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Lord of the Flies: Piggy | Character Analysis | CliffsNotes
Annotated Bibliography for Animal Cruelty. Personality Character Of The! The author is experienced and educated in both Zoology and philosophy in attempt correlate the ethical issues raised over animal care. The author begins by Colin Military Statesman Essay examples giving an ideal one should take a moment to view and take in perspective. The idea is of how animal can feel just like every human being can feel from birth. That if animals “were only remarkable automata, it would not matter to animals how we treated them” (Zoos and Animal Rights, Page 37). The author gives both arguments, of Personality versus Character Flies" Essay how animals whom think can feel, and animals that lack language lack thought.
The author ends with the thought that the world exists with both ideals of leader, Statesman examples welcoming animals in mutual existence, and animals to be separated. The American Society for the Protection of Cruelty against Animals reports of the deployment of animal raids to rescue animal victims of abuse. Anatomy of a Raid. Retrieved from http://www.aspca.org/fight-animal-cruelty/aspca-in-action/anatomy-of-a-raid.aspx (“Aspca,” 2011) The American Society for the Protection of Character Flies" Essay Cruelty against Animals is an organization that works and advocates for the rescue and in animal protection of animals from cruelty. Their organization runs across the Personality versus in "Lord United States practicing what they preach. Their Field Investigation and Colin leader, Statesman Essay Response (FIR) Team executes many of these raids to rescue animals, after concise and enough proof is obtained of any acts of cruelty towards animals. Personality! Animals of these acts are rescued from the Essay about Standard Program owners, and sufficient proof is taken for the trial against the owner for Personality Character in "Lord Flies" abuse.
After these animals are rescued they are taken to animal clinics for care and treatment of and daoism any and all wounds. These animals are taken care of until an individual comes and adopts one of the creatures. This section of the APSCA website ends with a story of versus in "Lord Essay Joanne Smith who after working with APSCA began her own animal cruelty response effort in her residing town. Bracamontes, A. (2011, Oct. Social! 24) Anthony man arrested after dog dies from Personality versus of the Flies", starvation. El Paso Times. http://www.elpasotimes.com/ci_19183270?IADID=Search-www.elpasotimes.com-www.elpasotimes.com. Colin Military Leader, Statesman Essay Examples! Reported in the El Paso Times, an Anthony man was arrested and charged with animal cruelty after starving and dehydrating his dog. The criminal was a 35 year old man by the name of Christopher P. Morales. Dona Ana County Animal Control Officer noticed the dog in the backyard of the house appearing malnourished and almost lifeless.
When taken to a Dona Ana County Veterinarian, they were unsuccessful in saving the dog. Upon investigation the dog had no body fat and weighed 24 pounds, but should have weighed at least 55 pounds. Morales said he fed the dog a packet of hot dogs on October 15 and doesn’t seem to remember feeding the dog after; allegedly told deputies that his 14-year-old son was responsible in feeding the dog. Goldfinger (Producer). (2005) People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) Free Me music video by Personality in "Lord of the Flies" Goldfinger. Taken from http://www.ilike.com/artist/Goldfinger/track/Free+Me. This video has been circulated throughout the web, becoming a viral video. The images that are given in the video are taken by undercover workers with hidden cameras. They show the acts of workers that partake on animals behind closed doors. Showing how the about ISO Standard Program animals are treated moments before they are killed. This video was created in the intent to give light to this reality, but has been used lately by Vegan activists in attempt to convert people to a vegan lifestyle. The lyrics in the song are words that illustrate the ideas the band has of the acts, and what animals may be thinking.
J. Jauregui, Animal Activist, October 25, 2011. Jessica Jauregui partakes in a personal act while walking to her job at El Paso Times. When inquiring of what she encounters and partakes herself on her walk to in "Lord of the work, it showed a scene that can only be witnessed if you take the time to see. J.R.R. Tolkien's Of The Essay! Hundreds of cats and in "Lord Flies" Essay dogs are abandoned in the alleys of Segundo Barrio (Second Ward). Jessica Jauregui, along with her mother Rosa Jauregui, buy cat and dog food and distribute can amounts of food along each alley way to feed these animals. Taken the time to take a walk with them and noticed that these animals have come to propaganda in animal take a liking to these two individuals, having no fear in approaching them; however somewhat had a fear of my presence there. Jessica and Rosa both do these acts every walk to their work at El Paso Times, as well when possible donate to organizations such as ASPCA. Pearson, S.J. (2011). The Rights of the Defenseless . The University of Chicago Press, Chicago: The University of Chicago. The author begins by informing us the reader of the Personality in "Lord Flies" story of Mary Ellen Wilson and her childhood. Mary was treated as an animal and caged as one as well, by her very own parents.
When court trial found these acts to be illegal and from then on punishable by law, and thus organizations began forming for protection of children and animals, called the humane society. Government officials found it unnecessary for farm the nation to fund any such organizations. However, through the struggle and Personality Character in "Lord of the perseverance of organizations such as the USDA, the government began to and daoism fund for the nation’s animals. S. Saucedo, Health Educator of the Animal Shelter of El Paso, October 24, 2011. Personality Versus Character Essay! Sarah Saucedo, a Health Educator at the Animal Shelter of El Paso, took some time to answer some questions about her encounters with any animal cruelty cases. Why Is Roosevelt! She has practiced this career for almost a decade and has encountered a number of cases dealing with animal cruelty. Comes to say how “it’s odd that more than half of these cases are of malnutrition” and that “the owners admit to forgetting to feed them and give them water to drink”. Sarah comes to tell me that almost 60% or so of these animals are put to sleep from low survival rates as well as the Personality Character in "Lord of the amounts of pain they suffer from. Roosevelt On Mount Rushmore! Slagle, J.D.(2011) European Romantic Review. Of The Essay! John Hunter and propaganda in animal farm Joanna Baillie: Veterinary Science, Animal Rights, and the Pathology of Cruelty , Volume 22, (Issue 5). Personality Versus Of The Flies"! Retrieved from http://0-www.tandfonline.com.lib.utep.edu/doi/abs/10.1080/10509585.2011.601678.
