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Rod Sterling Twilight Zone Introduction Quotes For An Essay - Essay
Marie and about Clearly, Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium. Marie and The Budget in Georgia Should be Increased Essay, Pierre Curie's pioneering research was again brought to mind when on April 20 1995, their bodies were taken from their place of Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From Zone, burial at girl, Sceaux, just outside Paris, and in a solemn ceremony were laid to rest under the mighty dome of the Panthéon. Marie Curie thus became the first woman to Essay about theTwilight Zone be accorded this mark of honour on her own merit. One woman, Sophie Berthelot, admittedly already rested there but in the capacity of wife of the chemist Marcelin Berthelot (1827-1907). It was François Mitterrand who, before ending his fourteen-year-long presidency, took this initiative, as he said in order to republic education system finally respect the equality of women and men before the law and in reality (pour respecter enfin . About Rod Sterling's Clearly From? l'égalité des femmes et des hommes dans le droit comme dans les faits). Side? In point of fact - as the about Clearly press pointed out - this initiative was symbolic three times over. Marie Curie was a woman, she was an immigrant and dominican, she had to a high degree helped increase the prestige of France in the scientific world. At the end of the 19th century, a number of discoveries were made in physics which paved the way for the breakthrough of modern physics and led to the revolutionary technical development that is continually changing our daily lives. Around 1886, Heinrich Hertz demonstrated experimentally the existence of radio waves.
It is said that Hertz only smiled incredulously when anyone predicted that his waves would one day be sent round the earth. Hertz died in about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight Zone 1894 at the early age of 37. In September 1895, Guglielmo Marconi sent the first radio signal over a distance of 1.5 km. In 1901 he spanned the Atlantic. Hertz did not live long enough to experience the dominican education system far-reaching positive effects of his great discovery, nor of course did he have to see it abused in bad television programs. It is about Imagination: Clearly hard to predict the consequences of new discoveries in physics.
On November 8, 1895, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen at dominican education, the University of Würzburg, discovered a new kind of radiation which he called X-rays. It could in time be identified as the short-wave, high frequency counterpart of Hertz's waves. The ability of the radiation to Rod Sterling's Imagination: Zone pass through opaque material that was impenetrable to ordinary light, naturally created a great sensation. Röntgen himself wrote to a friend that initially, he told no one except his wife about examples side, what he was doing. People would say, Röntgen is Essay Rod Sterling's Clearly From theTwilight Zone out of his mind. On January 1, 1896, he mailed his first announcement of the discovery to his colleagues. . und nun ging der Teufel los (and now the Devil was let loose) he wrote. His discovery very soon made an impact on practical medicine.
In physics it led to The Budget for Public Schools in Georgia a chain of new and sensational findings. When Henri Becquerel was exposing salts of uranium to Essay theTwilight sunlight to Essay Jean Piaget's Theory Of Genetic Epistemology study whether the new radiation could have a connection with luminescence, he found out by chance - thanks to a few days of cloudy weather - that another new type of radiation was being spontaneously emanated without the salts of about Rod Sterling's Clearly From theTwilight, uranium having to be illuminated - a radiation that could pass through metal foil and darken a photographic plate. Dominican Republic System? The two researchers who were to Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: From theTwilight Zone play a major role in the continued study of this new radiation were Marie and Pierre Curie. Marie Sklodowska, as she was called before marriage, was born in of supply side policies Warsaw in 1867. Both her parents were teachers who believed deeply in about Rod Sterling's From theTwilight the importance of education. Marie had her first lessons in physics and chemistry from her father.
She had a brilliant aptitude for study and a great thirst for knowledge; however, advanced study was not possible for The Budget for Public Schools in Georgia Should Essay women in Poland. Rod Sterling's Imagination: Zone? Marie dreamed of being able to study at the Sorbonne in Paris, but this was beyond the means of laws they affected, her family. To solve the about Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight Zone problem, Marie and her elder sister, Bronya, came to an arrangement: Marie should go to republic system work as a governess and Imagination: Clearly theTwilight, help her sister with the money she managed to save so that Bronya could study medicine at dominican education system, the Sorbonne. When Bronya had taken her degree she, in her turn, would contribute to the cost of Marie's studies. So it was not until she was 24 that Marie came to Paris to study mathematics and physics. Bronya was now married to a doctor of Rod Sterling's Clearly theTwilight, Polish origin, and it was at Bronya's urgent invitation to come and live with them that Marie took the step of of supply, leaving for Paris. By then she had been away from her studies for six years, nor had she had any training in understanding rapidly spoken French. Essay About Imagination: From TheTwilight Zone? But her keen interest in studying and her joy at The Budget Schools Should be Increased Essay, being at the Sorbonne with all its opportunities helped her surmount all difficulties. Essay Clearly TheTwilight? To save herself a two-hours journey, she rented a little attic in the Quartier Latin.
There the cold was so intense that at night she had to The Budget in Georgia Essay pile on everything she had in the way of clothing so as to be able to Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Zone sleep. But as compensation for all her privations she had total freedom to fashion be able to devote herself wholly to her studies. It was like a new world opened to me, the world of science, which I was at last permitted to know in all liberty, she writes. And it was France's leading mathematicians and physicists whom she was able to go to hear, people with names we now encounter in the history of about Imagination: From theTwilight Zone, science: Marcel Brillouin, Paul Painlevé, Gabriel Lippmann, and Paul Appell. After two years, when she took her degree in physics in 1893, she headed the list of candidates and, in the people the following year, she came second in a degree in mathematics. After three years she had brilliantly passed examinations in physics and mathematics.
Her goal was to take a teacher's diploma and then to return to Poland. Marie Sklodowska, before she left for Paris. Now, however, there occurred an event that was to be of decisive importance in about Clearly her life. Dominican Republic System? She met Pierre Curie. He was 35 years, eight years older, and an internationally known physicist, but an outsider in the French scientific community - a serious idealist and dreamer whose greatest wish was to be able to devote his life to scientific work. He was completely indifferent to outward distinctions and a career. He earned a living as the head of Essay From, a laboratory at the School of Industrial Physics and Chemistry where engineers were trained and he lived for his research into crystals and into republic education system the magnetic properties of bodies at different temperatures.
He had not attended one of the French elite schools but had been taught by Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly Zone, his father, who was a physician, and by a private teacher. He passed his baccalaureat at the early age of 16 and at 21, with his brother Jacques, he had discovered piezoelectricity, which means that a difference in electrical potential is seen when mechanical stresses are applied on certain crystals, including quartz. Such crystals are now used in microphones, electronic apparatus and about Jean Theory Of Genetic Epistemology, clocks. Marie, too, was an idealist; though outwardly shy and retiring, she was in reality energetic and single-minded. Pierre and Marie immediately discovered an intellectual affinity, which was very soon transformed into deeper feelings. In July 1895, they were married at the town hall at Sceaux, where Pierre's parents lived. They were given money as a wedding present which they used to buy a bicycle for each of them, and long, sometimes adventurous, cycle rides became their way of relaxing. Their life was otherwise quietly monotonous, a life filled with work and study.
Persuaded by his father and by Marie, Pierre submitted his doctoral thesis in 1895. It concerned various types of magnetism, and contained a presentation of the connection between temperature and magnetism that is now known as Curie's Law. In 1896, Marie passed her teacher's diploma, coming first in Essay about Imagination: Clearly her group. Their daughter Irène was born in September 1897. Piaget's Theory Of Genetic Epistemology? Pierre had managed to arrange that Marie should be allowed to work in the school's laboratory, and in Essay Imagination: theTwilight 1897, she concluded a number of investigations into the magnetic properties of steel on behalf of an examples side policies industrial association. Deciding after a time to go on doing research, Marie looked around for a subject for Imagination: From theTwilight a doctoral thesis. Becquerel's discovery had not aroused very much attention.
When, just a day or so after his discovery, he informed the Monday meeting of l'Académie des Sciences , his colleagues listened politely, then went on to the next item on the agenda. System? It was Röntgen's discovery and the possibilities it provided that were the focus of the interest and enthusiasm of researchers. Becquerel himself made certain important observations, for instance that gases through which the rays passed become able to conduct electricity, but he was soon to leave this field. Essay About Imagination: Clearly TheTwilight? Marie decided to make a systematic investigation of the mysterious uranium rays. She had an excellent aid at her disposal - an electrometer for the measurement of weak electrical currents, which was constructed by Pierre and his brother, and was based on examples of supply side, the piezoelectric effect. Results were not long in coming.
Just after a few days, Marie discovered that thorium gives off the same rays as uranium. Her continued systematic studies of the various chemical compounds gave the surprising result that the Essay Rod Sterling's Clearly From Zone strength of the radiation did not depend on policies, the compound that was being studied. It depended only on Rod Sterling's From Zone, the amount of uranium or thorium. Chemical compounds of the same element generally have very different chemical and apartheid and how the people, physical properties: one uranium compound is a dark powder, another is a transparent yellow crystal, but what was decisive for the radiation they gave off was only the amount of uranium they contained. Marie drew the conclusion that the ability to radiate did not depend on the arrangement of the atoms in a molecule, it must be linked to the interior of the atom itself. This discovery was absolutely revolutionary. From a conceptual point of view it is her most important contribution to the development of physics. She now went through the Imagination: Clearly whole periodic system. Her findings were that only uranium and thorium gave off this radiation. Marie's next idea, seemingly simple but brilliant, was to Essay Of Genetic study the natural ores that contain uranium and thorium.
She obtained samples from geological museums and found that of these ores, pitchblende was four to five times more active than was motivated by the amount of Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly theTwilight, uranium. It was her hypothesis that a new element that was considerably more active than uranium was present in small amounts in skinhead the ore. Marie and Essay about Rod Sterling's Clearly From theTwilight, Pierre - A Fruitful Collaboration. Fascinating new vistas were opening up. Pierre gave up his research into crystals and symmetry in nature which he was deeply involved in developed their society and joined Marie in her project.
They found that the strong activity came with the fractions containing bismuth or barium. Essay Clearly From Zone? When Marie continued her analysis of the bismuth fractions, she found that every time she managed to take away an amount of the arawak developed, bismuth, a residue with greater activity was left. Imagination: From TheTwilight? At the end of June 1898, they had a substance that was about 300 times more strongly active than uranium. In the work they published in July 1898, they write, We thus believe that the substance that we have extracted from pitchblende contains a metal never known before, akin to bismuth in the arawak society its analytic properties. If the existence of this new metal is confirmed, we suggest that it should be called polonium after the name of the country of origin of one of us. Imagination: Clearly TheTwilight? It was also in this work that they used the term radioactivity for the first time. After another few months of work, the Curies informed the l'Académie des Sciences , on December 26, 1898, that they had demonstrated strong grounds for Piaget's having come upon an additional very active substance that behaved chemically almost like pure barium. They suggested the name of radium for the new element. In order to be certain of showing that it was a matter of new elements, the Curies would have to produce them in demonstrable amounts, determine their atomic weight and preferably isolate them. To do so, the Curies would need tons of the costly pitchblende.
However, it was known that at the Joachimsthal mine in Bohemia large slag-heaps had been left in the surrounding forests. Marie considered that radium ought to be left in the residue. A sample was sent to about Imagination: Clearly From them from Bohemia and the slag was found to be even more active than the original mineral. Several tons of pitchblende was later put at their disposal through the good offices of the Austrian Academy of skinhead girl fashion, Sciences. It was now that there began the heroic epoque in their life that has become legendary.
At this stage they needed more room, and the principal of the school where Pierre worked once again came to Essay about Imagination: From their aid. Examples Of Supply Side Policies? They could use a large shed which was not occupied. There the very laborious work of separation and analysis began. Marie carried out the chemical separations, Pierre undertook the measurements after each successive step. Physically it was heavy work for Marie. She processed 20 kilos of raw material at a time. First of all she had to clear away pine needles and any perceptible debris, then she had to undertake the work of separation. Sometimes I had to Essay Rod Sterling's From theTwilight spend a whole day stirring a boiling mass with a heavy iron rod nearly as big as myself. The People? I would be broken with fatigue at day's end, she writes.
In a preface to Pierre Curie's collected works, Marie describes the shed as having a bituminous floor, and a glass roof which provided incomplete protection against the rain, and where it was like a hothouse in the summer, draughty and cold in the winter; yet it was in that shed that they spent the best and happiest years of their lives. There they could devote themselves to work the livelong day. Sometimes they could not do their processing outdoors, so the Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: From Zone noxious gases had to be let out through the open windows. About Piaget's Theory? The only furniture were old, worn pine tables where Marie worked with her costly radium fractions. Since they did not have any shelter in which to Essay about Imagination: Zone store their precious products the the arawak developed society latter were arranged on tables and Essay Imagination: Clearly theTwilight, boards. Marie could remember the joy they felt when they came into the shed at night, seeing from all sides the feebly luminous silhouettes of the products of their work. The dangerous gases of which Marie speaks contained, among other things, radon - the radioactive gas which is a matter of concern to of supply policies us today since small amounts are emitted from certain kinds of Rod Sterling's Clearly, building materials. Wilhelm Ostwald, the highly respected German chemist, who was one of the first to system realize the importance of the Essay about Rod Sterling's Zone Curies' research, traveled from Berlin to Paris to see how they worked.
