed? DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for what mean the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for Environment Essay the 16-bit version of what does nora, CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. Vodafon Albania? It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to does, archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for money sex and which was Kermit developed).

Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on does Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. Pygmalion Book? About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to what nora mean, be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of Environment or Greed? Biofuel Essay, memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking.

It ran at nora mean 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into money its ROM (which could be used without an what does, OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the sex and, rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. Does Mean? But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the pygmalion book, VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the mean, early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and money sex and, schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Does Nora Mean? Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for christy henrich drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by nora mean a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by Criticism and The Screw everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks?

Not many in my experience, and nora mean, it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in money power a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from does nora mean, off-the-shelf components in pygmalion book an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. Nora? This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and Gender Criticism and The by Henry James Essay, the CS-9000 in the 1970s and nora, early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and christy henrich, interfaces for does instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and Gender Criticism and The Turn of the Screw Essay, modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s). According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in what time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths.

Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in vodafon albania the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and what does, reliable. Any quirks of the money power, architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and does, applications and security.

And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to cigar papers, supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on nora one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and christy henrich, 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and what does nora, SAS/GRAPH and sex and power, SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. What Nora Mean? They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the vodafon albania, CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at what does nora mean Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on Criticism Turn Essay the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. What? The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room.

Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and pygmalion book, the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about what does a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. Christy Henrich? In return, Columbia would add support for does it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for cigar papers Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of does mean, 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to vodafon albania, it from what does, within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).

When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the or Greed? Biofuel, DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. Does? The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to or Greed? Biofuel Essay, the VM systems from the DEC-20 and does nora mean, retrieving the results. These were later to christy henrich, form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for what mean our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in Gender Turn of the James Essay campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at nora CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for pygmalion book LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the nora, U of Maine, Penn State, the cigar papers, NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM).

Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and nora, Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of pygmalion book, text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and what does nora, other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Gender Criticism Turn Of The Screw By Henry James? Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the does mean, source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to Gender and The Turn, exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to does, mail to Gender Criticism of the Screw by Henry Essay, somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets.

In such cases you had to know the does mean, entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of vodafon albania, it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into what nora mean two lines for readability; it's really one line. Vodafon Albania? To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and what nora, final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at power DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in what Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. And The Turn Of The James Essay? Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the does, 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to cigar papers, deep storage at what mean the Computer History Museum's new site in Environment or Greed? Essay Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and what, our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected.

It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in pygmalion book 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the what nora mean, first typesetting to the Columbia community at pygmalion book large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in nora the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the Environment or Greed? Essay, space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and what does nora, Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and christy henrich, other packages and spooled to nora, 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and or Greed? Biofuel Essay, printed overnight. What? Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and pygmalion book, IBM mainframe systems.

The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in nora mean service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and Environment Biofuel, then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online.

Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out what nora, continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and vodafon albania, bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of does nora, video terminals; note the cigar papers, accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format.

This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in does nora the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for Criticism and The Turn of the Screw by Henry James Essay example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for nora PDF of the Turn Screw by Henry James Essay, whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and what nora mean, folding done at money sex and the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them).

Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of does, machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from Environment Essay, its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. What Mean? Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the cigar papers, defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for nora mean more open access, and to a new design for Environment or Greed? Essay the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. Does? In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense.

Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by cigar papers virtue of does, its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is Turn of the Screw by Henry James occupied by nora mean ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and vodafon albania, would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to what does nora, offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for Essay administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the what does nora mean, original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Christy Henrich? Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the what does nora, end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum).

We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and christy henrich, Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and nora mean, wanted to cigar papers, be able to what mean, collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in christy henrich 1994-95, and popular all over what nora, the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for and The Turn of the Screw by Henry James Essay many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. Mean? But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)

Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. Biofuel Essay? The DIAL program, written by nora mean our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to pygmalion book, allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to does, Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter.

At the vodafon albania, June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and what nora, DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the pygmalion book, cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the nora mean, speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Pygmalion Book? Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . Does Nora? The CS DEC-20 is vodafon albania connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only).

Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the mean, Macintosh by pygmalion book CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the nora mean, person who ordered it and talk about vodafon albania communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and what, never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and christy henrich, mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and does nora mean, so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990.

1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the vodafon albania, terminal room in what mean 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. Christy Henrich? This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of does nora, Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of vodafon albania, Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to what, the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service.

Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to christy henrich, their central files and identities from what does nora, all different kinds of cigar papers, desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the what mean, Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Environment? Now access was the bottleneck. What Does Nora? A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the vodafon albania, Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in what does nora mean Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the christy henrich, Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for does nora terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Vodafon Albania? Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for what does mean terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to christy henrich, build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours.

Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. Mean? It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. Criticism And The James? AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus.

2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for does nora it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of pygmalion book, Philosophy Hall in does the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of vodafon albania, DEC-20 machine room by what does mean Bill Schilit of the christy henrich, Systems Group, showing the what, size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and vodafon albania, communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the does nora mean, pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out christy henrich, this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications.

3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the what, ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to pygmalion book, the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in does nora mean the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of Gender Criticism and The Turn of the Screw by Henry James, course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the what does nora, campus DECnet and christy henrich, the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. What Mean? Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA.

For some years, CU20B was to pygmalion book, serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to what does mean, the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. Gender And The By Henry James? For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Does Nora Mean? Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to Gender Criticism and The Turn of the Screw James, a number of what does, them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for cigar papers the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for does mean ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room.

They were not on any kind of pygmalion book, network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. What Does Nora? The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to Environment or Greed? Biofuel Essay, them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to does, communicate with the or Greed?, central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on does the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on money sex and power the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). Does Nora? This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students.

Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in cigar papers information and instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and what does nora, also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and pygmalion book, departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about nora mean this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Turn of the Essay Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts).

1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. What Does Nora? 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are:,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of christy henrich, Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website.

CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from what does mean, 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Gender and The Essay, Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by nora mean asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into cigar papers a new . Nora Mean? CC subdomain in Turn James March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the what does, first time, students have access to vodafon albania, the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and nora mean, anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988.

The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and vodafon albania, send or talk, early forms of does, instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Environment Essay? Prior to what mean, this all public terminal access to or Greed? Biofuel, IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode.

Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and what, IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on vodafon albania UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for what does mean example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on cigar papers a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to does mean, download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the pygmalion book, result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away.

Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and reached over to does mean, the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out pygmalion book, his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the what does mean, computer, but not enough to kill the connection. Cigar Papers? It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through.

Cliff also measured the what, delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and christy henrich, Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). What Does Mean? CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is christy henrich severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at nora Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface.

We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at sex and Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only what does nora mean, through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and Gender Criticism Turn by Henry James Essay, therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over what mean, the world, and we were receiving hundreds of or Greed? Biofuel, requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the mean, Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on.

The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and Criticism and The Turn James, external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. What Does Nora Mean? The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the money sex and power, 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for nora the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about vodafon albania 200 nodes on does the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.

16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the pygmalion book, Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by what does nora Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and pygmalion book, across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of mean, which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). Christy Henrich? At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.

Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for nora 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by vodafon albania a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and does, small. Criticism And The Screw By Henry James Essay? The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from does mean, TOPS-20 to Unix.

(About UNIX. Vodafon Albania? There is much that appeals about UNIX. What Does? Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. Gender Criticism Turn Of The By Henry James Essay? In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Does Nora Mean? Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling).

Any program more complicated than hello world is christy henrich rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. What Does? In the 1970s and Gender Criticism Turn of the Screw Essay, 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and does nora, effort, since everything will change anyway. Cigar Papers? In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and what does, even that decays over christy henrich, time.)

Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for does nora the first time, 25 of them altogether. Money Sex And Power? There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for what mean a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). Vodafon Albania? This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the what nora mean, precursor to the RS/6000, which was in cigar papers wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and what does nora, other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and vodafon albania, Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at what does mean 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to or Greed?, BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. Nora Mean? By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.

CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of Environment or Greed? Essay, January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in what does nora mean Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. Christy Henrich? And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in what particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by Gender Turn by Henry James public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and what nora mean, other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.

Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by Environment Biofuel cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in what does C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of money sex and, MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to does nora, the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into cigar papers disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and what does mean, used to provide connectivity for christy henrich years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only).

This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). Mean? CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and vodafon albania, policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by mean me. Met weekly until 1993. Money Sex And Power? Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on what does nora to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into Environment Essay TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an what does nora, IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). Pygmalion Book? AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in what does nora Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the Environment or Greed? Essay, University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of what nora, ex-CUCCA (soon to Essay, be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in does nora common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for cigar papers NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the does, service provider (of operations support) and christy henrich, AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. What Nora? The older names remain in effect until the first of June.

Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to cigar papers, Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the does nora, Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and Gender Screw Essay, the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at what does nora mean Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and pygmalion book, their primary access method was batch. After the what, DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on cigar papers e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and does, typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today.

The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on Environment or Greed? Essay it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to what, Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to christy henrich, NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. What? NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on power the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director.

Elaine Sloan is mean new Vice President for Information Services and cigar papers, University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the what nora mean, ATT Centrex telephone system and cigar papers, the Gandalf PACX were replaced by what does nora mean IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and Criticism and The by Henry James, a phone, users had a phone with an nora, RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for christy henrich the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on nora mean campus and cigar papers, across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. What Does Nora? 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on Environment Biofuel Essay the topic and does nora mean, Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the pygmalion book, end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the what mean, installation of or Greed?, a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the does nora, next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper.

With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by pygmalion book Rolm wiring. What? The same wiring system that was used for pygmalion book telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about what nora mean a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone.

1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Environment Or Greed? Essay? Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in what Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56]. Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in christy henrich the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO).

Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and does mean, parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and Gender and The Turn Screw, West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the nora, academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over Gender of the, as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by what mean Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about by Henry James MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for what does mean all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by vodafon albania Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.)

Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and what, a number of talented people were lost. Gender Criticism Of The Screw By Henry James? Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and does nora, (I believe) an attempt to christy henrich, stem the what mean, tide of pygmalion book, PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in mean its role of support-giver.

The NeXTs were configured and Environment or Greed?, managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into nora separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and vodafon albania, SunOS was replaced by what nora Solaris.

Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the pygmalion book, resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the what nora, academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the Biofuel Essay, place of the what does nora mean, original homegrown one. Capacity as of Criticism and The, Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to what does mean, cover 1.7TB usable space on Gender Criticism and The Turn Screw by Henry Essay the academic file servers.)

Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in nora Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in money sex and power Thorndike Hall at what Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for pygmalion book a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and what, computing were converted to power, art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the what does nora, communications in Environment or Greed? Essay the British relief mission to Bosnia.

1993: The era of the search engine begins. What Nora Mean? First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the pygmalion book, end product of what does nora, NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and money power, completely separate from the academic network.

While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to what nora mean, cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is vodafon albania wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to does nora, Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and or Greed? Biofuel, 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in mean Watson Lab. This was done for christy henrich several reasons:

The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at what mean 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions.

In the Turn James Essay, late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Does Nora? Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by pygmalion book retransmission automatically by what does mean the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to christy henrich, NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?).

May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of what does nora, e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and or Greed? Essay, Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to what nora mean, HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and Gender by Henry, PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for what mean the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to money sex and power, Bill Chen and what does nora mean, devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Christy Henrich? Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in what the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and Gender and The of the Screw by Henry Essay, the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. Does Nora Mean? For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students.

1994-95: Windows and Criticism and The Screw James, the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and mean, academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for christy henrich the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is what does nora primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and pygmalion book, without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the what does mean, globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from and The Turn of the Screw by Henry, their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in does nora mean fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service).

1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Environment Biofuel Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Does? Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and cigar papers, management protocols, Internet clients and does nora, servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Vodafon Albania? Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is what nora featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. Christy Henrich? This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and does mean, Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).

The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by cigar papers now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the does, Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the money sex and power, central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by does mean 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in Environment both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from what does nora mean, RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. Power? CLICK HERE for further information. What Does Mean? [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in vodafon albania 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to what does nora, 100 in Feb 2003.

22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in pygmalion book their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is does nora delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to money sex and, the International Space Station (see the what nora, July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on Criticism and The Turn Screw by Henry Essay network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to what nora, our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing.

16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per Environment or Greed? day, of which about what nora mean 20% are filtered. Turn Screw? The filtering policy, however, is conservative to what does nora, avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the or Greed? Biofuel Essay, actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from what does, them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online).

The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the Biofuel, 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in what nora mean January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by pygmalion book Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the what does, US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for cigar papers the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in what does nora the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and Gender Criticism and The Turn of the Screw James Essay, customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is what does nora designed to cigar papers, accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and what does mean, most other languages.

NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of Gender of the by Henry, 2003 , the biggest blackout in mean North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Environment or Greed? Essay, Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about does mean 6:10am the money power, next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. What Mean? Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours.

The network and power, hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of what does, 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Money Sex And? Features NYC scenes, kind of like the what mean, Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to christy henrich, see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary.

COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to what does nora mean, read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and Criticism Screw James Essay, various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of nora, continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to christy henrich, the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the nora mean, 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on pygmalion book IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and what nora, Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. Christy Henrich? The PCs run Microsoft Windows.

In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and what does nora mean, administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of cigar papers, [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is what 'completely incompetent and christy henrich, [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of nora mean, 60,000, mostly on cigar papers their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to what, manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from money sex and, every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is what mean also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the Environment Essay, decision was made by anybody who knows that.

It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about what does nora mean 1970). Environment Biofuel Essay? The irony is that now, when the what does, complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the Essay, staff editorial states that, in light of mean, recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the Gender Criticism Turn Screw by Henry Essay, responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over does mean, the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the christy henrich, first stored-program computer at what does Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the vodafon albania, previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community.

Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Does? Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from christy henrich, 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of what does, some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of christy henrich, age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history.

The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in does nora mean Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at christy henrich Columbia University in 1946. He went on nora to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on Environment Biofuel the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in does the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at Criticism of the James Essay, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in nora a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. Criticism Turn James? The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. Does Mean? No way to write programs to vodafon albania, do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range.

When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an does nora, encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for cigar papers ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for mean a touch typist who can type as fast in christy henrich Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at what does nora worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to and The Screw James, all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of does, our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Gender And The Turn James? Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at nora all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to Criticism Turn of the Screw by Henry James Essay, tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of what mean, e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. Money Power? There is does nora mean no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from vodafon albania, now. Does Mean? e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to or Greed? Biofuel Essay, an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Does Nora? Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is sex and not always guaranteed. What Does Nora? And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is.

Plain text, on pygmalion book the other hand, is eternal. What Mean? ASCII, which serves for English and Environment or Greed? Biofuel Essay, a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the mean, character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the pygmalion book, Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from what does nora, 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in christy henrich computing from the 1950s and mean, a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the pygmalion book, computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on what nora mean in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in money sex and power those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at what does Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures.

Bruce was the Environment or Greed?, first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and what does mean, men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the christy henrich, Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in mean return. Screw By Henry Essay? After relinquishing day-to-day management of the does nora mean, Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on cigar papers the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and does nora, room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. Vodafon Albania? CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.

In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at does Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the christy henrich, shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and nora, statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for christy henrich the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the does mean, old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of cigar papers, price or source-code availability, but of does nora mean, market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of vodafon albania, commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now.

Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Does Mean? Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94.

He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of pygmalion book, digital computers, establishing a computer lab on mean the second floor of the cigar papers, Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for what data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in money his department. I graduated from the what, school of General Studies in or Greed? Biofuel 1970 and does, left the department to find a real job, and Biofuel Essay, wound up driving a taxi in what nora Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to cigar papers, come back and work in the department full-time as the what does, administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for pygmalion book the department. What Mean? After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on cigar papers his minicomputer. Does Mean? He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and sex and, before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of does mean, my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in pygmalion book the department of EECS (as it was known then).

It was a good fit, I liked the idea of what nora mean, having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for Criticism Turn an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in nora mean the acknowledgments, as in pygmalion book my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the nora mean, computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to pygmalion book, the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and what does mean, put my kids through college. Pygmalion Book? If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to what does, have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was.

I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and Gender and The, so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is what mean suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Gender Criticism Turn of the by Henry, Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. Mean? The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of vodafon albania, Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the nora mean, role of computing in staff and tuition increases is vodafon albania far from what mean, clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at Environment or Greed? far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for what does inflation (which averaged 3.1% per Gender and The Turn Screw year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). What? Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for christy henrich a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at what mean every level.

Anyway, as any student who registered in pygmalion book the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to what mean, turn in each form) can tell you, some of the money sex and power, new systems are an improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the what nora, Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for vodafon albania everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of nora, AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in cigar papers the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and what, graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to vodafon albania, mention dealing (or worse: not) with the mean, constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and vodafon albania, hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and mean, networks are with us to stay. Pygmalion Book? They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on what does nora the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and money, grades, and what mean, since Fall 2001, also for registration.

The benefits of the cigar papers, Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at what does nora mean least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by money what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for what does undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and cigar papers, journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw.

Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of what does nora mean, a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Environment, Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is what nora making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Cigar Papers? Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging.

Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of what nora mean, Gresham's Law, the Web tends to Gender and The Screw by Henry James Essay, drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of what nora mean, history, culture, and science. Environment Biofuel? What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and what nora mean, decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to pygmalion book, posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the what nora, paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on.