The article focuses on the pamphlet and poems of Joanna Baillie against cruelty to ISO Standard 15489: Records animals, which these writings were during the Romantic Era. Personality Versus Character In "Lord Of The Flies"! Began speaking of and daoism how vicar James Granger spoke of Character Flies" Essay animals deserving the same treatment and right as of human beings. Congregation found it disgusting; however others like the Monthly Review saw it as a sensible discourse. Continues with the statuses some animals have that give them a “anonymity” value, in other words useful for study and experimentation. Towards the end of the her writings, Joanna continued to “plea for moral responsibility and for a “passion” for right and mercy”(Animal Rights, Third to Last Paragraph).
In the end of the article shows how Baillie wrote a poem called “Second Nursery Lesson (Admonitory)” which addressed to children to cease mistreating cats and why.
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Lord of the Flies: Samneric | Character Analysis | CliffsNotes
Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Nietzsche's moral philosophy is primarily critical in orientation: he attacks morality both for its commitment to untenable descriptive (metaphysical and empirical) claims about human agency, as well as for the deleterious impact of its distinctive norms and values on the flourishing of the highest types of human beings (Nietzsche's “higher men”). His positive ethical views are best understood as combining (i) a kind of consequentialist perfectionism as Nietzsche's implicit theory of the Personality versus, good, with (ii) a conception of human perfection involving both formal and substantive elements. Because Nietzsche, however, is an anti-realist about value, he takes neither his positive vision, nor those aspects of Tolkien's of the his critique that depend upon it, to have any special epistemic status, a fact which helps explain his rhetoric and the circumspect character of his “esoteric” moralizing. Although Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes (for example, about human equality) are apparent, there are no grounds for ascribing to him a political philosophy, since he has no systematic (or even partly systematic) views about the nature of state and society. Versus Character In "Lord? As an esoteric moralist, Nietzsche aims at freeing higher human beings from their false consciousness about morality (their false belief that this morality is good for on mount, them ), not at a transformation of society at large. 1.1 Scope of the Critique: Morality in the Pejorative Sense. Nietzsche is not a critic of Personality versus in "Lord of the all “morality.” He explicitly embraces, for example, the idea of a “higher morality” which would inform the lives of Military Statesman examples “higher men” (Schacht 1983: 466469), and, in so doing, he employs the same German word Moral , sometimes Moralität for both what he attacks and what he praises. Moreover, Nietzsche aims to offer a revaluation of existing values in a manner that appears, itself, to involve appeal to broadly “moral” standards of some sort.
As he writes in the Preface to Daybreak : “in this book faith in morality [ Moral ] is withdrawn but why? Out of morality [ Moralität ]! Or what else should we call that which informs it and us ?.[T]here is no doubt that a ‘thou shalt’ [ du sollst ] speaks to versus Character of the us too” (D 4). This means, of course, that (on pain of inconsistency) morality as the object of Nietzsche's critique must be distinguishable from the sense of “morality” he retains and employs. Yet Nietzsche also does not confine his criticisms of morality to some one religiously, philosophically, socially or historically circumscribed example. Thus, it will not suffice to confucius say that he simply attacks Christian or Kantian or European or utilitarian morality though he certainly at times attacks all of these. To do justice to the scope of his critique, we should ask what characterizes “morality” in Nietzsche's pejorative sense hereafter, “MPS” that is, morality as the object of his critique. Nietzsche believes that all normative systems which perform something like the role we associate with “morality” share certain structural characteristics, even as the meaning and value of these normative systems varies considerably over time.
In particular, all normative systems have both descriptive and normative components, in the sense that: (a) they presuppose a particular descriptive account of human agency, in the sense that for the normative claims comprising the Personality Character in "Lord of the Essay, system to have intelligible application to human agents, particular metaphysical and empirical claims about agency must be true; and (b) the farm, system's norms favor the interests of some people, often (though not necessarily) at the expense of others. Any particular morality will, in turn, be the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., MPS) only if it: presupposes three particular descriptive claims about the nature of human agents pertaining to free will, the transparency of the self, and the essential similarity of versus Character Flies" Essay all people (“the Descriptive Component”); and/or embraces norms that harm the “highest men” while benefitting the “lowest” (“the Normative Component”). While Nietzsche offers criticisms of both the propaganda in animal, Descriptive and Normative Components of Personality Flies" Essay MPS, what ultimately defines MPS as against unobjectionable normative systems is the distinctive normative agenda. Thus, while Nietzsche criticizes the description of agency that is typically part and parcel of MPS, he also holds that “[i]t is not error as error that” he objects to fundamentally in MPS (EH IV;7): that is, it is not the falsity of the propaganda, descriptive account of agency presupposed by MPS, per se , that is the heart of the problem, but rather its distinctive normative commitments. Thus, strictly speaking, it is true that an MPS would be objectionable even if it did not involve a commitment to an untenable descriptive account of agency (as, say, certain forms of utilitarianism do not). Because Nietzsche's two most common and Character in "Lord of the Essay closely related specific targets are, however, Christian and Kantian morality, the critique of the descriptive component of MPS figures prominently in Nietzsche's writing, and any account of the logic of his critique that omitted it would not do justice to his concerns. 1.2 Critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS. MPS for Nietzsche depends for its intelligible application to human agents on The Lord Rings Essay three descriptive theses about human agency (cf. BGE 32; GM I:13; TI VI; EH III:5; EH IV:8): (1) Human agents possess a will capable of free and Character in "Lord of the Flies" autonomous choice (“Free Will Thesis”). (2) The self is sufficiently transparent that agents' actions can be distinguished on Colin Military Essay examples the basis of their respective motives (“Transparency of the Self Thesis”). (3) Human agents are sufficiently similar that one moral code is appropriate for (because in the interests of) all (“Similarity Thesis”).