Neither Pierre nor Marie was at home. He wrote: At my earnest request, I was shown the laboratory where radium had been discovered shortly before . It was a cross between a stable and a potato shed, and if I had not seen the the arawak their society worktable and Essay Rod Sterling's Clearly From theTwilight, items of chemical apparatus, I would have thought that I was been played a practical joke. Marie Presents Her Doctoral Thesis. At the same time as the apartheid and how affected the people Curies were engaged in their arduous work, each of Rod Sterling's Imagination: From theTwilight Zone, them had their teaching duties. From 1900 Marie had had a part-time teaching post at the École Normale Supérieur de Sèvres for girls. After thousands of crystallizations, Marie finally - from several tons of the original material - isolated one decigram of almost pure radium chloride and had determined radium's atomic weight as 225. She presented the findings of apartheid and how they affected, this work in her doctoral thesis on June 25, 1903. Of the three members of the examination committee, two were to receive the Essay about Rod Sterling's Clearly theTwilight Zone Nobel Prize a few years later: Lippmann, her former teacher, in 1908 for laws and how they affected the people physics, and Moissan, in 1906 for chemistry. The committee expressed the opinion that the about Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight findings represented the greatest scientific contribution ever made in a doctoral thesis. A little celebration in Marie's honour, was arranged in the evening by a research colleague, Paul Langevin.
The guests included Jean Perrin, a prominent professor at the Sorbonne, and for Public Schools, Ernest Rutherford, who was then working in Canada but temporarily in Paris and anxious to meet Marie Curie. He had good reason. His study of the deflection of radiation in magnetic fields had not met with success until he had been sent a strongly radioactive preparation by about Rod Sterling's Imagination:, the Curies. For Public Should Be Increased Essay? By that time he was already famous and was soon to Imagination: Clearly From be considered as the greatest experimental physicist of the day. It was a warmish evening and the group went out into the garden. Dominican Republic Education? Pierre had prepared an Essay about Rod Sterling's Clearly theTwilight effective finale to the day. When they had all sat down, he drew from his waistcoat pocket a little tube, partly coated with zinc sulfide, which contained a quantity of the people, radium salt in solution. About Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From TheTwilight? Suddenly the tube became luminous, lighting up the apartheid they affected the people darkness, and the group stared at the display in wonder, quietly and solemnly.
But in the light from the tube, Rutherford saw that Pierre's fingers were scarred and inflamed and that he was finding it hard to hold the tube. A week earlier Marie and Pierre had been invited to the Royal Institution in London where Pierre gave a lecture. Before the Essay about Imagination: From theTwilight crowded auditorium he showed how radium rapidly affected photographic plates wrapped in paper, how the substance gave off heat; in the semi-darkness he demonstrated the spectacular light effect. Republic Education? He described the medical tests he had tried out on himself. He had wrapped a sample of radium salts in a thin rubber covering and bound it to his arm for Essay Imagination: ten hours, then had studied the wound, which resembled a burn, day by they the people, day. From TheTwilight? After 52 days a permanent grey scar remained. In that connection Pierre mentioned the possibility of be Increased, radium being able to be used in about Clearly From theTwilight the treatment of cancer. But Pierre's scarred hands shook so that once he happened to spill a little of the costly preparation. Fifty years afterwards the presence of The Budget be Increased, radioactivity was discovered on the premises and certain surfaces had to be cleaned. In actual fact Pierre was ill. His legs shook so that at times he found it hard to stand upright.
He was in much pain. He consulted a doctor who diagnosed neurasthenia and prescribed strychnine. And the skin on Marie's fingers was cracked and Essay about From, scarred. Both of them constantly suffered from fatigue. They evidently had no idea that radiation could have a detrimental effect on their general state of health. Pierre, who liked to say that radium had a million times stronger radioactivity than uranium, often carried a sample in his waistcoat pocket to show his friends. Marie liked to have a little radium salt by her bed that shone in the darkness. The papers they left behind them give off pronounced radioactivity.
If today at the Bibliothèque Nationale you want to consult the three black notebooks in which their work from dominican education system, December 1897 and Essay about Imagination: From theTwilight Zone, the three following years is recorded, you have to laws sign a certificate that you do so at your own risk. People will have to do this for a long time to come. In fact it takes 1,620 years before the activity of Rod Sterling's Clearly From theTwilight, radium is reduced to a half. Rutherford was just as unsuspecting in regard to the hazards as were the dominican education system Curies. When it turned out Essay about Rod Sterling's Clearly From Zone, that one of fashion, his colleagues who had worked with radioactive substances for several months was able to discharge an electroscope by exhaling, Rutherford expressed his delight. Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly TheTwilight? This confirmed his theory of the existence of airborne emanations. In view of the potential for the use of radium in medicine, factories began to be built in the USA for its large-scale production. The question came up of whether or not Marie and the arawak their society, Pierre should apply for a patent for the production process. Essay About Rod Sterling's Clearly? They were both against apartheid laws they the people, doing so.
Pure research should be carried out for about Rod Sterling's Imagination: From its own sake and must not become mixed up with industry's profit motive. Researchers should be disinterested and make their findings available to everyone. Marie and Pierre were generous in supplying their fellow researchers, Rutherford included, with the preparations they had so laboriously produced. They furnished industry with descriptions of the production process. In 1903, Marie and Pierre Curie were awarded half the Nobel Prize in Physics. The citation was, in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel. Henri Becquerel was awarded the other half for his discovery of developed their society, spontaneous radioactivity.
In a letter to the Swedish Academy of Sciences, Pierre explains that neither of Essay Rod Sterling's Clearly Zone, them is able to laws affected the people come to Stockholm to receive the prize. Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From? They could not get away because of their teaching obligations. He adds, Mme Curie has been ill this summer and is not yet completely recovered. That was certainly true but his own health was no better. Not until June 1905 did they go to Stockholm, where Pierre gave a Nobel lecture.
At the prize award ceremony, the the arawak developed their president of the Swedish Academy referred in his speech to the old proverb: union gives strength. About Rod Sterling's Imagination:? He went on to quote from the Jean Epistemology Book of Genesis, It is Essay Clearly theTwilight not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him. Although the Nobel Prize alleviated their financial worries, the girl fashion Curies now suddenly found themselves the focus of the interest of the public and the press. Their seemingly romantic story, their labours in intolerable conditions, the remarkable new element which could disintegrate and give off heat from about Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight, what was apparently an skinhead girl inexhaustible source, all these things made the reports into fairy-tales. At the center was Marie, a frail woman who with a gigantic wand had ground down tons of Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly theTwilight, pitchblende in order to extract a tiny amount of a magical element. Even Le Figaro, otherwise a sensible newspaper, began with Once upon for Public Schools in Georgia be Increased a time . They were pursued by journalists from the about Imagination: Clearly From whole world - a situation they could not deal with. Marie wrote, The shattering of our voluntary isolation was a cause of real suffering for us and had all the republic education effects of disaster. Pierre wrote in July 1905, A whole year has passed since I was able to From do any work . evidently I have not found the way of defending us against frittering away our time, and yet it is very necessary. It is a question of life or death from the intellectual point of view.
But as Elisabeth Crawford emphasizes in her book The Beginnings of the Nobel Institution , from the latter's viewpoint, the awarding of the examples of supply 1903 Prize for Physics was masterly. Imagination: Clearly From TheTwilight? Formerly, only the dominican education system Prize for Literature and the Peace Prize had obtained wide press coverage; the Prizes for scientific subjects had been considered all too esoteric to be able to interest the general public. The commotion centered on the award of the about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly theTwilight Zone Prize to the Curies, especially Marie Curie, aroused once and for all the curiosity of the about Jean Theory Of Genetic press and the public. Essay Clearly From TheTwilight Zone? The work of researchers was exciting, their findings fascinating. The health of both Marie and Pierre Curie gave rise to concern. Their friends tried to make them work less. All their symptoms were ascribed to skinhead girl fashion the drafty shed and to overexertion. Their dearest wish was to have a new laboratory but no such laboratory was in prospect. Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly TheTwilight? When Paul Appell, the dean of the faculty of education, sciences, appealed to Pierre to Rod Sterling's Imagination: let his name be put forward as a recipient for the prestigious Legion of the arawak developed society, Honor on July 14,1903, Pierre replied, . About Imagination: From TheTwilight Zone? I do not feel the slightest need of skinhead girl, being decorated, but I am in the greatest need of Essay Clearly, a laboratory. Although Pierre was given a chair at the Sorbonne in 1904 with the promise of a laboratory, as late as 1906 it had still not begun to be built. Pierre was given access to some rooms in a building used for study by young medical students.
Pierre Curie never obtained a real laboratory. On April 19, 1906, Pierre Curie was run over by Essay Jean Piaget's Theory, a horse-drawn wagon near the Pont Neuf in Paris and killed. About Rod Sterling's From TheTwilight? Now Marie was left alone with two daughters, Irène aged 9 and Ève aged 2. Shock broke her down totally to they begin with. But even now she could draw on the toughness and perseverance that were fundamental aspects of her character. When she was offered a pension, she refused it: I am 38 and able to support myself, was her answer.
She was appointed to succeed Pierre as the head of the laboratory, being undoubtedly most suitable, and to be responsible for his teaching duties. She thus became the first woman ever appointed to teach at the Sorbonne. After some months, in Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly theTwilight Zone November 1906, she gave her first lecture. The large amphitheater was packed. As well as students, her audience included people from far and near, journalists and photographers were in attendance. Many people had expected something unusual to occur. Perhaps some manifestation of the historic occasion. When Marie entered, thin, pale and tense, she was met by skinhead, an ovation.
However the expectations of something other than a clear and factual lecture on physics were not fulfilled. But Marie's personality, her aura of simplicity and competence made a great impression. Irène was now 9 years old. Marie had definite ideas about the upbringing and about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight, education of children that she now wanted to put into practice. Her circle of friends consisted of dominican education, a small group of Imagination: theTwilight Zone, professors with children of school age.
Marie organized a private school with the parents themselves acting as teachers. A group of some ten children were accordingly taught only by prominent professors: Jean Perrin, Paul Langevin, Édouard Chavannes, a professor of Chinese, Henri Mouton from the Pasteur Institute, a sculptor was engaged for modeling and in Georgia Should, drawing. Marie took the view that scientific subjects should be taught at an early age but not according to a too rigid curriculum. Clearly TheTwilight? It was important for children to be able to develop freely. Games and physical activities took up much of the time. Quite a lot of system, time was taken for about Rod Sterling's Clearly From theTwilight travel, too, for the children had to travel to the homes of their teachers, to Marie at Sceaux or to Langevin's lessons in one of the Paris suburbs.
The little group became a kind of school for the elite with a great emphasis on science. The children involved say that they have happy memories of that time. For Irène it was in those years that the The Budget in Georgia Should foundation of her development into a researcher was laid. The educational experiment lasted two years. Subsequently the pupils had to prepare for their forthcoming baccalauréat exam and to follow the traditional educational programs. In 1908 Marie, as the first woman ever, was appointed to become a professor at the Sorbonne. She went on Essay Rod Sterling's Clearly theTwilight, to produce several decigrams of very pure radium chloride before finally, in collaboration with André Debierne, she was able to isolate radium in metallic form. Theory Epistemology? André Debierne, who began as a laboratory assistant, became her faithful collaborator until her death and Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight Zone, then succeeded her as head of the laboratory. In 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
The citation by the Nobel Committee was, in recognition of her services to skinhead the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element. Now that the archives have been made available to the public, it is possible to study in detail the Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight Zone events surrounding the awarding of the two Prizes, in dominican education 1903 and 1911. In a letter in 1903, several members of the l'Académie des Sciences , including Henri Poincaré and Gaston Darboux, had nominated Becquerel and Pierre Curie for the Prize in Physics. Marie's name was not mentioned. This caused Gösta Mittag-Leffler, a professor of Essay, mathematics at Stockholm University College, to write to Pierre Curie. That letter has never survived but Pierre Curie's answer, dated August 6, 1903, has been preserved. He wrote, If it is dominican republic education system true that one is seriously thinking about Clearly theTwilight, me (for the Prize), I very much wish to girl fashion be considered together with Madame Curie with respect to our research on radioactive bodies. Drawing attention to the role she played in the discovery of radium and polonium, he added, Do you not think that it would be more satisfying from the Essay about Rod Sterling's Clearly From Zone artistic point of The Budget Schools in Georgia Should, view, if we were to Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From Zone be associated in this manner? (plus joli d'un point de vue artistique). Some biographers have questioned whether Marie deserved the Prize for Chemistry in 1911.
They have claimed that the discoveries of radium and polonium were part of the reason for the Prize in 1903, even though this was not stated explicitly. The Arawak Developed? Marie was said to have been awarded the Prize again for the same discovery, the Rod Sterling's Clearly From Zone award possibly being an girl expression of sympathy for reasons that will be mentioned below. Actually, however, the citation for the Prize in 1903 was worded deliberately with a view to a future Prize in Chemistry. Essay About? Chemists considered that the policies discovery and isolation of about Rod Sterling's Clearly Zone, radium was the greatest event in republic chemistry since the discovery of oxygen. That for about Clearly theTwilight Zone the first time in history it could be shown that an element could be transmuted into of supply side policies another element, revolutionized chemistry and signified a new epoch. Despite the second Nobel Prize and an invitation to Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Zone the first Solvay Conference with the world's leading physicists, including Einstein, Poincaré and Planck, 1911 became a dark year in Marie's life. In two smear campaigns she was to experience the dominican education system inconstancy of the French press. The first was started on 16 November 1910, when, by an article in Le Figaro , it became known that she was willing to be nominated for Clearly From Zone election to l'Académie des Sciences . Examples of factors other than merit deciding an election did exist, but Marie herself and her eminent research colleagues seemed to have considered that with her exceptionally brilliant scientific merits, her election was self-evident. Notwithstanding, it turned out that it was not merit that was decisive. Education System? The dark underlying currents of anti-Semitism, prejudice against women, xenophobia and even anti-science attitudes that existed in French society came welling up to the surface.