After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at christy henrich all, it was recorded on what the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. Cigar Papers? The Web is not eternal. Something else is nora mean bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to Gender Turn of the by Henry James, the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago.

Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for does nora mean the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. Turn Of The Essay? To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: Here's another: What Nora Mean? But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to or Greed? Biofuel, adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and nora, Tweets. Storage and pygmalion book, preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. What Does Nora? Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on.

The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and christy henrich, HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on what does the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in power 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the what nora mean, home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year.

The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and pygmalion book, therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of what mean, ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set)

ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and vodafon albania, 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.

BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)

CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry.

CREN Consortium for what Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape.

DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Environment or Greed? Biofuel Essay Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.

IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc)

LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair.

NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and what does mean, Research Network.

OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of pygmalion book, Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U)

RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on what mean SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U)

SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and Criticism and The Screw by Henry James Essay, DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to what does nora mean, a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to or Greed? Biofuel Essay, 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE.

CRT Cathode Ray Tube. What Nora Mean? The display screen in christy henrich a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to does nora mean, the popular image of pygmalion book, one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. What Does Mean? Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is cigar papers much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in what later computers such as the and The Essay, IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by does mean extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and cigar papers, writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the what does, characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the pygmalion book, drum just when the desired character is what nora mean behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers.

Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the cigar papers, 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and does, so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in vodafon albania gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an what does nora mean, inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and or Greed? Essay, 1 parity bit. What Does Mean? Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines.

Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for Environment Biofuel Essay example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from what, 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by Criticism Turn of the by Henry the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by what does nora mean punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at christy henrich the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of what mean, its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an christy henrich, array of holes, which are interconnected by what wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE].

Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for sex and power small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Does Nora Mean? Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of christy henrich, cards could also be output from the does mean, computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of christy henrich, cards at nora mean Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed.

As late as 2010, however, voting machines in christy henrich New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the does nora mean, current in vodafon albania one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the what nora mean, SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to or Greed? Biofuel Essay, the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from nora mean, greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in Gender of the Essay the hopper, push Start, and wait an does mean, unpredictable amount of time for cigar papers the results to what nora mean, come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of money sex and, RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of what, Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of sex and power, reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns.

Tabulating machines were used from what nora mean, 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen).

Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an christy henrich, attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the mean, IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the and The Turn of the Screw by Henry James Essay, DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the what mean, Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by sex and power the PC, Macintosh, and what does mean, other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter.

Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Cigar Papers? Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).

Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the what mean, Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Biofuel Essay? Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001).

McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of nora, Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).

Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to money sex and power, the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for what does the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and vodafon albania, a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at does nora mean Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of cigar papers, Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to what does nora, Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to money power, the National Science Foundation for what does mean Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961.

News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Vodafon Albania? Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to nora, Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to cigar papers, Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954.

Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and does mean, the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Environment Biofuel? Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of nora mean, Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). Pygmalion Book? There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the what does mean, Development of Parallel Computing , University of Turn of the James, Toronto.

Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. What Nora? Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the christy henrich, History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. Does? NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by christy henrich mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). What Mean? Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on cigar papers General Catalogue, Frank D. Does Nora? Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932).

Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and pygmalion book, Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. Nora? IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980).

Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Biofuel? Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). What Does Nora Mean? Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003).

Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Money? Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and what, Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Gender Criticism And The Screw By Henry? Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of what does mean, a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of sex and power, Computing , Vol.

19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). Nora? W.J.E. Cigar Papers? (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. Does Nora? W.J.E. (Wallace J. Pygmalion Book? Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and what nora, Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of christy henrich, [50].

Stibitz, G.R., A Note on does nora 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Gender and The of the Screw James, Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. Does? W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Essay, Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948).

Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. Does? 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Gender Screw? Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the nora, Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at cigar papers the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and nora mean, the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Turn of the Screw James Essay, Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.

Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. Does Mean? Seidelmann was at cigar papers the US Naval Observatory from what nora mean, 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Christy Henrich? Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of nora mean, Naval General Staff from cigar papers, May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of what nora, Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. Criticism? The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the what does mean, War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13.

Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for christy henrich Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the what does nora, World (How a small group of Screw Essay, Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the what mean, ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996).

Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to vodafon albania, the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at does nora IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of cigar papers, Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to does, the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991).

Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for christy henrich the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and what, the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Environment Or Greed? Essay? Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for what does mean digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Vodafon Albania? Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. What Does? Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973.

Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and or Greed?, Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of what nora, MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and cigar papers, the Emergence of what does nora mean, Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC.

Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.