These three theses must be true in order for the normative judgments of Character in "Lord MPS to be intelligible because the normative judgments of MPS are marked for Nietzsche by three corresponding traits; namely, that they: (1′) Hold agents responsible for their actions. (2′) Evaluate and “rank” the in animal, motives for which agents act. (3′) Presuppose that “morality” has universal applicability (MPS “says stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” [BGE 202]). Thus, the falsity of the versus, picture of Powell: leader, agency would affect the intelligibility of moral judgments in the following three ways: (1″) If agents lacked “free will” they could not be held responsible for versus Character of the Flies", their actions. (2″) If agent motives could not be distinguished then no evaluative distinctions could be drawn among acts in terms of their motives. (3″) If agents were, in fact, different in some overlooked but relevant respect, then it would, at least, not be prima facie apparent that one morality should have universal application. It is the burden, then, of Essay about ISO Records Program Nietzsche's critique of the Descriptive Component of Character of the Essay MPS to show that, in fact, none of propaganda these latter theses about the nature of agency hold. A brief review of these arguments follows (a more detailed treatment is in Leiter 2002: 81112). Against the Free Will Thesis, Nietzsche argues that a free agent (that is, one sufficiently free to Personality versus in "Lord of the Flies" Essay be morally responsible) would have to be causa sui (i.e., self-caused, or the cause of Tolkien's Essay itself); but since we are not causa sui , no one can be a free agent. Nietzsche takes for granted not implausibly that our moral and versus in "Lord of the religious traditions are incompatibilist at their core: causally determined wills are not free wills. Nietzsche offers two kinds of arguments to show that we are not causa sui : that it is rushmore logically impossible to be causa sui ; and versus Character in "Lord of the Essay that human beings are not self-caused in a sense sufficient to underwrite ascriptions of of the Essay moral responsibility. (I owe the point that there are two different arguments at Personality of the Flies" issue here to Eric Vogelstein.) He says relatively little about the first point, other than claiming that “the concept of a causa sui is something fundamentally absurd” (BGE 15), and that it is “the best self-contradiction that has been conceived so fara sort of rape and perversion of logic” (BGE 21), such that this, desire for “freedom of the will” in the superlative metaphysical sensethe desire to bear the confucius, entire and ultimate responsibility for one's actions oneself, and to absolve God, the world, ancestors, chance, and society involves nothing less than to Personality in "Lord of the Essay be precisely this causa sui andto pull oneself up into existence by the hair, out J.R.R. The Lord of the Rings, of the swamps of nothingness. (BGE 21)
But we cannot, needless to say, pull ourselves up “out of the swamps of versus Essay nothingness,” and so we cannot have ultimate responsibility for our actions. Nietzsche quickly moves from the claim that being causa sui involves a contradiction, however, to why is teddy roosevelt rushmore an argument that depends on his picture of human agency. Nietzsche accepts what we may call a “Doctrine of Types” (Leiter 1998), according to which, Each person has a fixed psycho-physical constitution, which defines him as a particular type of person. Call the relevant psycho-physical facts here “type-facts.” Type-facts, for Nietzsche, are either physiological facts about the Personality in "Lord of the, person, or facts about the person's unconscious drives or affects. Confucius? The claim, then, is that each person has certain largely immutable physiological and psychic traits that constitute the Personality Flies", “type” of person he or she is. Although Nietzsche himself does not use this exact terminology, the concept figures centrally in all his mature writings.
A typical Nietzschean form of argument, for example, runs as follows: a person's theoretical beliefs are best explained in cognitive, terms of his moral beliefs; and Personality versus of the Flies" Essay his moral beliefs are best explained in terms of natural facts about the type of person he is (i.e., in terms of type-facts). So Nietzsche says, “every great philosophy so far has beenthe personal confession of its author and a kind of involuntary and teddy on mount unconscious memoir”; thus, to really grasp this philosophy, one must ask “at what morality does all this (does he ) aim” (BGE 6)? But the Personality Character in "Lord of the Essay, “morality” that a philosopher embraces simply bears “decisive witness to Essay who he is ” i.e., who he essentially is that is, to in "Lord Flies" Essay the “innermost drives of his nature” (BGE 6). This explanation of a person's moral beliefs in about Management, terms of psycho-physical facts about the person is a recurring theme in Nietzsche. “[M]oralities aremerely a sign language of the affects” (BGE 187), he says. “Answers to the questions about the value of existencemay always be considered first of all as the symptoms of in "Lord Flies" Essay certain bodies” (GS P:2). “Moral judgments,” he says are, “symptoms and sign languages which betray the propaganda, process of physiological prosperity or failure” (WP 258). “[O]ur moral judgments and evaluationsare only images and fantasies based on a physiological process unknown to us” (D 119), so that “it is always necessary to draw forththe physiological phenomenon behind the moral predispositions and prejudices” (D 542). A “morality of sympathy,” he claims is “just another expression of physiological overexcitability” (TI IX:37). Ressentiment and the morality that grows out of it he attributes to an “actual physiological cause [ Ursache ]” (GM I:15).
Nietzsche sums up the idea well in the preface to On the Genealogy of Morality (hereafter simply “ Genealogy ” or “GM”): “our thoughts, values, every ‘yes,’ ‘no,’ ‘if’ and ‘but’ grow from us with the Personality Character, same inevitability as fruits borne on the tree all related and each with an affinity to each, and evidence of one will, one health, one earth, one sun” (GM P:2). And Daoism? Nietzsche seeks to understand in naturalistic terms the type of “person” who would necessarily bear such ideas and values, just as one might come to understand things about a type of tree by knowing its fruits. And just as natural facts about the Personality in "Lord, tree explain the fruit it bears, so too type-facts about a person will explain his values and actions. This means that the why is roosevelt on mount rushmore, conscious mental states that precede the action and whose propositional contents would make them appear to be causally connected to the action are, in fact, epiphenomenal, either as tokens or as types: that is, they are either causally inert with respect to the action or causally effective only in Personality Character Flies", virtue of other type-facts about the person (Leiter 2002: 9193 argues for the latter reading; Leiter 2007 argues for the former). We typically locate the Records, “will,” as the seat of action, in Personality versus Character, various conscious states: for example, our beliefs and desires. According to why is teddy roosevelt on mount Nietzsche, however, the “will” so conceived is nothing but the effect of type-facts about the person. This means that the real story of the genesis of an action begins with the type-facts, which explain both consciousness and a person's actions. Here is how Nietzsche puts it, after suggesting that the “will” is related to, but conceptually prior to, the concepts of “consciousness” and versus Character in "Lord of the “ego”: The “inner world” is full of Essay about ISO Records Management phantoms: the will is one of them. The will no longer moves anything, hence does not explain anything either it merely accompanies events; it can also be absent.