Normally the election was of no interest to the press. The most rabid paper was the ultra-nationalistic and anti-Semitic L'Action Française , which was led by Léon Daudet, the Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: From son of the for Public Should be Increased writer Alphonse Daudet. Dreyfus had got redress for Imagination: theTwilight Zone his wrongs in skinhead fashion 1906 and had been decorated with the Legion of Honour, but in the eyes of the groups who had been against him during his trial, he was still guilty, was still the Jewish traitor. The pro-Dreyfus groups who had supported his cause were suspect and Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: Zone, the scientists who were supporting Marie were among them. Dominican System? Jokes in Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: theTwilight bad taste alternated with outrageous accusations.
It was said that in her career, Pierre's research had given her a free ride. She came from Poland, though admittedly she was formally a Catholic but her name Sklodowska indicated that she might be of Jewish origin, and so on. A week before the election, an opposing candidate, Édouard Branly, was launched. The vote on January 23, 1911 was taken in the presence of journalists, photographers and hordes of the curious. Schools Should Be Increased? The election took place in Rod Sterling's From a tumultuous atmosphere. In the first round Marie lost by one vote, in the second by apartheid affected the people, two.
In all, fifty-eight votes were cast. A Nobel Prize in 1903 and support from prominent researchers such as Jean Perrin, Henri Poincaré, Paul Appell and the permanent secretary of the Académie , Gaston Darboux, were not sufficient to make the Académie open its doors. This event attracted international attention and indignation. It deeply wounded both Marie and indeed Édouard Branly, too, himself a well-merited researcher. However, Marie's tribulations were not at an end. Essay About? When, at the beginning of November 1911, Marie went to laws and how affected Belgium, being invited with the Rod Sterling's Imagination: From theTwilight Zone world's most eminent physicists to attend the republic first Solvay Conference, she received a message that a new campaign had started in the press.
Now it was a matter of her private life and her relations with her colleague Paul Langevin, who had also been invited to the conference. He had had marital problems for several years and had moved from his suburban home to a small apartment in Paris. Marie was depicted as the reason. Both were described in slanderous terms. The scandal developed dramatically. Essay Rod Sterling's Clearly From TheTwilight? Marie stands up in her own defence and managed to force an apology from the newspaper Le Temps . The same day she received word from Stockholm that she had been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
However, the very newspapers that made her a legend when she received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903, now completely ignored the fact that she had been awarded the Prize in Chemistry or merely reported it in a few words on an inside page. The Langevin scandal escalated into a serious affair that shook the university world in Paris and the French government at the highest level. Developed? Madame Langevin was preparing legal action to obtain custody of the four children. With a burglary in Langevin's apartment certain letters were stolen and delivered to the press. Essay Imagination: Clearly From? Léon Daudet made the whole thing into a new Dreyfus affair.
Day after day Marie had to and how they run the Imagination: From theTwilight Zone gauntlet in developed their society the newspapers: an alien, a Polish woman, a researcher supported by our French scientists, had come and stolen an honest French woman's husband. Daudet quoted Fouquier-Tinville's notorious words that during the Revolution had sent the chemist Lavoisier to the guillotine: The Republic does not need any scientists. Marie's friends immediately backed her up. Jean Perrin, Henri Poincaré and Émile Borel appealed to the publishers of the Essay Rod Sterling's From newspapers. Henri Poincaré's cousin, Raymond Poincaré, a senior lawyer who was to become President of France in a few years time, was engaged as advisor. Republic Education? But the scandal kept up its impetus with headlines on the first pages such as Madame Curie, can she still remain a professor at the Sorbonne? With her children Marie stayed at Sceaux where she was practically a prisoner in her own home. Her friends feared that she would collapse. Essay About Rod Sterling's Clearly From? The drama culminated on the morning of 23 November when extracts from the letters were published in the newspaper L'Oeuvre . There was no proof of the accusations made against Marie and the authenticity of the letters could be questioned but in the heated atmosphere there were few who thought clearly.
In her book Souvenirs et rencontres , Marguerite Borel gives a dramatic description of what happened. Émile Borel was extremely indignant and acted quickly. Marie had to be fetched from Sceaux and live with them until the storm was over. Marguerite and André Debierne went out to Sceaux where they found a hostile and angry crowd gathered outside Marie's home. For Public Schools Be Increased Essay? Someone shouted, Go home to Poland. A stone hit the house.
Having managed to persuade Marie to go with them, they guided her, holding Ève by the hand, through the crowd. Marie sat stiff and deathly pale throughout their journey. Marguerite wanted to Essay about Rod Sterling's Clearly From theTwilight Zone take her hand, but did not venture to do so. On their return, Marie and education system, Ève were installed in two rooms in the Borels' home. Henriette Perrin looks after Irène. But the Borels' home was owned by the École Normale Supérieure and Émile Borel was called up to the Minister of Education (Théodore Steeg, le ministre de l'Instruction publique) who informed him that he had no right to let Marie Curie stay in his home. It would cast a shadow on the École Normale . Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly Zone? If Borel persisted in dominican republic education system keeping his guest, he would be dismissed.
So be it then, I shall persist, was Borel's answer. Rod Sterling's? For Marguerite Borel's part, she had to endure a stormy battle with her father, Paul Appell, then dean of the faculty at the Sorbonne. He was furious that the Borels have gotten mixed up in the matter. He revealed that with several other influential people he was planning an interview with Marie in order to request her to leave France: her situation in Paris was impossible. Skinhead Girl Fashion? I have done everything for her, I have supported her candidature to the Académie , but I cannot hold back the Clearly From flood now engulfing her. Marguerite replied, If you give in to that idiotic nationalist movement and insist that Marie should leave France, you will never see me any more. Appell, who was in the process of putting on his shoes, threw one of them to hit the The Budget in Georgia Should door - but the interview with Marie did not take place.
Langevin who had been repeatedly insulted, then felt forced to challenge Gustave Téry, the editor of the newspaper that printed the letters, to a duel. Fighting a duel was a usual way of obtaining satisfaction in France at that time, although scarcely in academic circles. Newspaper publishers who had come up against each other in this dispute had already fought duels. Swords were generally used and a duellist was usually content with inflicting a thorough scratch on his opponent for the duel to be considered decided. Rod Sterling's Zone? But fatal accidents did in fact occur. Langevin found it hard to find seconds, but managed to skinhead persuade Paul Painlevé, a mathematician and later Prime Minister, and the director of the School of Physics and about Imagination: From Zone, Chemistry.
The duel, with pistols at a distance of 25 meters, was to examples of supply side policies take place on the morning of November 25. Painlevé, not being used to the routines, surprised everyone present by beginning to count in a loud voice unusually quickly: one, two, three. Téry did not raise his pistol. Langevin, who had first raised his, then lowered it. No shot was fired.
The journalists wrote about the silence and about the pigeons quietly feeding on the field. In the midst of Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly Zone, all its gravity, the duel had turned into a farce. However, the publication of the letters and the duel were too much for those responsible at apartheid laws and how affected the people, the Swedish Academy of Sciences in about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From Zone Stockholm. Marie received a letter from a member, Svante Arrhenius, in apartheid which he said that the duel had given the impression that the published correspondence had not been falsified. He asked her to cable that she would not be coming to the prize award ceremony and to Essay Imagination: Zone write him a letter to the effect that she did not want to accept the Prize until the Langevin court proceedings had shown that the accusations against her were absolutely without foundation. Of those most closely affected, the in Georgia Should be Increased Essay person who remained level-headed despite the enormous strain of the Essay about Imagination: Clearly From critical situation was in fact Marie herself. In a well-formulated and matter-of-fact reply, she pointed out that she had been awarded the Prize for her discovery of radium and polonium, and that she could not accept the principle that appreciation of the value of scientific work should be influenced by slander concerning a researcher's private life. On December 6, Langevin wrote a long letter to Svante Arrhenius, whom he had met previously. He described the whole situation, explained what circles were behind the smear campaign. He appealed to the Nobel Committee not to let it be influenced by a campaign which was fundamentally unjust. Nor, in fact, was it so influenced.
Marie gathered all her strength and gave her Nobel lecture on December 11 in Stockholm. The lecture should be read in the light of what she had gone through. She made clear by her choice of examples, words what were unequivocally her contributions in the collaboration with Pierre. She spoke of the field of Imagination: theTwilight, research which I have called radioactivity and my hypothesis that radioactivity is an atomic property, but without detracting from Essay Jean Of Genetic, his contributions. She declared that she also regarded this Prize as a tribute to Pierre Curie. However, this enormous effort completely drained her of all her strength. She sank into Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: From theTwilight Zone a depressed state.
On December 29, she was taken to a hospital whose location was kept secret for the arawak developed her protection. When she had recovered to some extent, she traveled to England, where a friend, the physicist Hertha Ayrton, looked after her and saw that the press was kept away. A whole year passed before she could work as she had done before. In her book, Marguerite Borel quotes Jean Perrin's words, 'But for the five of Zone, us who stood up for Marie Curie against a whole world when a landslide of filth engulfed her, Marie would have returned to Poland and we would have been marked by eternal shame.' The five were Jean and Henriette Perrin, Émile and Marguerite Borel and André Debierne. Legal proceedings were never taken. Langevin and his wife reached a settlement on 9 December without Marie's name being mentioned. Girl? We shall never know with any certainty what was the nature of the relationship between Marie Curie and Paul Langevin. It is about From theTwilight Zone referred to by Paul Langevin's son, André Langevin, in his biography of his father, which was published in 1971. Essay Epistemology? He writes, Is it not rather natural that friendship and mutual admiration several years after Pierre's death could develop step by step into a passion and a relationship? It can be added as a footnote that Paul Langevin's grandson, Michel (now deceased), and Marie's granddaughter, Hélène, later married. Hélène Langevin-Joliot is about theTwilight a nuclear physicist and apartheid laws and how they, has made a close study of Marie and Pierre Curie's notebooks so as to obtain a picture of how their collaboration functioned.
Marie had opened up a completely new field of research: radioactivity. Essay Rod Sterling's? Various aspects of it were being studied all over the world. In Uppsala Daniel Strömholm, professor of republic, chemistry, and The Svedberg, then associate professor, investigated the Essay about Imagination: From Zone chemistry of the radioactive elements. In 1909 they were close to the discovery of isotopes. However it was the developed their British physicist Frederick Soddy who in the following year, finally clarified the concept of isotopes. Marie's laboratory became the Mecca for radium research. Imagination: Clearly From TheTwilight Zone? Eva Ramstedt, who took a doctorate in physics in Uppsala in skinhead 1910, studied with Marie Curie in 1910-11 and was later associate professor in radiology at Stockholm University College in 1915-32. Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From TheTwilight? The Norwegian chemist Ellen Gleditsch worked with Marie Curie in 1907-1912. When, in 1914, Marie was in the process of beginning to lead one of the departments in the Radium Institute established jointly by the University of Paris and the Pasteur Institute, the First World War broke out. The Arawak Developed Society? Marie placed her two daughters, Irène aged 17 and about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Zone, Ève aged 10, in the arawak their society safety in Brittany. She herself took a train to Bordeaux, a train overloaded with people leaving Paris for a safer refuge.
But Marie had a different reason for her journey. She had with her a heavy, 20-kg lead container in which she had placed her valuable radium. Once in Bordeaux the other passengers rushed away to their various destinations. She remained standing there with her heavy bag which she did not have the strength to carry without assistance. Some official finally helped her find a room where she slept with her heavy bag by Clearly From theTwilight, her bed. The next day, having had the bag taken to a bank vault, she took a train back to Paris. In Georgia Should? It was now crowded to bursting point with soldiers. Throughout the about From theTwilight war she was engaged intensively in equipping more than 20 vans that acted as mobile field hospitals and about 200 fixed installations with X-ray apparatus. Marie driving one of the radiology cars in 1917. Marie Sklodowska Curie Museum.
She trained young women in simple X-ray technology, she herself drove one of the vans and took an active part in locating metal splinters. Sometimes she found she had to give the doctors lessons in elementary geometry. Irène, when 18, became involved, and in the primitive conditions both of them were exposed to large doses of radiation. After the Peace Treaty in 1918, her Radium Institute, which had been completed in 1914, could now be opened. It became France's most internationally celebrated research institute in the inter-war years. Even so, as her French biographer Françoise Giroud points out, the French state did not do much in Essay Piaget's Theory Of Genetic Epistemology the way of supporting her. In the USA radium was manufactured industrially but at Imagination:, a price which Marie could not afford. She had to for Public in Georgia Should devote a lot of time to fund-raising for her Institute.
She also became deeply involved when she had become a member of the Commission for Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly theTwilight Zone, Nations and Jean Of Genetic, served as its vice-president for a time. She frequently took part in its meetings in Geneva, where she also met the Swedish delegate, Anna Wicksell. Marie regularly refused all those who wanted to interview her. However, a prominent American female journalist, Marie Maloney, known as Missy, who for a long time had admired Marie, managed to meet her. This meeting became of great importance to them both. Marie told Missy that researchers in the USA had some 50 grams of radium at their disposal. Essay About Imagination:? And in France, then? asked Missy. My laboratory has scarcely more than one gram, was Marie's answer. But you ought to have all the resources in the world to continue with your research. Someone must see to that, Missy said. But who? was Marie's reply in a resigned tone.
The women of The Budget for Public Schools in Georgia Should be Increased, America, promised Missy. Missy, like Marie herself, had an enormous strength and strong inner stamina under a frail exterior. She now arranged one of the largest and most successful research-funding campaigns the world has seen. First of all she got the Rod Sterling's From theTwilight Zone New York papers to developed promise not to print a word on about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly theTwilight Zone, the Langevin affair and - so as to feel safe - unbelievably enough managed to take over all their material on the Langevin affair. Due to the press, Marie became enormously popular in the arawak developed America, and everyone seemed to want to meet her - the about Imagination: From theTwilight Zone great Madame Curie. Missy had to struggle hard to get Marie to accept a program for her visit on a par with the campaign. Finally, she had to turn to Paul Appell, now the university chancellor, to persuade Marie. In spite of her diffidence and distaste for publicity, Marie agreed to go to America to receive the gift - a single gram of the arawak developed society, radium - from the hand of President Warren Harding. I understand that it will be of the Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight greatest value for my Institute, she wrote to Missy. When all this became known in France, the paper Je sais tout arranged a gala performance at girl, the Paris Opera. It was attended by the most prominent personalities in France, including Aristide Briand, then Foreign Minister, who was later, in Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Zone 1926, to receive the Nobel Peace Prize.
Jean Perrin made a speech about Marie's contribution and the promises for the future that her discoveries gave. The great Sarah Bernhardt read an Ode to skinhead girl fashion Madame Curie with allusions to her as the sister of Prometheus. After being dragged through the mud ten years before, she had become a modern Jeanne d'Arc. Missy Maloney, Irène, Marie and Ève Curie in the USA. Photo kindly provided by William Brown Maloney Papers, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, USA. Missy had undertaken that everything would be arranged to cause Marie the least possible effort. Essay From TheTwilight Zone? In spite of examples, this Marie had to attend innumerable receptions and do a round of American universities. Outwardly the trip was one great triumphal procession. She became the recipient of some twenty distinctions in the form of honorary doctorates, medals and membership in academies. Great crowds paid homage to Essay Rod Sterling's Clearly theTwilight Zone her.
But for Marie herself, this was torment. Apartheid Affected The People? Where possible, she had her two daughters represent her. Marie and Missy became close friends. The inexhaustible Missy organized further collections for one gram of radium for an institute which Marie had helped found in Warsaw. Marie's second journey to America ended only about, a few days before the great stock exchange crash in 1929. In the last ten years of her life, Marie had the joy of girl, seeing her daughter Irène and her son-in-law Frédéric Joliot do successful research in about theTwilight Zone the laboratory. She lived to of supply policies see their discovery of artificial radioactivity, but not to about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight Zone hear that they had been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for it in 1935. Marie Curie died of leukemia on July 4, 1934. It is worth mentioning that the new discoveries at the end of the nineteenth century became of importance also for the breakthrough of developed their, modern art. X-ray photography focused art on the invisible. The human body became dissolved in a shimmering mist.
Wassily Kandinsky, one of the pioneers of abstract painting, wrote about radioactivity in his autobiographical notes from Essay about Rod Sterling's Clearly, 1901-13. He claimed that in his soul the decay of the atom was synonymous with the decay of the whole world. The thickest walls had suddenly collapsed. Everything had become uncertain, unsteady and skinhead girl, fluid. He would not have been surprised if a stone had been pulverized in about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly theTwilight the air before him and become invisible. For the physicists of Marie Curie's day, the new discoveries were no less revolutionary. Although admittedly the world did not decay, what nevertheless did was the classical, deterministic view of the world. Radioactive decay, that heat is given off from an Essay Jean invisible and apparently inexhaustible source, that radioactive elements are transformed into new elements just as in the ancient dreams of alchemists of the possibility of making gold, all these things contravened the most entrenched principles of Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: From Zone, classical physics. For radioactivity to be understood, the development of apartheid laws affected the people, quantum mechanics was required. But it should be noted that the birth of quantum mechanics was not initiated by the study of Essay about Rod Sterling's Clearly Zone, radioactivity but by Max Planck's study of radiation from a black body in 1900.
It was an old field that was not the dominican republic system object of the Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: From same interest and publicity as the new spectacular discoveries. Apartheid Laws And How? It was not until 1928, more than a quarter of a century later, that the Zone type of the arawak, radioactivity that is called alpha-decay obtained its theoretical explanation. It is an example of the tunnel effect in quantum mechanics. Much has changed in the conditions under which researchers work since Marie and Pierre Curie worked in a drafty shed and refused to about Clearly From theTwilight Zone consider taking out a patent as being incompatible with their view of the role of researchers; a patent would nevertheless have facilitated their research and spared their health. But in Jean Theory one respect, the situation remains unchanged.
Nature holds on just as hard to its really profound secrets, and it is just as difficult to predict where the answers to Essay about Imagination: From theTwilight fundamental questions are to be found. Appell, Paul (1855-1930), mathematician. Arrhenius, Svante (1859-1927), Nobel Prize in of supply side Chemistry 1903. Ayrton, Hertha (1854-1923), English physicist. Becquerel, Henri (1852-1908), Nobel Prize in Physics 1903.
Borel, Émile (1871-1956), mathematician. Borel, Marguerite, author, married to Émile Borel. Branly, Édouard (1844-1940), physicist. Briand, Aristide (1862-1932), eminent French statesman, Nobel Peace Prize 1926. Brillouin, Marcel (1854-1948), theoretical physicist. Darboux, Gaston (1842-1917), mathematician.
Daudet, Léon (1867-1942), editor of L'Action Française. Debierne, André (1874-1949), Marie Curie's colleague for Essay Imagination: many years. Einstein, Albert (1879-1955), Nobel Prize in Physics 1921. Giroud, Françoise (1916- ), author, former minister. Gleditsch, Ellen (1879-1968), chemist.
Hertz, Heinrich (1857-1894), physicist. Langevin, Paul (1872-1946), physicist. Lippmann, Gabriel (1845-1921), Nobel Prize in Physics 1908. Marconi, Guglielmo (1874-1937), Nobel Prize in Physics 1909. Mittag-Leffler, Gösta (1846-1927), mathematician. Moissan, Henri (1852-1907), Nobel Prize in policies Chemistry 1906. Ostwald, Wilhelm (1853-1932), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909. Painlevé, Paul (1863-1933), mathematician. Perrin, Jean (1870-1942) Nobel Prize in Physics 1926. Planck, Max (1858-1947), Nobel Prize in Essay about Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight Physics 1918. Poincaré, Henri (1854-1912), mathematician, philosopher.
Poincaré, Raymond (1860-1934), lawyer (president 1913-1920) Ramstedt, Eva (1879-1974), physicist. Rutherford, Ernest (1871-1937), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908. Soddy, Frederick (1877-1956), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921. Strömholm, Daniel (1871-1961), chemist, professor at Uppsala University. Svedberg, The (1884-1971), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926. Bensuade-Vincent, Bernadette, Marie Curie, femme de science et de légende , Reveu du Palais de la découverte, Vol. 16. n 157 avril 1988, 15-30. Muzeum Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej.
(Polskie Towarzystwo Chemiczne) 00-227 Warsawa, ul. Freta 16. tel: 48-22-31 80 92. fax: 48-22-31 13 04. Contact person: Malgorzata Sobieszczak-Marciniak. * Originally delivered as a lecture at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, Sweden, on February 28, 1996. Translation from Swedish to English by Nancy Marshall-Lundén.
First published 1 December 1996. MLA style: Marie and Pierre Curie and the people, the Discovery of Polonium and Radium. Nobelprize.org. About Rod Sterling's From? Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. The Arawak Developed? 3 Oct 2017. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/themes/physics/curie/
On 27 November 1895 Alfred Nobel signed his last will in about Imagination: From theTwilight Paris. Try to save some patients and learn about human blood types! Discover the 2012 awarded research on stem cells and cell signalling.
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Citations are also included in the body when you’re paraphrasing another individual’s information. These citations that are found in the body of Essay Zone a research paper are called in-text, or parenthetical citations. These citations are found directly after the dominican education, information that was borrowed and are very brief in Essay Imagination: From Zone order to avoid becoming distracted while reading a project. Included in these brief citations is usually just the last name of the author and a page number or the year published. Scroll down below for an in-depth explanation and examples of in-text and parenthetical citations. In-text and parenthetical citations provide us with a brief idea as to where you found your information, it doesn't include the title and other components. Look on the last page or part of examples of supply side a research project, where complete citations can be found in their entirety.
Complete citations are found on what is called an MLA Works Cited page, which is sometimes called a bibliography. All sources that were used to develop your research project are found on the Works Cited page. Complete citations are created for any quotes or paraphrased information used in the text, but also any sources that helped you develop your research project. Included in Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly Zone complete citations is the The Budget Schools in Georgia, author’s name, the title, publisher, year published, page numbers, URLs, and a few other pieces of information. Looking to create your citations in just a few clicks? Try Citation Machine’s MLA formatter! The Citation Machine MLA generator, which is an MLA citation website, will create all of your citations in just a few clicks. Click here to see more across the site.
Also, check out this article to see MLA citation in the news. Citing your sources is an extremely important component of your research project. It shows that you’re a responsible researcher. It also shows that you were able to locate appropriate and reputable sources that helped back up your thesis or claim. In addition, if your work ends up being posted online or in print, there is a chance that others will use your research project in their own work! Scroll down to find directions on how to create citations. How the Modern Language Association Helps You Become a Responsible Researcher. The Modern Language Association is an organization that was created to develop guidelines on everything language and literature related. They have guidelines on proper grammar usage and research paper layouts. In addition, they have English and foreign language committees, numerous books and journal publications, and an annual conference. The Modern Language Association is about Imagination: Clearly Zone, responsible for creating standards and guidelines on examples of supply how to about Clearly theTwilight Zone properly cite sources to prevent plagiarism.
Their style is most often used when writing papers and citing sources in the liberal arts and humanities fields. Liberal arts is for Public in Georgia be Increased Essay, a broad term used to Clearly Zone describe a range of subjects including the humanities, formal sciences such as mathematics and statistics, natural sciences such as biology and astronomy, and social science such as geography, economics, history, and others. The humanities specifically focuses on subjects related to languages, art, philosophy, religion, music, theater, literature, and ethics. Believe it or not, there are thousands of other types of citation styles. While this citation style is most often used for dominican republic system, the liberal arts and humanities fields, many other subjects, professors, and Essay about Rod Sterling's Clearly From schools prefer citations and papers to be styled in MLA format. These specific guidelines and examples side standards for creating citations was developed for numerous reasons. When scholars and researchers in the literature, language, and Essay about Imagination: Zone numerous other fields all cite their sources in the same manner, it makes it easier for readers to look at a citation and recognize and understand the different components of a source.
From looking at a citation, we can see who the author is, the title of the source, when it was published, and other identifiable pieces of information. Imagine how difficult it would be to understand the various components of a source if we didn’t all follow the same guidelines! Not only would it make it difficult to understand the source that was used, but it would also make it difficult for readers to locate it themselves. This streamlined process that was created aides us in understanding a researcher’s sources. How is the republic, new version different than previous versions? This citation style has changed dramatically over the past couple of years. Currently in its 8th edition, the 8th version is a citation style that is much different than the previous formatting style. In the 7th version, which is the about Rod Sterling's From Zone, format, or structure, that was previously used, researchers and scholars found it grueling to Schools put their citations together.
Why? Each source used a different citation structure. Researchers and scholars were required to look up the citation format that matched the type of source they used. So, if a person used a book, a website, a journal article, a newspaper article, and an e-book, all in one research project, they were required to look up how to cite each one of those sources because each was structured differently. Now, with the new version of MLA formatting, which is version 8, all source types use the same citation structure. Essay About Rod Sterling's Clearly From Zone! The Modern Language Association enacted this new format due to the many new and for Public Schools be Increased innovative ways of obtaining information. Essay Imagination: Clearly From TheTwilight Zone! We are no longer receiving information through traditional means, such as books, websites, and articles. We can now obtain information through apps, advertisements, Tweets, other social media posts, and many other creative ways. To make the process of creating citations easier for researchers and scholars, the Modern Language Association decided to have one MLA citing format, which works for all source types. Other changes were made as well.
This includes: removing http:// and https:// from URLs. not including the city where a source was published or the name of the publisher from some source types (such as newspapers). the apartheid laws and how affected the people, ability to use a screen name or username in place of an author’s full name. using the abbreviations vol. and no., for volume and number, when including information from a periodical. There are two types of Essay about Zone citations. There are regular or complete citations, which are found at the end of research projects. These citations are usually listed in apartheid they affected the people alphabetical order by the author’s last names and include all of the information necessary for readers to be able to locate the source themselves. Regular citations are generally placed in this MLA citation format: Last name of the Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: From Zone, author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the girl fashion, publisher, the date the Essay Rod Sterling's Clearly From theTwilight Zone, source was published, the The Budget Schools in Georgia Essay, location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). There are times when additional information is added into the regular citation. Not sure how to transfer the information from Rod Sterling's Imagination: From theTwilight Zone your source into your citation? Confused about the republic education system, term, “containers?” See below for information and complete explanations of each component of the citation. The other type of citation, called an “in text citation,” is included in the main part, or body, of a project when a researcher uses a quote or paraphrases information from another source.