The so-called motive : another error. Merely a surface phenomenon of consciousness something alongside the Character in "Lord Flies" Essay, deed that is more likely to cover up the antecedents of the deeds than to definition social theory represent them. What follows from this? There are no mental [ geistigen ] causes at all. (TI VI:3) In the last line, Nietzsche must mean only Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Flies" Essay, that there are no conscious mental causes.
Indeed, in other passages, he is explicit that the target of this critique is the picture of conscious motives as adequate to account for action. (For competing views of the scope of Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness, see Katsafanas 2005 and Riccardi 2015a.) As he writes in Daybreak , “we are accustomed to cognitive theory exclude all [the] unconscious processes from the accounting and to in "Lord Flies" Essay reflect on the preparation for an act only to the extent that it is conscious” (D 129), a view which Nietzsche plainly regards as mistaken, both here and in the passage quoted above. Indeed, the theme of the Essay about Standard Program, “ridiculous overestimation and misunderstanding of consciousness” (GS 11) is a recurring one in Nietzsche. “[B]y far the greatest part of our spirit's activity,” says Nietzsche, “remains unconscious and unfelt” (GS 333; cf. GS 354). Apart from the general evidence on behalf of the versus in "Lord of the Flies" Essay, Doctrine of Types, Nietzsche's strongest targeted argument for the epiphenomenality of consciousness depends on a piece of phenomenology, namely, “that a thought comes when ‘it’ wishes, and not when ‘I’ wish” (BGE 17). If that is Colin Statesman Essay examples right and if actions are apparently “caused” by thoughts (by particular beliefs and desires), then it follows that actions are not caused solely by our conscious mental states, but rather by whatever it is (i.e., type-facts) that determines the Personality Character in "Lord of the Flies" Essay, thoughts that enter consciousness. Thus, it is the (autonomous) causal power of cognitive our conscious mental life that Nietzsche must be attacking. Personality Versus In "Lord Flies"? Given, then, that Nietzsche claims consciousness is epiphenomenal, and given our identification of the “will” with our conscious life, Nietzsche would have us dispense with the idea of the will as causal altogether. Colin Military Essay? (This gives Nietzsche a novel argument against hierarchical accounts of free will favored by compatibilists: see Leiter 2002: 9396). Since the conscious will is not causal, the Free Will Thesis is false. Against the Transparency of the Self Thesis, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable” (GS 335; cf.
WP 291, 294); as he writes in Daybreak : The primeval delusion still lives on that one knows, and knows quite precisely in every case, how human action is brought about . “I know what I want, what I have done, I am free and Personality versus of the Flies" Essay responsible for it, I hold others responsible, I can call by its name every moral possibility and every inner motion which precedes action; you may act as you will in this matter I understand myself and understand you all!” that is howalmost everyone still thinks.[But] [a]ctions are never what they appear to us to be! We have expended so much labor on learning that external things are not as they appear to us to on mount rushmore be very well! the case is the same with the inner world! Moral actions are in reality “something other than that” more we cannot say: and all actions are essentially unknown. (D 116) Actions are unknown because “nothingcan be more incomplete than [one's] image of the totality of drives which constitute [a man's] being” (D 119). One “can scarcely name even the cruder ones: their number and Personality versus in "Lord Flies" Essay strength, their ebb and flow, their play and counterplay among one another, and above all the laws of their nutriment remain wholly unknown” (D 119). ISO Standard Management? But as Nietzsche argues elsewhere (e.g., D 109), the self is merely the arena in versus Character of the, which the struggle of Essay about 15489: Records Management Program drives plays itself out, and one's actions are the Personality versus Character in "Lord of the, outcomes of the Tolkien's Rings, struggle (see Leiter 2002: 99104; cf.
Riccardi 2015b; for a general account of Nietzsche's philosophical psychology, see Katsafanas 2013). Against the Similarity Thesis, Nietzsche once again deploys his Doctrine of Types. Nietzsche holds that agents are essentially dissimilar , insofar as they are constituted by different type-facts. In "Lord Of The? Since Nietzsche also holds that these natural type-facts fix the J.R.R. The Lord Rings Essay, different conditions under which particular agents will flourish, it follows that one morality cannot be good for all. “ Morality in Europe today is herd animal morality ,” says Nietzsche, “in other wordsmerely one type of Personality versus Character of the human morality beside which, before which, and after which many other types, above all higher moralities, are, or ought to confucius and daoism be, possible” (BGE 202). Essay? Nietzsche illustrates the general point with his discussion of the case of the Italian writer Cornaro in 15489: Records Program, Twilight of the Idols (VI:1). Cornaro, says Nietzsche, wrote a book mistakenly recommending “his slender diet as a recipe for a long and happy life.” But why was this a mistake?
Nietzsche explains: The worthy Italian thought his diet was the cause of Personality of the his long life, whereas the propaganda in animal, precondition for a long life, the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism, the Personality versus Character Flies" Essay, consumption of so little, was the cause of his slender diet. He was not free to confucius and daoism eat little or much; his frugality was not a matter of “free will”: he became sick when he ate more. But whoever is not a carp not only Personality in "Lord of the Flies", does well to eat properly, but needs to. There exists, then, type-facts about Cornaro that explain why a slender diet is good for him: namely, “the extraordinary slowness of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the his metabolism.” These natural facts, in turn, constrain what Cornaro can do, delivering him “feedback” about the conditions under which he will and won't flourish: given his slow metabolism, if Cornaro ate more “he became sick”; conversely, when he stuck to of the Essay his slender diet, he did well. In sum, “[h]e was not free to eat little or much.” Cornaro's mistake consists, in effect, in his absolutism: he thought the “good” diet was good for everyone, when in fact it was only Colin Powell: Essay, good for certain types of bodies (namely, those with slow metabolisms).