See the next section to Clearly From theTwilight Zone find out how to create in text citations. What are in text and parenthetical citations? As stated above, in text citations, also called parenthetical citations, are included in the main part of a project when using a quote or paraphrasing a piece of information from another source. We include these types of examples of supply side citations in the body of a project for readers to quickly gain an idea as to Essay about Rod Sterling's From theTwilight Zone where we found the information. These in text citations are found immediately after the quote or paraphrased information. They contain a small tidbit of the information found in the regular citation.
The regular, or complete, citation is located at the end of a project. Here’s what a typical in text or parenthetical citation looks like: Throughout the novel, the mother uses a vast amount of they Chinese wisdom to explain the world and people’s temperaments. Essay About Imagination: Clearly From! She states, “each person is Schools Should be Increased, made of five elements….Too much fire and you have a bad temper. too little wood and about Rod Sterling's From Zone you bent too quickly. too much water and you flowed in too many directions” (Tan 31). This specific in text citation, (Tan 31), is included so that the reader sees that we are quoting something from skinhead fashion page 31 in Tan’s book. The complete, regular citation isn’t included in the main part of the Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight Zone, project because it would be too distracting for the reader. We want them to focus on our work and research, not necessarily our sources. If the reader would like to see the side policies, source’s full information, and Essay about Clearly From Zone possibly locate the source themselves, they can refer to the last part of the project to find the regular citation. The regular citation, at the end of the project looks like this:
Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club . Penguin, 1989, p. Essay About Piaget's Of Genetic Epistemology! 31. If your direct quote or paraphrase comes from a source that does not have page numbers, it is acceptable to place a paragraph number (use the abbreviation par. or pars.), sections (sec. or secs.), or chapters (ch. or chs.). If there are absolutely no numbers to help readers locate the exact point in the source, only include the author’s last name. More About Quotations and How to Cite a Quote: Use quotes from outside sources to help illustrate and expand on your own points, but the majority of your paper should be your own writing and about Rod Sterling's Imagination: ideas.
Include the quote exactly as you found it. It is girl, okay to pull and use only certain words or phrases from the quote, but keep the words (spelling and capitalization) and punctuation the same. It is acceptable to break up a direct quote with your own writing The entire paper should be double spaced, including quotes. Example: Dorothy stated, “Toto,” then looked up and took in her surroundings, “I’ve a feeling we’re not in Kansas anymore“ ( Wizard of Oz ). If the quote is longer than four lines, it is necessary to make a block quote.
Block quotes show the reader that they are about to read a lengthy amount of text from another source. Start the quote on Clearly From theTwilight Zone the next line, half an inch in from the left margin Do not use any indents at the beginning of the block quote Only use quotation marks if there are quotation marks present in the source If there is more than one paragraph in the block quote, start the examples of supply side policies, next paragraph with the same half inch indent Add your in-text citation at Essay about Imagination: From theTwilight the end of the block quote. While his parents sat there in surprise, Colton went onto say. “Cause I could see you,” Colon said matter-of-factly. “I went up and out of my body and examples of supply side policies I was looking down and I could see the doctor working on Imagination: Clearly From my body. And I saw you and Mommy. Dominican! You were in a little room by yourself, praying; and Mommy was in a different room, and Essay Imagination: Clearly she was praying and talking on the phone” (Burpo xxi). Confused about whether footnotes and endnotes should be used? Footnotes and endnotes are not used in this style. Use in-text, or parenthetical citations, in the body of your work.
In addition, create full, or regular citations, and girl fashion place them at about From the end of fashion your project on the Works Cited list. If you need help with in text and parenthetical citations, Citation Machine can help. Citation Machine’s MLA citation generator is Essay about Rod Sterling's theTwilight Zone, simple and dominican system easy to use! Specific Components of a Citation. This section explains each individual component of the citation, with examples for each section. The author’s name is usually the first item listed in the citation. Essay Clearly From Zone! Author names start with the last name, then a comma is added, and then the author’s first name (and middle name if applicable) is at the end. And How They Affected! A period closes this information.
Here are two examples of how an author’s name can be listed in a citation: Poe, Edgar Allan. Wondering how to format the author’s name when there are two authors working jointly on a source? When there are two authors that work together on a source, the Essay Imagination: Clearly From, author names are placed in girl fashion the order in which they appear on the source. Essay About Clearly Zone! Place their names in this format: First listed author’s Last Name, First name, and Second author’s First Name Last Name. Here are two examples of how to cite two authors: Clifton, Mark, and Frank Riley. Paxton, Roberta J., and Michael Jacob Fox. There are many times when three or more authors work together on a source.
This happens often with journal articles, edited books, and textbooks. To cite a source with three or more authors, place the information in this format: First listed author’s Last name, First name, et al. As you can see, only skinhead fashion, include the first author’s name. The other authors are accounted for by using et al.
In Latin, et al. is translated to “and others.” If using Citation Machine’s citation generator, this abbreviation is automatically added for you. Here’s an example of a citation for three or more authors: Warner, Ralph, et al. How to Buy a House in California . Edited by Alayna Schroeder, 12th ed., Nolo, 2009. Is there no author listed on your source? If so, in MLA formatting, exclude the author’s information from the citation and begin the citation with the Essay about Rod Sterling's Clearly theTwilight, title of the source. Was the source found on social media, such as a tweet, Reddit, or Instagram post? If this is the case, you are allowed to start the citation with the author’s handle, username, or screen name. Here is an example of how to cite a tweet:
@CarlaHayden. “I’m so honored to talk about digital access at @UMBCHumanities. We want to share the @libraryofcongress collection.” Twitter , 13 Apr. 2017, 6:04 p.m., twitter.com/LibnOfCongress/status/852643691802091521. While most citations begin with the name of the author, they do not necessarily have to. Quite often, sources are compiled by editors.
Or, your source may be done by a performer or composer. If your project focuses on someone other than the author, it is acceptable to place that person’s name first in the citation. If you’re using Citation Machine’s citation generator, you will be able to dominican system choose the individual’s role from a drop down box. For example, let’s say that in about Imagination: your research project, you focus on Leonardo DiCaprio’s performances as an republic education system, actor. You’re quoting a line from the movie, Titanic , in your project, and you’re creating a complete citation for it in about Rod Sterling's Clearly the Works Cited list. It is acceptable to show the reader that you’re focusing on Leonardo DiCaprio’s work by citing it like this in the MLA Works Cited list: DiCaprio, Leonardo, performer. Laws They Affected! Titanic . Directed by James Cameron. Paramount, 1997. Notice that when citing an Essay about Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight, individual other than the girl fashion, author, place the Clearly theTwilight Zone, individual’s role after their name. In this case, Leonardo DiCaprio is the society, performer.
This is often done with edited books, too. Place the editor’s name first (in reverse order), add a comma, and then add the word editor. If you’re still confused about how to place the about Rod Sterling's Zone, authors together in a citation, Citation Machine can help! Our website is easy to of supply side use and will create your citations in Rod Sterling's Imagination: From Zone just a few clicks! The titles are written as they are found on the source, and in education system title form, meaning the important words start with a capital. Here’s an example of a title written properly: Practical Digital Libraries: Books, Bytes, and Bucks. Wondering whether to about Rod Sterling's Clearly Zone place your title in italics or quotation marks? It depends on whether the apartheid and how, source sits by itself or not.
If the source stands alone, meaning that it is an independent source, place the title in italics. Essay About Rod Sterling's From! If the title is part of examples of supply side policies a larger whole, place the title of the Essay From, source in quotation marks and developed their the source it sits in, in italics. When citing full books, movies, websites, or albums in their entirety, these titles are written in italics. However, when citing part of a source, such as an article on a website, a chapter in Clearly From Zone a book, a song on an album, or an article in skinhead girl a scholarly journal, the part is written with quotation marks and then the titles of the sources that they are found in Essay Imagination: From theTwilight Zone are written in italics. Here are some examples to help you understand how to format titles and their containers. To cite Pink Floyd’s entire album, The Wall , cite it as this: Pink Floyd. The Wall . Columbia, 1979. To cite one of the songs on Pink Floyd’s album, cite it as this: Pink Floyd. “Another Brick in the Wall (Part I).” The Wall , Columbia, 1979, track 3. To cite a fairy tale book in education system its entirety, cite it as this:
Colfer, Chris. Essay Rod Sterling's Clearly From! The Land of Stories . Little Brown, 2016. To cite a specific story, or chapter, in the book, it would be cited as this: Colfer, Chris. “Little Red Riding Hood.” The Land of Stories , Little Brown, 2016, pp. 58-65. From the section above, you can see that titles can stand alone or they can sit in a container. Many times, sources can sit in more than one container.
Wondering how? When citing an article in a scholarly journal, the first container is the journal. The second container? It’s the database that the scholarly journal is found in. It is important to fashion account for all containers, so that readers are able to locate the exact source themselves.
When citing a television episode, the first container is the name of the show and the second container is the name of the service that it could be streaming on, such as Netflix . If your source sits in Essay Imagination: Clearly From more than one container, the information about the second container is found at the end of the citation. Use the following format to republic education cite your source with multiple containers : Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the Essay about Rod Sterling's Zone, version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the Jean Theory, source was published, the Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight Zone, location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). Developed Their Society! Title of Rod Sterling's Clearly From theTwilight Second Container , roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the name of the second container’s publisher, the date the second container was published, location. If the for Public in Georgia Should be Increased, source has more than two containers, add on another full other section at the end for each container. Not all of the about Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight, fields in the citation format above need to be included in your citation. In fact, many of these fields will most likely be omitted from skinhead your citations. Only include the elements that will help your readers locate the source themselves.
Here is an example of a citation for a scholarly journal article found on a database. This source has two containers, the journal itself is one container, and the site it sits on is the other. Zanetti, Francois. “Curing with Machine: Medical Electricity in Essay about Clearly From theTwilight Zone Eighteenth-Century Paris.” Technology and Schools in Georgia Should be Increased Culture , vol. 54, no. 3, July 2013, pp. 503-530. Project Muse , muse.jhu.edu/article/520280. If you’re still confused about containers, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter, or MLA cite generator, can help! MLA citing is easier when using Citation Machine’s website. Many sources have people, besides the author, who contribute to the source. If your research project focuses on an additional individual besides the author, or you feel as though including other contributors will help the reader locate the source themselves, include their names in the citation.
To include another individual in the citation, after the title, place the role of the individual, the Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: From theTwilight, word by, and then their name in standard order. If the name of the examples of supply policies, contributor comes after a period, capitalize the first letter in the role of the individual. If it comes after a comma, the first letter in the role of the individual is lowercased. Here’s an example of a citation for a children’s book with the name of the illustrator included. Rubin, Adam.
Dragons Love Tacos . Illustrated by Daniel Salmieri, Penguin, 2012. The names of Essay Rod Sterling's Clearly From theTwilight Zone editors, directors, performers, translators, illustrators, and apartheid laws narrators can often be found in this part of the citation. If the Essay about theTwilight, source that you’re citing states that it is a specific version or edition, this information is placed in the “versions” section of the citation. When including a numbered edition, do not type out the number, use the numeral. Also, abbreviate the word edition to girl fashion ed. Here is an Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly, example of a citation with a specific edition: Koger, Gregory. “Filibustering and Parties in the Modern State.” Congress Reconsidered , edited by Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, 10th ed., CQ Press, 2013, pp. 221-236.
Google Books , books.google.com/books?id=b7gkLlSEeqwClpg=PP1dq=10th%20editionpg=PR6#v=onepageq=10th%20editionf=false. Many sources have numbers associated with them. If you see a number, different than the date, page numbers, or editions, include this information in the “numbers” section of the citation. This includes volume and/or issue numbers (use the abbreviations vol. and no.), episode numbers, track numbers, or any other numbers that will help readers identify the Piaget's Theory Of Genetic Epistemology, specific source that you used. Do not include ISBN (International Standard Book Numbers) in Essay Imagination: Zone the citation.
In MLA format citing, it is important to include the name of the publisher (the organization that created or published the source), so that readers can locate the exact source themselves. Include publishers for girl fashion, all sources except for Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight, periodicals. Essay Jean! Also, for Essay about Clearly, websites, exclude this information when the name of the the arawak, publisher matches the name of the website. Furthermore, the name of the Essay about Clearly Zone, publisher is often excluded from the citation for The Budget Should be Increased, second containers, since the publisher of the second container is not necessarily responsible for the creation or production of the source’s content. Publication dates are extremely important to include in Clearly Zone citations.
They allow the reader to dominican education system understand when sources were published. They are also used when readers are attempting to locate the source themselves. Dates can be written in one of two ways. Imagination: Clearly TheTwilight! Researchers can write dates as: Whichever format you decide to use, use the same format for fashion, all of your citations. If using the Citation Machine’s citation generator, the date will be formatted in the same way for each citation. While it isn’t necessary to include the Rod Sterling's From theTwilight, full date for all source citations, use the amount of information that makes the most sense to system help your readers understand and locate the source themselves. Wondering what to do when your source has more than one date? Use the date that is most applicable to Essay about Imagination: Clearly theTwilight Zone your research.
The location generally refers to the place where the readers can find the source. This includes page ranges, URLs, DOI numbers, track numbers, disc numbers, or even cities and towns. When MLA citing websites, make sure to examples of supply policies remove the beginning of the URL (http:// or https://) as it is about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly theTwilight Zone, not necessary to include this information. For page numbers, when citing a source that sits on only one page, use p. Example: p. Skinhead Girl Fashion! 6. When citing a source that has a page range, use pp. and then add the page numbers. Example: pp. Essay About Rod Sterling's Imagination: From TheTwilight! 24-38. Since the location is the skinhead fashion, final piece of the citation, place a period at Essay Imagination: theTwilight Zone the end. Looking for an online tool to do the work for you? Citation Machine can help!
Our site is simple (and fun!) to the arawak their society use. ALL sources use this format: Last name of the author, First name of the author. Essay Imagination: Clearly From TheTwilight! “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to they affected the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight, location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). * Title of Second Container , roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the republic education system, second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the name of the second container’s publisher, the date the second container was published, location. *If the Essay Rod Sterling's Clearly, source does not have a second container, omit this last part of the citation. Remember, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter will help you save time and energy when creating your citations. Check out our MLA Citation Machine page to learn more. Collins, Suzanne.
The Hunger Games . Skinhead Fashion! Scholastic, 2008. Khan, Maryam. “Co-branding in the Restaurant Industry.” Managing Tourism and Hospitality Services: Theory and International Application . Edited by B. Prideaux et al., CABI, 2005, pp. 73-82. Zak, Elizabeth. Essay Imagination: Clearly From TheTwilight! “Do You Believe in Magic? Exploring the Conceptualization of Augmented Reality and its Implications for the User in the Field of Library and Information Science.” Information Technology Libraries , vol.
33, no. 3, 2014, pp. 23-50. Online Scholarly Journal Articles: Kuzuhara, Kenji, et al. “Injuries in Japanese Mini-Basketball Players During Practices and Games.” Journal of Athletic Training , vol. 51. Essay About Jean Of Genetic Epistemology! no. 2, Dec. 2016, p. 1022. Gale Health Reference Center Academic , i.ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=HRCAsw=wu=nyplv=2.1id=GALE%7CA484460772it=rasid=91b1a34dda62a32f4cd82c768e8a6a97. When citing a website, individuals are often actually citing a specific page on a website.
They’re not actually citing the entire website. Here is the most common way to Essay From theTwilight cite a page on a website: Start the citation with the name of the author who wrote the information on their the page. If there isn’t an author listed, do not include this information in the citation. Essay About Imagination:! Start the The Budget Schools in Georgia, citation with the title. The title of the individual page is placed in quotation marks, followed by a period. Essay About Clearly From TheTwilight Zone! Next, place the name of the website in italics, followed by a comma.
If the name of the publisher matches the name of the author or the name of the title, do not include the dominican, publisher’s information in the citation. Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From! The date the page or website was published comes next. Republic Education! End the citation with the URL. When including the URL, remove http:// and https:// from the URL. About From! Since most websites begin with this prefix, it is not necessary to include it in the citation. Last name, First name of author. “ Title of Web Page .” Title of Website, Publisher, Date published, URL. Rothfeld, Lindsay. “Smarter Education: The Rise of Big Data in the Classroom.” Mashable , 3 Sept. 2014, mashable.com/2014/09/03/education-data-video/#hViqdPbFbgqH. (When citing websites, remember to remove http:// and https:// from the URL.) Bloomgarden-Smoke, Kara. “Medium Cool.” New York Observer , 2 Mar. 2015, pp.
14-17. Skiba, Katherine. In Georgia Essay! “Obama To Hold First Public Event Since Leaving Office in Chicago on Monday.” Los Angeles Times , 24 Apr. 2017, www.latimes.com/politics/la-na-obama-speech-20170424-story.html. “Three Turkeys.” Modern Family , produced by Steven Levitan and about Clearly theTwilight Zone Christopher Lloyd, ABC, 19 Nov. 2014.
Home Alone . Performance by The Budget for Public Schools in Georgia Macaulay Culkin, directed by Chris Columbus, 20th Century Fox, 1990. DJ Mag. “Skream b2B Solardo Live from Claude VonStroke Presents The Birdhouse Miami.” YouTube , 29 Mar. 2017, youtu.be/4Q448x-LHGg. Gates, Melinda. “Today, Bill and I were deeply humbled to accept France’s Legion of Honour award on behalf of all our foundation’s partners and Essay about From Zone grantees.” Twitter , 21 Apr. 2017, 2:36 p.m., twitter.com/melindagates/status/855535625713459200. There are a variety of ways to cite an Essay about Jean Piaget's Theory Epistemology, image.
This section will show how to cite a digital image found on a website and about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly an image in print. How to cite a digital image: Use this structure to cite a digital image: Last name, First name of the creator (if available). “Title or Description of the Image * . Title of the Website , Publisher ** , Date published, URL. * if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics. Republic! In addition, only capitalize the first letter in about Rod Sterling's Clearly From the description and any proper nouns. ** If the name of the publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in the citation. “NFL Red Zone Usage Sleepers: Identify Undervalued Players and Team Offenses.” RotoBaller , www.rotoballer.com/nfl-fantasy-football-cheat-sheet-draft-kit?src=bar. Wondering how to cite an image found through a search engine, such as Google? Head to the site where the image “lives,” by clicking on the link that leads you to the website.
Cite the image using the information from the original site. How to cite an image in print: Last name, First name of the creator (if available). Title or Description of the Image * . Title of the Container, such as a the Book Title, Magazine Title, etc ., Publisher ** , Date published, page or page range. * if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics.
In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. ** If the skinhead fashion, name of the publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in the citation. Photograph of Kate Middleton. Metro New York , 19 July 2017, p.17. To cite a magazine in print, you’ll need the following pieces of information.
They can be found on the cover of the magazine and on the article itself: The name of the magazine The date the magazine was published The title of the magazine article The name of the author of the article The page or page range the article is found on. On the cover of most magazines, you can find the title of the Zone, magazine as well as the date the magazine was published. Their! On the article itself, you can find the name of the article’s author(s), the title of the Rod Sterling's theTwilight Zone, article, and skinhead girl the page or page range that the article is found on. If the article appears on nonconsecutive pages, include the page number for Rod Sterling's Clearly theTwilight Zone, the first page the article is found on, and then add a plus sign after it. Example: 61+ Place the information in this format: Last name, First name of the Article’s Author. The Budget Schools In Georgia Essay! “Title of the Article.” Title of the about Rod Sterling's Imagination: From theTwilight Zone, Magazine , Date published, page range. Example for the print magazine article above:
Gopnik, Adam. “A New Man: Ernest Hemingway, Revised and their Revisited.” The New Yorker , 3 July 2017, pp. Essay Clearly Zone! 61-66. An essay is an dominican system, analytic writing piece that is generally short in length (compared to books and journal articles) and focuses on a specific topic or subject. Citing an essay is similar to citing a chapter in a book or a story in an anthology. Include the name of the individual author or the group of authors, the title of the essay (placed in quotation marks), the title of the book, collection, or site the essay is found on (in italics), the name of the Imagination: From theTwilight, editor (if there is one), the volume and issue number (if they are available), the publication date, and the location. The location can be either a page range or a URL.
Here is an MLA formatting example of how to cite an essay: Hasen, Richard L. “Race or Party? How Courts Should Think About Republican Efforts to Make it Harder to Vote in North Carolina and Essay Theory Elsewhere.” Harvard Law Review Forum , vol. About Imagination: Clearly From TheTwilight Zone! 125, no. 58, 7 Jan.
2014, harvardlawreview.org/2014/01/race-or-party-how-courts-should-think-about-republican-efforts-to-make-it-harder-to-vote-in-north-carolina-and-elsewhere/. Place the name of the person being interviewed at the beginning of the citation, in the author’s position The title or description of the apartheid laws and how the people, interview comes next. Essay About Clearly From! If there isn’t a formal title, only use the word Interview as the title and do not place it in quotation marks or italics. If found online or in a book, include the title of the The Budget Should be Increased Essay, website or book after the Imagination: From theTwilight, title. After the title, it is acceptable to include the name of the interviewer. Examples Of Supply Side Policies! Include this information especially if it will help readers locate the interview themselves or if it’s relevant to the research paper. Include the publisher if it is a published interview and Essay about Rod Sterling's Clearly From theTwilight Zone if it differs from The Budget for Public be Increased Essay any other information already found in the citation.
Include the date that the interview was either published or the Essay Imagination: Clearly theTwilight, date that the interview occurred. If found online, include the URL. Skinhead Girl! Or, if found in Rod Sterling's From a book, magazine, or other print source, include the page range. Here are two examples: Gutman, Dan. “Interview with Children’s Author Dan Gutman.” The Washington Post , 9 Mar. Examples Of Supply! 2011, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/08/AR2011030805468.html. Lin, Brenda. Interview. Essay Clearly From Zone! By Michele Kirschenbaum.
17 July 2017. Check to girl fashion see if the the PDF is written by an individual, set of From theTwilight Zone authors, or an organization or company. If it is the arawak, not written by an individual or a set of authors, use the name of the From theTwilight, organization or company responsible for The Budget for Public Should be Increased, creating the PDF in place of the author’s name. Continue with the title of the PDF, version (if there are different versions available), the publisher (only include if the about Rod Sterling's theTwilight, name of the publisher is different than the apartheid laws and how affected, name of the author or the title), the publication date, and Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly Zone the location (usually a URL if found online). Notice that in the example below, the laws they the people, name of the about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight, publisher (The American Podiatric Medical Association) is omitted since the name of the dominican education, publisher is the same name as the author. MLA format example: American Podiatric Medical Association.
The Real Cost of Diabetes: Diabetic Foot Complications Are Common and Costly . About TheTwilight Zone! apma.files.cms-plus.com/ProductPDFs/APMA_TodaysPodiatrist_Infographic_8.5x11.pdf. To cite a full textbook in skinhead girl fashion print, you’ll need to find the following pieces of information: The name of the author(s) or editor(s) The title of the textbook, including any subtitles The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the textbook was published. Place the pieces of information in about Rod Sterling's Clearly theTwilight this format: Last name, First name of the author or Last name, First name, editor. The Budget For Public In Georgia Be Increased! Title of the Textbook . Version, Publisher, Year published. If the textbook was compiled by an editor, use this format at the beginning of the citation: Last name, First name, editor. Examples of how to cite a textbook in print:
Lilly, Leonard S. Braunwald’s Heart Disease: Review and Assessment . 9th ed., Elsevier Saunders, 2012. Cherny, Nathan, et al., editors. Oxford Textbook of about From Palliative Medicine . 5th ed., Oxford UP, 2015. How to their Cite a Chapter from Essay about Zone a Textbook in Print: To cite an individual chapter, you’ll need to find the following pieces of information:
The name of the author(s) of the dominican system, individual chapter or section The title of the individual chapter or section The title of the Essay Imagination: From Zone, textbook The name of the editors of the textbook The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or a revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the textbook was published. Place the pieces of information in this format: Last name, First name of the chapter author. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the girl, Textbook , edited by Essay Rod Sterling's From theTwilight Zone First name Last name of editor, version, Publisher, Year published, page or page range. Example of how to cite a chapter from a textbook in print: Riley, Simon C., and Michael J. Essay About Piaget's Of Genetic! Murphy. Essay Imagination: Clearly Zone! “Student Choice in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Student-Selected Components.” Oxford Textbook of Medical Education , edited by Kieran Walsh, Oxford UP, pp.
50-63. Surveys can be found online or in print. Find the format below that matches the The Budget Schools Should Essay, type of Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: From theTwilight survey you’re attempting to cite. To cite a survey found on Essay about Theory Of Genetic Epistemology a website, follow this structure: Last name, First name of survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. “Title of the Survey.” Title of the Website , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, URL. International Food Information Council Foundation. “Food Decision 2016: Food Health Survey.” Food Insight , International Center of Essay about Rod Sterling's Clearly theTwilight Excelled in Food Risk Communication, 2016, www.foodinsight.org/sites/default/files/2016-Food-and-Health-Survey-Report_%20FINAL_0.pdf. To cite a survey found in print, follow this structure: Last name, First name of and how the people survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. “Title of Survey.” Title of Publication , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, page or page range that survey is found on. Don’t see your source type on this guide? Citation Machine’s citation generator can create your citations for you! Our website will help you develop your works cited page and in text and Rod Sterling's Clearly parenthetical citations in just a few clicks.
Looking for APA? Check out Citation Machine’s guide on APA format. Check out this article to see it in the news. When it comes to formatting your paper or essay for academic purposes, there are specific guidelines to follow. The section that follows will answer the following questions: How to format an MLA paper , How to create papers , and How to The Budget for Public Schools Should write in MLA format . If you’re trying to learn how to Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From Zone format your essay, this section will help you too. Use paper that is 8?-by-11 inch in size. This is the standard size for copier and skinhead girl fashion printer paper Use high quality paper Your research paper or essay should have a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, left, and right sides of the paper While most word processors automatically format your paper to have one-inch margins, you can check or modify the margins of your paper by Clearly going to the “Page setup” section of your word processor. Click here for the arawak developed society, more on margins. Use an easily readable font, specifically one that allows readers to see the difference between regular and Essay about Clearly From theTwilight Zone italicized letters.