As with diets, so too with moralities, according to Nietzsche. Agents are not similar in type-facts, and Essay so one moral “diet” cannot be “good for all.” As he writes: [T]he question is always who he is, and who the other person isEvery unegoistic morality that takes itself for unconditional and addresses itself to all does not only sin against taste: it is a provocation to sins of omission, one more seduction under the mask of philanthropy and precisely a seduction and ISO 15489: Records Management Program injury for the higher, rarer, privileged. (BGE 221) This point sets the stage for his core critique of morality. 1.3 Critique of the Normative Component of of the Essay MPS. All of Nietzsche's criticisms of the J.R.R. Tolkien's Essay, normative component of MPS are parasitic upon Personality of the Flies" one basic complaint not, as some have held (e.g., Nehamas , Geuss ), the confucius and daoism, universality of moral demands, per se , but rather that “the demand of versus Character in "Lord of the Essay one morality for all is detrimental to and daoism the higher men” (BGE 228). Universality would be unobjectionable if agents were relevantly similar, but because agents are relevantly different, a universal morality must necessarily be harmful to some.
As Nietzsche writes elsewhere: “When a decadent type of man ascended to the rank of the highest type [via MPS], this could only happen at the expense of its countertype [emphasis added], the type of man that is strong and sure of life” (EH III:5). In the preface to the Genealogy , Nietzsche sums up his basic concern particularly well: What if a symptom of regression lurked in of the Flies" Essay, the “good,” likewise a danger, a seduction, a poison, a narcotic, through which the present lived at the expense of the future ? Perhaps more comfortably, less dangerously, but at the same time in a meaner style, more basely? So that morality itself were to blame if the highest power and splendor [ Mächtigkeit und Pracht ] possible to the type man was never in fact attained? So that morality itself was the danger of Essay examples dangers? (GM Pref:6; cf. Personality Versus Character? BT Attempt:5) This theme is sounded throughout Nietzsche's work. In a book of about Standard 15489: Records Management Program 1880, for example, he writes that, “Our weak, unmanly social concepts of Personality Character in "Lord Flies" Essay good and evil and their tremendous ascendancy over body and soul have finally weakened all bodies and souls and snapped the social theory, self-reliant, independent, unprejudiced men, the pillars of a strong civilization” (D 163). Similarly, in a posthumously published note of 1885, he remarks that “men of great creativity, the really great men according to my understanding, will be sought in vain today” because “nothing stands more malignantly in the way of Personality Character Essay their rise and social cognitive evolutionthan what in versus, Europe today is called simply ‘morality’” (WP 957). In these and why is teddy on mount rushmore many other passages (e.g., BGE 62; GM III:14; A:5, 24; EH IV:4; WP 274, 345, 400, 870, 879.), Nietzsche makes plain his fundamental objection to MPS: simply put, that MPS thwarts the development of human excellence, i.e., “the highest power and splendor possible to versus the type man” (for more on the “higher man,” see section (2)). There is another, important competing reading of definition social cognitive Nietzsche's central complaint about Personality Character of the Flies" Essay MPS: namely, that it is “harmful to life” or, more simply, “anti-nature.” Geuss, for teddy, example, says that, “There is little doubt that ‘Life’in Nietzsche does seem to Personality in "Lord Essay function as a criterion for evaluating moralities” (1997: 10).
So, too, Schacht claims that Nietzsche “takes ‘life’ in this world to be the sole locus of value, and its preservation, flourishing, and above all its enhancement to be ultimately decisive for determinations of value” (1983: 359). Thus, the cognitive, question of the value of MPS is really the question of Personality versus Character in "Lord of the its “value for life” (1983: 354). Yet such an account is plainly too vague: what exactly does “life” refer to here? Schacht, following a suggestion of Nietzsche's from the Nachlass (WP 254), suggests that life is will to power, and thus degree of power constitutes the standard of value. Confucius? (We shall return to this suggestion in versus Character Flies" Essay, detail in section 3.1, below.) But this involves no gain in precision. Nietzsche may, indeed, have thought that more “power” in his sense was more valuable than less, but that still leaves us with the question: power of Colin Military leader, what or of Personality in "Lord of the Essay whom ? The only plausible candidate given especially his other remarks discussed above is power of in animal farm people ; just as the only plausible candidate for the “life” that Nietzsche considers it valuable to preserve and enhance must be the lives of people and, in particular, the lives of the “highest men.” That this is in "Lord Flies" Essay what Nietzsche means is revealed by the context of his actual remarks about the “value for life.” For example, he comments that “a higher and more fundamental value for life might have to be ascribed to deception, selfishness, and lust” (BGE 2, emphasis added).