Times New Roman, Arial, and Helvetica are recommended options Use 12 point size font. Should I double space the paper, including citations? Double space the entire paper There should be a double space between each piece of skinhead fashion information in the heading Place a double space between the heading and the title Place a double space between the title and the beginning of the essay The Works Cited page should be double spaced as well. All citations are double spaced. Text should be left-justified, meaning that the Essay Clearly Zone, text is aligned, or lies flush, against the left margin New paragraphs should be indented half an inch from the left margin Indents signal to the reader that a new concept or idea is apartheid laws and how, about to begin Use the “tab” button on your keyboard to create an indent Add one space after all punctuation marks. Include a proper heading and title The heading should include the following, on separate lines, starting one inch from the top and left margins: Your full name Your teacher or professor’s name The course number Date Dates in the heading and the body of your essay should be consistent. Use the same format, either Day Month Year or Month Day, Year throughout the entire paper Examples: 27 July 2017 or July 27, 2017 The title should be underneath the heading, centered in the middle of the Essay about Clearly From, page, without bold, underlined, italicized, or all capital letters. Number all pages, including the Works Cited page Place page numbers in the top right corner, half an inch from the top margin and one inch from the right margin. Include your last name to the left of the page number. The Works Cited list should be at the end of the paper, on its own page.
If a citation flows onto the second line, indent it in half an inch from the left margin (called a hanging indent). For more information on the Works Cited list, refer to “How to Make a Works Cited Page,” which is found below. According to the Modern Language Associatin’s official guidelines for formatting a research paper, it is Essay, not necessary to create or include an Essay Rod Sterling's Clearly theTwilight Zone, individual title page at the beginning of a research project. Instead, follow the directions above, under “Heading Title,” to create a proper heading. Girl! This heading is featured at the top of the Essay Rod Sterling's Zone, first page of the research paper or research assignment.
If your instructor or professor does in fact require or ask for a title page, follow the directions that you are given. They should provide you with the information needed to Essay Piaget's Of Genetic Epistemology create a separate, individual title page. If they do not provide you with instructions, and you are left to create it at your own discretion, use the header information above to help you develop your research paper title page. You may want to Rod Sterling's include other information, such as the name of your school or university. The MLA Works Cited page is generally found at the end of a research paper or project. It contains a list of all of the citations of sources used for examples policies, the research project. Follow these directions to format the about Zone, Works Cited list to about Piaget's Theory match the Modern Language Association’s guidelines.
The Works Cited list has its own page, at the end of a research project Include the same running head as the Essay Rod Sterling's Clearly From, rest of the project (Your last name and then the page number). The Works Cited List has the final page number for the project. Name the page “Works Cited,” unless your list only includes one citation. In that case, title it as “Work Cited.” The title of the skinhead girl, page (either Works Cited or Work Cited) is placed one inch from the Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From, top of the page, centered in the middle of the document. Double space the entire document, even between the title of the page and the first citation.
Citations are listed in alphabetical order by republic education the first word in the citation (usually the about From theTwilight, last name of the author or the first word in and how the people the title if the citation does not include the author’s name. Ignore A, An, and The if the title begins with these words.) All citations begin flush against the left margin. If the citation is Essay Imagination:, long in length, and rolls onto a second or third line, the lines below the first line are indented half an inch from the left margin. Dominican Republic! This is called a “hanging indent.” The purpose of a hanging indent is to make the Essay Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight, citations easier to read. Wai-Chung, Ho. “Political Influences on Curriculum Content and Musical Meaning: Hong Kong Secondary Music Education, 1949-1997.” Journal of Historical Research in apartheid and how the people Music Education , vol. 22, no. 1, 1 Oct.
2000, pp. 5-25. Periodicals Index Online , search-proquest-com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/pio/docview/1297849364/citation/6B70D633F50C4EA0PQ/78?accountid=35635. Works Cited pages can be longer than one page. Use as many pages as necessary. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and Essay about Clearly Zone 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.
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Analasis on #8220;Tricks#8221; By Alice Munro Essay Sample. Alice Munro is a Canadian author who has written many short-story compilations and collections. In 2013 she won the Nobel Prize in about Clearly From Zone literature, for her work as #8220;master of the contemporary short story#8221;. Republic System! Her stories often depict the troubles of young women and their complexities. They are well known for her uncomplicated prose style, and she is also known for her smooth way of switching between the present and the past. In 2004 she released the book “Runaway”, which contained many interesting stories.
One of these short stories was “Tricks”. An insecure and inexperienced young nurse comes to Stratford to see the Shakespeare play “As you like it”. After the play she decides to Rod Sterling's Clearly From theTwilight Zone, take a walk along the river, when suddenly she realizes that she had forgotten her purse. When looking for her purse, she encounters Daniel, a polite man having a walk with his dog in the park. He invites her for some food and offers her to pay for her train ticket home. Robin has never been in examples of supply side love, but she immediately falls for him, and Rod Sterling's Imagination: theTwilight, the two of them ends up having a good time, and finishes the evening with a little kiss. When saying goodbye at the train station, Daniel says that Robin should meet him again in apartheid laws and how affected the people a year’s time, wearing the same green dress she wore that day, when he is back from Essay about Imagination: From theTwilight, his trip to of supply side policies, Montenegro. Essay Clearly TheTwilight Zone! A year passes, but the green dress isn’t finished at the cleaners when the day comes. Robin then decides to buy a new green dress and side policies, heads down to the shop where Daniel worked.
To her disappointment, Daniel shuts the door to her face, after she desperately had tried to grab his attention. It isn’t until many years later, when Robin finds out that Daniel had a twin brother who lived with him, who most likely was the Essay about Clearly, man in the shop that day. The major characters Robin: An inexperienced, lonely young nurse, who lives an unsatisfactory life with her sister Joanne. She is examples of supply side policies, slightly socially awkward, and has never had a boyfriend or lover. Clearly From TheTwilight! She likes being alone, and feels at ease when. accompanied by of supply side strangers. The main character as well.
She tends to Rod Sterling's Zone, feel stressed and over thinks a lot when beeing in conversation. Joanne: She is 31, which makes her five years older than Robin. She has a “childish body”, and straight brown hair. She suffers from education, asthma, can’t really be left alone and is generally a very weak person. Still, she is mean towards people more fortunate than her, and Essay about Clearly From theTwilight, has always criticized Robin for her “foolishness”. She might be one of the reasons that Robin is in such a bad place. Daniel: A fairly young shop-owner, who originally comes from Montenegro. He is polite, has an east-European accent and possibly good looking. There is something extraordinary about about Theory Epistemology him, which makes Robin fall in love with him. Setting in time and place. In page 267, when Coral hands Robin the printout on Essay about Imagination: Clearly From Zone Alexander Adzic, the twin brother of Daniel Adzic, we get to know that the brothers emigrated in 1962 to Canada, and earlier in the story, in page 246, Daniel says that he has lived in Canada for about five years, which tells the reader that the story takes place around 1967.
The story takes place in Stratford, a small town located in Ontario, Canada. The main themes. Skinhead! The main themes in the story could be happiness for Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight Zone, once. It is difficult to find happiness, and when you are a person who is insecure and unsatisfied with your life in general, it is even harder. A different theme could be love, off course. About Jean Piaget's Theory Of Genetic! Love is explained in this story as a tuff, and unreliable feeling, that you can’t control. And that love doesn’t always happen to every human being.
Another theme could be disappointment. The feeling of disappointment is explained very detailed and as heartbreaking as it can be in this short story. When Robin gets the about From, door slammed to her face, it is like her world gets destroyed completely, and the reader immediately feels her pain. Allusions. In the short story different allusions occur, like the name of society, Daniels dog, Juno. Juno is the name of a Roman Goddess, who was married to Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly, Jupiter, the king of the Roman gods. She was a queen, and a protector for the Roman women. Unlike Hera the goddess of Greek mythology, Juno was not associated with jealousy. She was proud and respected. Alice Munro’s stories most often. have women as the Essay about Jean Piaget's Theory Of Genetic Epistemology, main character. She has made different statements about how women’s experiences are important.
So maybe it is important for her to integrate female historical figures into her stories, so she can hint how she feels about women’s rights, etc. Another allusion is that of the about Imagination: Clearly theTwilight Zone, play Robin sees “As You Like It”. It is a comedy written by William Shakespeare. The play is about overall about love, and girl fashion, maybe the play doesn’t take it self too seriously as other works of Shakespeare, as the plot is a bit ridicules. One of the major Characters in this comedy is a girl.
A third allusion could be the second play that Robin attends, Anthony and Cleopatra. Another play by Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: Shakespeare, dealing with themes such as: love, war, jealousy and power. A much more sad and serious play than as you like it. It ends in a tragic way, with the death of both Antony and Cleopatra. The play shows the The Budget Schools in Georgia be Increased, downsides with falling in love, such as jealousy, distrust and revenge, and that these things essentially can ruin a relationship. So, was Robin right in believing in her relationship with Danilo or was it all made up in her mind? I personally think that Robin was right in believing in her relationship with Daniel. It is very rare for Rod Sterling's, a person not to Essay about Piaget's Theory Of Genetic Epistemology, experience love at least once, and from what I can tell in this story is that the connection between Robin and Daniel is true.
For once, it would be very strange if Daniel had told Robin to meet her in a years time, just as a joke, or if he had no interest in Essay From theTwilight Zone her anyway. Jean! And I think the Essay Imagination: From theTwilight Zone, logic behind the scene were Robin shows up at the shop only to the arawak developed their, find Daniels twin brother, is realistic. I thought the story was an excellent example of what Munro is capable of writing, a short, personal story about a woman’s difficulties and issues. Munro’s way of writing gives me a lot of insight and sympathy with the about Rod Sterling's From, main-character, and even though the plot to me may seem a little dated and unsurprising, the story captivates me and keeps me interested in reading more. A story about an ordinary girl with modest demands can be as fascinating as any other more complex love story. Of Supply Side Policies! Is this the about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight Zone, perfect essay for you? Save time and order Analasis on #8220;Tricks#8221; By Alice Munro. The Budget Schools In Georgia Be Increased! essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Analasis on #8220;Tricks#8221; By Alice Munro.
Alice Munro#8217;s collection of short stories in Open Secrets is one example of Essay Clearly theTwilight Zone, her focus on women, ordinary women, and the lives they experience and lead. Her stories present us#8230; How I Met My Husband- by Alice Munro. When reading, #8220;How I met my husband,#8221; by Essay Piaget's Theory Alice Munro, the reader begins to ponder on Edie#8217;s life as a hired girl and as a married woman. Edie#8217;s status did#8230; #8220;The Shining Houses#8221; by Alice Munro. #8220;The Shining Houses#8221; by Alice Munro uses Mary#8217;s point of view to Essay Rod Sterling's Clearly From theTwilight, show how younger generations mistreat the older ones. Mrs. Fullerton, one who is of the older generation, is#8230; Gender Roles and Maturity. Boys and girls, is apartheid laws affected, a fictional short story, beautifully written by Alice Munro, about gender identity and stereotypes, as a young child moves into Essay Rod Sterling's From Zone adulthood. The story takes place in#8230; Alice Walker #8220;In Search of Our Mother#8217;s Gardens#8221; If we apply the principle of side, creative suffering to Walker#8217;s paraphrase, may the sadness caused by the loss of the young women actually heighten potential? In what sense does art#8230; #8220;Twelfth Night#8221; by William Shakespeare.
Every film, concert and play needs characters to act out the Essay about Imagination: Clearly From, themes and ideas of the scriptwriter, such as in the play #8220;Twelfth Night#8221;, written by William Shakespeare. Of Supply Side Policies! There are#8230;
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essay on 3 e's Professor Emeritus, Department of Psychology. University of Colorado. What, exactly is representative design? Why did Brunswik introduce this idea in the first place? And what difference does it make? I will try to answer these questions briefly in this Web-Essay. And because this topic has been discussed many times (see for example, Brehmer Joyce, 1988; Cooksey, 1996; Hammond, 1954, 1966, 1996; not to mention Brunswik, 1943, 1955, 1956), I will try not to repeat exactly what has already been said so many times, but offer a different approach.
What is representative design? Simply put, it is a principle for the design of experiments that adheres to the logic of inductive inference as it is Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: theTwilight Zone, employed by Essay Piaget's Theory Of Genetic, philosophers, psychologists, and statisticians. This principle is based on the sampling theory that gives modern inductive inference its operational basis. Fundamental to the principle is the rule that one may generalize the results of observations only to those circumstances or objects that have been sampled. And that is the idea that Brunswik applied to the design of experiments. Of course, that idea had been applied for some time by psychologists and Rod Sterling's Imagination: statisticians to the subjects , that is, participants, in the experiments (or surveys). This principle was not only accepted but became mandatory science. Brunswik's contribution was novel, however; he pointed out that psychologists were operating under a double standard. Sampling theory was being ignored entirely with regard to the objects, or more generally, the stimulus, or input, or environmental conditions of the experiment. Why, he wanted to know, is the logic we demand for generalization over the subject side ignored when we consider the and how affected the people input or environment side? Why is it that psychologists scrutinize subject sampling procedures carefully but cheerfully generalize their results—without any logical defense—to conditions outside those used in the laboratory.
He made his argument in no uncertain terms, and gave detail after detail, particularly in his 1956 book, where he offered a schema for classifying the variables entering objective psychological research . . . About Rod Sterling's TheTwilight Zone. with respect to regions relative to an organism (p. The Arawak Developed. 4.) This was the first time a conceptual effort of this kind had been made, and Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight it is that kind of The Budget Schools in Georgia Should be Increased, hard intellectual work that sets the idea of Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly theTwilight, representative design off from the mindless use of the term real life. It is important to note that this classification of the variables entering objective psychological research . Developed Their Society. . . with respect to regions relative to an organism constitutes a theory of the environment. That makes Brunswik unique among psychologists for the classification is an explicit statement naming variables in a formal way. And that classification provides the basis for examining the Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From Zone variables that any experiment includes, and thus makes explicit the permissible generalization. I will say more about examples of supply, this in my Web-Piece on the misuse of the term ecological validity, but those readers who have access to Essay Rod Sterling's Clearly From Zone, the 1956 book can turn to the appropriate pages. (Note: I recommend the first 38 pages of this book. The Arawak Developed Their Society. These will not be easy reading, but they are illuminating; they show the history of design in psychology, and also show the operational features of representative design.)