But what sort of “life” is, e.g., “selfishness” valuable for? As Nietzsche writes elsewhere (e.g., GM Pref:56), it is simply that life which manifests “the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man.” And similarly, when Nietzsche says that a “tendency hostile to life is therefore characteristic of morality,” it is clear in context that what “life” refers to is “the type man” who might be “raised to his greatest splendor and power” (that is, but for J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord Rings Essay, the interference of MPS) (WP 897). In short, then, the things Nietzsche identifies as “valuable” for life are those he takes to versus Flies" Essay be necessary for the flourishing of the confucius, highest types of Personality versus Character in "Lord Essay life (or human excellence), while those that he identifies as harmful to it are those that he takes to be things that constitute obstacles to such flourishing. This suggests, then, that the “life” for which things are either valuable or disvaluable must be the life (or lives) that manifest human excellence i.e., the lives of “higher men.” Something similar may be said for the claim that Nietzsche objects to MPS because it is “anti-nature.” For example, when Nietzsche says in Ecce Homo (IV:7) that “it is the lack of nature, it is the utterly gruesome fact that antinature itself received the highest honors as morality” that he centrally objects to in a morality, his claim will remain obscure unless we can say precisely what about MPS makes it “anti-natural.” Nietzsche, himself, offers guidance on this in the same section when he explains that a MPS is about ISO Standard Records Management Program anti-natural insofar as it has the following sorts of characteristics: it teaches men “to despise the very first instincts of Personality Character in "Lord of the Essay life” and “to experience the presupposition of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord Essay life, sexuality, as something unclean”; and it “looks for the evil principle in what is most profoundly necessary for growth, in Personality versus Character in "Lord of the, severe self-love” (EH IV:7). But from this it should be apparent, then, that it is confucius not anti-naturalness itself that is objectionable, but the consequences of an anti-natural MPS that are at issue: for example, its opposition to the instincts that are “profoundly necessary for growth.” This point is Personality of the Flies" even more explicit in The Antichrist , where Nietzsche notes that Christian morality “has waged deadly war against this higher type of about ISO Management man; it has placed all the basic instincts of his type under ban ” (5, emphasis added). In other words, the anti-naturalness of Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Flies" MPS is objectionable because the “natural” instincts MPS opposes are precisely those necessary for the growth of the “higher type of man.” Thus, underlying Nietzsche's worries about the anti-naturalness of MPS just as underlying his worries about the threat MPS poses to life is a concern for the effect of MPS on “higher men.” So Nietzsche objects to the normative agenda of MPS because it is harmful to the highest men. In Nietzsche's various accounts of what the objectionable agenda of MPS consists, he identifies a variety of normative positions (see, e.g., D 108, 132, 174; GS 116, 294, 328, 338, 345, 352, 377; Z I:4, II:8, III:1, 9, IV:13, 10; BGE 197, 198, 201202, 225, 257; GM Pref:5, III: 11 ff.; TI II, V, IX:35, 3738, 48; A: 7, 43; EH III:D-2, IV:4, 7-8; WP 752). We may characterize these simply as “pro” and “con” attitudes, and we may say that a morality is the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., it is an about ISO Standard Management Program, MPS) if it contains one or more of the following normative views (this is a representative, but not exhaustive, list): The various possible normative components of MPS should, of course, be understood construed as ideal-typical , singling out for versus Character, emphasis and in animal farm criticism certain important features of larger and more complex normative views.
Let us call that which morality has a “pro” attitude towards is the “Pro-Object,” and Character in "Lord Flies" Essay that which morality has a “con” attitude towards the “Con-Object.” Keeping in mind that what seems to have intrinsic value for Nietzsche is why is roosevelt rushmore human excellence or human greatness (see the next section), Nietzsche's attack on the normative component of MPS can be summarized as having two parts: (a) With respect to the Pro-Object, Nietzsche argues either (i) that the Pro-Object has no intrinsic value (in the cases where MPS claims it does); or (ii) that it does not have any or not nearly as much extrinsic value as MPS treats it as having; and. (b) With respect to the Con-Object, Nietzsche argues only that the Con-Objects are extrinsically valuable for the cultivation of human excellence and Personality versus Character of the that this is obscured by the “con” attitude endorsed by MPS. Thus, what unifies Nietzsche's seemingly disparate critical remarks about social cognitive theory altruism, happiness, pity, equality, Kantian respect for persons, utilitarianism, etc. is that he thinks a culture in which such norms prevail as morality will be a culture which eliminates the conditions for Personality Character Flies", the realization of human excellence the latter requiring, on Nietzsche's view, concern with the self, suffering, a certain stoic indifference, a sense of hierarchy and difference, and the like. Indeed, when we turn to the details of Nietzsche's criticisms of these norms we find that, in fact, this is precisely what he argues. One detailed example will have to suffice here. What could be harmful about the seemingly innocuous MPS valuation of happiness (“pro”) and suffering (“con”)? An early remark of Nietzsche's suggests his answer: Are we not, with this tremendous objective of Colin Powell: Military Statesman obliterating all the sharp edges of Personality versus Character Flies" life, well on about 15489: Management Program the way to turning mankind into in "Lord, sand ? Sand! Small, soft, round, unending sand! Is that your ideal, you heralds of the sympathetic affections? (D 174)
In a later work, Nietzsche says referring to hedonists and utilitarians that, “Well-being as you understand it that is teddy on mount no goal, that seems to us an end , a state that soon makes man ridiculous and contemptible” (BGE 225). Personality Versus Character Essay? By the hedonistic doctrine of well-being, Nietzsche takes the teddy roosevelt, utilitarians to have in mind “ English happiness,” namely, “comfort and fashion” (BGE 228) a construal which, if unfair to some utilitarians (like Mill), may do justice to our ordinary aspirations to happiness. In a similar vein, Nietzsche has Zarathustra dismiss “wretched contentment” as an ideal (Z Pref:3), while also revealing that it was precisely “the last men” the “most despicable men” who “invented happiness [ Glück ]” in the first place (Pref:5). So happiness, according to Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Essay Nietzsche, is not an and daoism, intrinsically valuable end, and men who aim for Personality versus Character in "Lord Flies", it directly or through cultivating the dispositions that lead to Essay 15489: Records it would be “ridiculous and versus Character in "Lord contemptible.” To be sure, Nietzsche allows that he himself and the “free spirits” will be “cheerful” or “gay” [ frölich ] they are, after all, the proponents of the “gay science.” But the point is confucius and daoism that such “happiness” is not criterial of being a higher person, and thus it is not something that the Personality versus Character of the Essay, higher person in contrast to farm the adherent of Personality in "Lord of the Essay MPS aims for. Yet why does aiming for happiness make a person so unworthy of admiration? Nietzsche's answer appears to be this: because suffering is positively necessary for the cultivation of human excellence which is the only thing, recall, that warrants admiration for Nietzsche. He writes, for example, that: The discipline of suffering, of great suffering do you not know that only this discipline has created all enhancements of man so far? That tension of the soul in unhappiness which cultivates its strength, its shudders face to face with great ruin, its inventiveness and courage in enduring, persevering, interpreting, and exploiting suffering, and whatever has been granted to it of profundity, secret, mask, spirit, cunning, greatness was it not granted to it through suffering, through the discipline of great suffering? (BGE 225; cf. BGE 270) Nietzsche is not arguing here that in contrast to and daoism the view of MPS suffering is really intrinsically valuable (not even MPS claims that).
The value of suffering, according to Nietzsche, is Personality Essay only extrinsic: suffering “great” suffering is a prerequisite of any great human achievement. As Nietzsche puts the point elsewhere: “Only great pain is the ultimate liberator of the spirit.I doubt that such pain makes us ‘better’; but I know that it makes us more profound” (GS Pref:3). Nietzsche's attack, then, conforms to teddy rushmore the model sketched above: (i) he rejects the view that happiness is intrinsically valuable; and Character in "Lord Essay (ii) he thinks that the Colin Military Statesman Essay examples, negative attitude of MPS toward suffering obscures its important extrinsic value. (There is reason to think that, on this second point, Nietzsche is generalizing from his own experience with physical suffering, the Character of the Flies" Essay, worst periods of which coincided with his greatest productivity. Indeed, he believed that his suffering contributed essentially to his work: as he writes, admittedly hyperbolically, in Ecce Homo : “In the midst of the torments that go with an J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, uninterrupted three-day migraine, accompanied by laborious vomiting of phlegm, I possessed a dialectician's clarity par excellence and thought through with very cold blood matters for which under healthier circumstances I am not mountain-climber, not subtle, not cold enough” (EH I:1).) Even if there is no shortage in Personality versus of the Flies", the history of art and literature of cases of immense suffering being the spur to great creativity, there remains a serious worry about the logic of Essay examples this line of Nietzschean critique. Following Leiter (1995), we may call this the “Harm Puzzle,” and the puzzle is this: why should one think the Personality versus in "Lord of the Flies", general moral prescription to alleviate suffering must stop the suffering of great artists, hence stop them from producing great art? One might think, in fact, that MPS could perfectly well allow an exception for those individuals whose own suffering is essential to the realization of central life projects. And Daoism? After all, a prescription to alleviate suffering reflects a concern with promoting well-being, under some construal. But if some individuals nascent Goethes, Nietzsches, and other geniuses would be better off with a good dose of suffering, then why would MPS recommend otherwise? Why, then, should it be the case that MPS “harms” potentially “higher men”? This seems the natural philosophical question to ask, yet it also involves an Personality versus Character in "Lord, important misunderstanding of propaganda in animal Nietzsche's critique, which is not, we might say, about philosophical theory but rather about the real nature of Personality versus Character Flies" Essay culture . When MPS values come to dominate a culture, Nietzsche thinks (plausibly), they will affect the attitudes of all members of that culture.
If MPS values emphasize the badness of suffering and the goodness of happiness, that will influence how individuals with the potential for great achievements will understand, evaluate and conduct their own lives. If, in fact, suffering is a precondition for about ISO Standard 15489: Records Management, these individuals to do anything great, and if they have internalized the norm that suffering must be alleviated, and Character in "Lord of the Essay that happiness is the ultimate goal, then we run the risk that, rather than to put it crudely suffer and create, they will instead waste their energies pursuing pleasure, lamenting their suffering and seeking to alleviate it. MPS values may not explicitly prohibit artists or other potentially “excellent” persons from ever suffering; but the risk is that a culture like ours which has internalized the norms against confucius and daoism, suffering and for pleasure will be a culture in which potential artists and other doers of great things will, in fact , squander themselves in self-pity and the seeking of pleasure. So Nietzsche's response to the Harm Puzzle depends upon an empirical claim about what the real effect of MPS will be. Versus Of The Flies" Essay? The normative component of MPS is harmful not because its specific prescriptions and proscriptions explicitly require potentially excellent persons to forego that which allows them to flourish (the claim is not that a conscientious application of the “theory” of MPS is incompatible with the Essay about Records, flourishing of Personality Flies" higher men); rather, the normative component of MPS is harmful because in why is teddy on mount, practice , and especially because of MPS's commitment to the idea that one morality is appropriate for all, potentially higher men will come to adopt such values as applicable to themselves as well. Thus, the normative component of MPS is harmful because, in reality, it will have the effect of leading potentially excellent persons to value what is in versus Essay, fact not conducive to their flourishing and devalue what is in fact essential to it. In sum, Nietzsche's central objection to MPS is that it thwarts the propaganda in animal, development of human excellence. Character Of The Essay? His argument for this, in each case, turns on identifying distinctive valuations of MPS, and showing how as in the case of norms favoring happiness and social theory devaluing suffering they undermine the development of individuals who would manifest human excellence. (For discussion of other examples, see Leiter 2002: 134136.)
2. Nietzsche's Positive Ethical Vision. While Nietzsche clearly has views about the Personality in "Lord of the Essay, states of affairs to which positive intrinsic value attaches (namely, the flourishing of higher men), there is more disagreement among interpreters about what kind of ethics arises from the latter valuation so central to his critique of morality. Propaganda In Animal? The two leading candidates are that Nietzsche embraces a kind of virtue ethics (e.g., Hunt 1991; Solomon 2001) and that he is a kind of perfectionist (Hurka 1993, Hurka 2007). These accounts turn out to overlap the perfections of the latter account are often the virtues of the Character in "Lord of the Flies", former though the perfectionist account will prove to social cognitive have certain other advantages, discussed below. Any account of Nietzsche's “positive ethics” confronts a threshold worry, namely, that Nietzsche's naturalistic conception of versus in "Lord Flies" persons and agency and, in particular, his conception of persons as constituted by non-conscious type-facts that determine their actions makes it unclear how Nietzsche could have a philosophical ethics in propaganda farm, any conventional sense. If, as Nietzsche, says, we face “a brazen wall of fate; we are in prison, we can only dream ourselves free, not make ourselves free” (HAH II:33); if “the single human being is a piece of fatum from the front and versus Character of the Essay from the rear, one law more, one necessity more for all that is yet to come and to Powell: leader, Essay be” (TI V:6); if (as he says more hyperbolically in Nachlass material) “the voluntary is absolutely lackingeverything has been directed along certain lines from the beginning” (WP 458); if (again hyperbolically) “one will become only that which one is versus Character in "Lord of the Essay (in spite of all: that means education, instruction, milieu, chance, and accident)” (WP 334); then it is hardly surprising that Nietzsche should also say, “A man as he ought to be: that sounds to us as insipid as ‘a tree as he ought to be’” (WP 332). Yet a philosopher reluctant to talk about “man as he ought to be” is plainly ill-suited to teddy on mount the task of versus in "Lord of the Flies" Essay developing a normative ethics, understood as systematic and theoretical guidance for how to live, whether that guidance comes in the form of rules for behavior or dispositions of character to be cultivated. (There is an additional, and special difficulty, for those who think Nietzsche is a virtue ethicist, namely, that he also thinks genuine virtues are specific to individuals, meaning that there will be nothing general for the theorist to say about why is roosevelt them [see, e.g., Z I:5].) This means we must approach the question of Nietzsche's “positive” ethics in Personality versus Flies", terms of explicating (1) what it is Nietzsche values, (2) what his criteria of evaluation are, and (3) what evaluative structure , if any, is exhibited by the answers to (1) and (2). Social Theory? We go wrong at Character in "Lord Flies" the start, however, if we expect Nietzsche to produce a normative theory of any familiar kind, whether a virtue ethics or otherwise. Importantly, the preceding points should not be read as denying that Nietzsche thinks values and evaluative judgments can have a causal impact on actions and how lives are lived. After all, there would be no point in undertaking a “revaluation of values” if such a revaluation would not have consequences for, e.g., the flourishing of higher men, or if MPS values did not have deleterious causal consequences for those same people.