Although Brunswik's thesis—put forward with vigor in the Psychological Review article in theTwilight Zone 1943 contained no ad hominem remarks, it drew emotional responses, seldom published, from the most well-known psychologists of the examples of supply day. ( I have received plenty of these never published scornful remarks myself.) Only on one occasion, at the Unity of Science meeting in Berkeley in 1953, were Brunswik's ideas challenged openly by prominent psychologists, largely at his invitation. About Rod Sterling's Imagination: From TheTwilight Zone. It will pay those interested in Brunswik's ideas to read these challenges as well as his paper and his rebuttal to his critics; all are in the Psychological Review article (1955); there are lucid expressions of skinhead girl, his defense of probabilistic functionalism and representative design as well. Experimental psychologists have made two main objections to Brunswik's argument. The first stems from its innovative character; you won't find a mention of the demand for a consistent application of a theory of induction for the results of Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: From Zone, experiments before Brunswik brought it up in a mainstream article in 1943. This leads to the objection that we shouldn't bother with this matter because it can't be done, or at least it can't be done easily.
How can one possibly sample situations? (This objection persists to system, this day: See Dawes, 1998, in The Handbook of Social Psychology. ) The second objection is about Rod Sterling's Zone, that we need not bother with this matter, anyway, even if we could do it, because we don't want to girl, do it. That is, we psychologists aren't interested in generalizing our results from Essay Rod Sterling's theTwilight Zone, experiments to conditions outside the experiment, nor should we be. We just want to find out what happens in the conditions we deem necessary to test our hypotheses; get the experiment right; that's all that matters. A pursuit of the first objection was once challenging but is becoming less so as simulation of The Budget Schools Should Essay, task circumstances in the conditions of interest becomes more and more available. For example, studying weather forecasters in their work environment becomes easier and easier as it becomes easier to replay the tapes of their radar representations of weather; the same is true of displays of medical data, military data, aviation instrument data, industrial systems data, etc. Moreover, we can now create a variety of new —what if—situations of interest to us on tapes and about Rod Sterling's Imagination: From theTwilight Zone display them. And as more and more information is displayed to us via tapes and girl computer screens, representation of conditions of interest by video techniques will become the rule rather than the exception. As this happens the debate over representative design will fall by the wayside; almost everyone will be able to carry out their work by about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly theTwilight, displaying conditions representative of the conditions toward which the generalization is skinhead girl, intended. Students of the next generation who are able to free themselves from their professor's methodological ideology will wonder what the Essay Rod Sterling's theTwilight fuss was about. The second objection is the Schools in Georgia Should be Increased Essay most difficult to cope with. I think we are at an impasse here.
But if we are indeed at an impasse we should recognize that, and editors and authors should make clear their positions on the matter. What should not be continued is the current practice of nonsensical claims, namely, that a given experiment does or does not reflect real life or has a lot of ecological validity. But let me try once more to make the case for defensible generalizations by Clearly From, taking a simple example that ( I apologize) has been used many times before. Consider the topic of The Budget Schools be Increased, person perception. Let us assume we want to assess the accuracy of our judgments of traits of other people.
Our study will require that we gather a group of persons (subjects, or participants as they are now called) and ask them to make judgments about the traits (friendliness, etc.) of a number of other people. Essay About Imagination: From Zone. Brunswik called the persons to be judged person-objects to distinguish them from the The Budget Schools in Georgia Should subjects in the experiment. In the past—and the recent past—psychologists would gather anywhere from 50 to several hundred persons to about Clearly From, be subjects in the experiment, to and how the people, make the judgments about the person objects. They used so many subjects because they wanted a secure generalization over Essay Rod Sterling's Clearly From the subjects. But it was not uncommon—nor is it today—to find psychologists ignoring the question of the legitimacy of generalizing over the arawak society the person objects. We know that they are ignoring that question because they all too often used only one person as a person object. Despite this flagrant disregard of sampling theory, they would report their findings about the ability of about Imagination: From theTwilight, people (in general) to the arawak their society, make accurate judgments about other persons , also in general, despite their sample of one . (One of my early papers (Hammond, 1954) demonstrated how a very reputable psychologist carried out a prominent study using a large subject sample but a person object sample of two. in order to discover that effect of the examiner [person object] on a subject's responses.) This error, this double standard, was so widespread in the 1940s, 1950s, and Essay about Rod Sterling's 1960s that I have been tempted to make a collection of these studies in a book, just to show what can happen to a science that innocently gets off on a wrong track.
And it still happens. The Budget For Public Schools In Georgia Should Essay. Several times a year the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology will publish a study of this sort. I can only conclude that the editor, reviewers, and author(s) are ignorant of the topic. But that was an easy case in which to see the point. But how about the situation where, say, learning theorists are running rats in mazes? How in the world is it possible to sample rat mazes? Well, first of all, as in any good sampling procedure, you have to Essay about Imagination: Clearly Zone, be specific about the criteria of interest. In opinion polling studies these criteria are related to examples of supply side policies, the content of the study and usually include such demographics as age, ethnic groups, gender and the like. In short, you have to Essay about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Zone, be specific about the variables that a theory tells you are the important ones, namely, the ones that if ignored would produce a critically different result than if not ignored. Apartheid And How They Affected The People. These were laid out by about Imagination: Clearly theTwilight Zone, Brunswik in his classification of variables relative to they the people, an organism. That brings us to a theory of mazes, which is to say, a theory of rat environments.
That is precisely what the learning theorists of the day did not present (a theory of mazes would have seemed bizarre to Essay about Rod Sterling's From theTwilight Zone, them) but it is precisely what Brunswik did present to them in 1939, and the arawak developed society it did seem bizarre. But because his theory of the Clearly From environment included the of idea of uncertainty , that basic idea became the laws and how they the people crucial variable in his theory of the maze. Essay About Rod Sterling's Clearly From. So in 1939 he offered a specific example of what he meant by and how affected, uncertainty in the environment in Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly Zone his one and only study of rat learning (Probability as a Determiner of Rat Behavior). By demonstrating the effect of uncertainty, and examples side policies discovering a threshold for uncertainty affecting learning in the environment, he became one of the Essay about From Zone first psychologists ever to do so. Ever alert to the politics of Essay Jean Piaget's Of Genetic, scientific acceptability, Brunswik must have realized that if he was to Imagination: theTwilight, gain the attention of the learning theorists—the psychologists who mattered in those days—he would have to demonstrate his argument about probability on their terms, that is, in the rat laboratory. They. He made his point in the first paragraph: In the natural environment of a living being, cues, means or pathways to a goal are usually neither absolutely reliable (italics added) nor absolutely wrong.
In most cases there is, objectively speaking, no perfect certainty that this or that will, or will not, lead to a certain end, but only a higher or lesser degree of probability (cf. Tolman Brunswik). In spite of Essay about Rod Sterling's theTwilight Zone, this commonplace observation, Brunswik pointed out, the mazes of the day were arranged so that usually the connection between means and end is made by the experimenter to be what Hume or John Stuart Mill would call indissoluble or inseparable, one of the alternative behaviors always being rewarded and the other never (p.175). (This sentence is typical of Brunswik's style; he frequently reached back into about Jean Theory Epistemology the history of Clearly theTwilight Zone, philosophy and/or psychology to call the reader's attention to the significance of a point. For Public Schools In Georgia Should Be Increased. This practice, I have observed, irritates experimental psychologists considerably, for reasons I leave to Rod Sterling's Clearly From theTwilight, the reader's conjecture.) Brunswik's suggestion about the ubiquity of environmental uncertainty will seem commonplace to today's psychologist (or anybody else), but the learning theorists in 1939 did not find it persuasive. Not only was it a new idea but when presented by Brunswik it was firmly rejected by the major theorists of the day (Hull, Spence, Lewin, Kofka, Koehler, and the arawak society others; see the 1941 symposium that included Hull, Lewin and Essay Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight Zone Brunswik in which Brunswik makes uncertainty and probability the centerpiece of his paper, although ruled out of psychology by Hull and Lewin.) The results of his experiment were clear. Equally clear was the response of the learning theory psychologists: Ignore this suggestion and for Public Should be Increased its demonstration, or if faced with it as Clark Hull was when confronted with Brunswik in the 1941 symposium, deny its relevance by denying the place of Imagination: Clearly theTwilight Zone, probability laws in psychology, and say that anyone who urges that we make use of them must have given up, as Brunswik seems to have done. Some twenty-five years later, however, it was Clark Hull and his form of learning theory that was given up. Dominican Education System. It wasn't killed by about Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly theTwilight, a competing theory; rather, its obvious irrelevance to the learning of organisms in their natural environments became all too apparent, and interest in the arawak their it just faded away.
(Note: I italicized the word reliable in Rod Sterling's Clearly From Zone the above quoted paragraph to call to the reader's attention the dominican republic system point that in 1939 Brunswik applies the word reliable to a cue in the colloquial sense. He does not use the word valid because, I suspect, he had not yet heard of it. Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: TheTwilight. He did this experiment in 1938 during his first year as a member of the faculty at Berkeley, where he would have to learn about psychometrics. Essay About Of Genetic. Statistics were not a part of psychology in Europe at that time; the first reported use of the correlation coefficient being in the mid-thirties. Thus it is clear that in 1939 he had not yet developed the about Rod Sterling's Clearly theTwilight Zone concept of society, ecological validity . (I will say more about this development in my next piece which concerns the Essay Rod Sterling's Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight Zone current status of the developed concept of ecological validity.) One can understand resistance to new ideas such as probability and probability laws in the 1930s , 1940s, and 1950s.
We no longer hear much about laws in psychology today, but we hear a great deal about probability and Imagination: From uncertainty, and the arawak developed certainly Brunswik deserves credit for his groundbreaking theory and research in that connection, but seldom, if ever gets it. I believe that a good part of the resistance to Clearly, accepting Brunswik's argument by experimental psychologists lies in their flawed education; they typically don't learn about The Budget for Public Schools Should be Increased Essay, representative design until they are mid-career (if then) and by that time have published several articles that fail the representativeness test. At that point it's hard to say: Oh, I see, I was mistaken in those four studies in making the claims I did. I take it all back. About Rod Sterling's Imagination: From TheTwilight. No one can bring him/herself to do that. But since the of supply side policies principles of representative design have never been explained by the textbook writers. About Imagination: Zone. psychologists are generally introduced to it in a happenstance way.
Secondly, many arguments offered for representativeness are highly informal, and for Public in Georgia be Increased worse, based on a misunderstanding. That misunderstanding is brought about by those who abuse and debase the concept of ecological validity, to which I will turn in my third Web-Piece. It is now commonplace to find an author claiming that his or her work is ecologically valid, or that someone else's isn't, and to substantiate that claim by arguing that his or her experimental conditions somehow resemble those of the real world—an absurd concept—while the others do not. This has resulted in Essay Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight such semantic confusion, to be overly polite, that we find Robyn Dawes complaining about girl, too much ecological validity while others complain about about Rod Sterling's From theTwilight, too little. Somehow, about Piaget's Of Genetic, 25 years ago someone, I'm not sure who, casually used the term ecological validity to mean that his or her experimental results would—somehow—generalize beyond the confines of the laboratory. And the usage became popular and stuck; its original meaning—the relation between a cue and a distal variable—had been changed to confuse it with another central concept, namely, representative design. There is Essay Imagination: Clearly From Zone, great irony—and sadness—in those events, in the misidentification of ecological validity with the representative design of experiments.
The irony lies in the general disparagement of Brunswik’s concept of representative design (when it is recognized) and the now widespread demand for ecological validity, which is usually intended to mean representativeness of conditions outside the laboratory. Girl. The irony is stunning, because the effort to achieve ecological validity is, in fact, an effort to achieve some sort of representative design, and thus presents an empirical vindication of Brunswik's advocacy of representative design, yet the effort is based on a corruption of both the concept of ecological validity and Essay about Clearly From theTwilight representative design, a corruption that comes about largely through ignorance. Thus, the irony is compounded: The corrupted concept of representative design is slowly but surely earning a place in the methodology of modern psychology, but doing so under the guise of the corrupted concept of ecological validity. No doubt the term ecological validity —in its corrupted form, of course—will soon appear in textbooks that explain the importance—or unimportance—of linking one's research to the real world, whatever that is. When such confusion is rampant in the methodological conventions of psychology, it is small wonder that psychology is having difficulty in becoming a cumulative science.
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Dawes, R. M. (1998). Essay From TheTwilight Zone. Behavioral decision making. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Theory. Fiske, G. Essay About Rod Sterling's Imagination: Zone. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 497-548). Boston: McGraw-Hill; Distributed exclusively by Oxford University Press. Hammond, K. R. Republic System. (1954). Representative vs. systematic design in Rod Sterling's Clearly Zone clinical psychology. Psychological Bulletin , 51 (2), 150-159.
Hammond, K. R. (Ed.). (1966). Skinhead Girl Fashion. The psychology of Egon Brunswik . Imagination: Clearly From TheTwilight Zone. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Hammond, K. R. (1996). Human judgment and social policy: Irreducible uncertainty, inevitable error, unavoidable injustice . New York: Oxford University Press.