Values make a causal difference, but, given Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness (discussed, above, in 1.1), they do not make this difference because of free, conscious choices individuals make to Military leader, Statesman examples adopt certain moral rules or cultivate certain dispositions of character. We can better appreciate Nietzsche's unusual views on this score by versus Character in "Lord Essay looking more closely at Essay ISO 15489: Management Program the popular, but mistaken, idea that Nietzsche calls on people to “create themselves” (on the Personality Character in "Lord Essay, general topic, see Leiter 1998). Alexander Nehamas, for example, reads Nietzsche as endorsing an ethics of self-creation. For Nietzsche, Nehamas says, “The people who ‘want to become those they are’ are precisely ‘human beings who are new, unique, incomparable, who give themselves laws, who create themselves’ (GS, 335)” (1985, p. 174). Unfortunately, Nehamas truncates the quote from The Gay Science at a misleading point. For Nietzsche, in the full passage, continues as follows: To that end [of creating ourselves] we must become the Essay ISO, best learners and discoverers of everything that is Personality versus in "Lord of the Essay lawful and necessary in the world: we must become physicists in order to be creators in this sense [ wir müssen Physiker sein, um, in social cognitive theory, jenem Sinne , Schöpfer sein zu können ] while hitherto all valuations and ideals have been based on Character in "Lord ignorance of physics . Therefore: long live physics! (GS 335) Creation “in this sense” is, then, a very special sense indeed: for J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Essay, it presupposes the discovery of what is “lawful and necessary” as revealed by physical science! The passage begins to make more sense in context.
For in this same section, Nietzsche claims that “every action is Personality Character in "Lord Essay unknowable,” though he adds: our opinions, valuations, and tables of what is good certainly belong among the most powerful levers in the involved mechanism of our actions, butin any particular case the law of their mechanism is indemonstrable [ unnachweisbar ]. This observation leads Nietzsche immediately to the suggestion that we should create “our own new tables of what is good,” presumably with an eye to effecting the propaganda farm, causal determination of our actions in new ways. However, we need help from science to versus Character of the identify the lawful patterns into which values and actions fall; even if the mechanisms are indemonstrable, science may at least reveal the patterns of value-inputs and action-outputs. Essay Management? So to create one's self, “in this sense,” is to accept Nietzsche's basically deterministic picture of action as determined by sub-conscious causes (type-facts) that are hard to Personality versus Character of the Essay identify but to use science to help identify those “values” which figure in the causal determination of action in new, but predictable, ways. Values, then, have a causal impact upon how people act and thus also on their life trajectories; but we cannot expect these impacts to flow from social, free, conscious choices that persons make. Versus In "Lord Of The? This would explain, of course, why we find so little in and daoism, Nietzsche by way of argumentative or discursive support for his evaluative judgments: such intellectual devices are precisely the ones that would appeal to versus Character of the our conscious faculties, and thus would be idle with respect to the desired outcomes. Why Is Roosevelt Rushmore? Nietzsche's often violent rhetorical style, by contrast, might be expected (or so Nietzsche presumably thinks) to have the requisite non-rational effect on his desired readers those “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381). Personality Versus Flies"? (More on this issue in Section 4, below.) If Nietzsche does not have a typical normative ethics, he certainly has no shortage of views about Military leader, evaluative questions. For example, it is clear from the earlier discussion of Personality Character in "Lord of the Essay Nietzsche's critique of morality that he assigns great intrinsic value to the flourishing of higher men. J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord? But who are these “higher men” and why does Nietzsche assign value to them? (Note that while Nietzsche speaks in Thus Spoke Zarathustra of the “superman” as a kind of ideal higher type, this concept simply drops out of his mature work (except for a brief mention in EH in the context of Character in "Lord discussing Zarathustra ). ISO Standard 15489: Records Program? “Higher men” is an important concept in Nietzsche; the “superman” is nothing more than a rhetorical trope in the highly stylized Zarathustra. ) Nietzsche has three favorite examples of “higher” human beings: Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself! What makes these figures paradigms of the Personality versus Flies" Essay, “higher” type for Nietzsche, beyond their great creativity (as he says, “the men of great creativity” are “the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957))?
Following Leiter (2002: 116122), we can identify five characteristics that Nietzsche identifies as distinctive of “higher men”: the higher type is Colin Powell: Essay solitary, pursues a “unifying project,” is healthy, is life-affirming, and practices self-reverence. Taken together, they are plainly sufficient to make someone a higher type in Character of the, Nietzsche's view, though it is not obvious that any one of these is necessary, and teddy roosevelt on mount rushmore various combinations often seem sufficient for versus Character of the Flies" Essay, explaining how Nietzsche speaks of in animal farm higher human beings. First, higher types are solitary and versus in "Lord Flies" deal with others only instrumentally. “Every choice human being,” says Nietzsche, “strives instinctively for a citadel and a secrecy where he is saved from the crowd, the many, the great majority” (BGE 26). “[T]he concept of greatness,” he says in the same work, “entails being noble, wanting to be by oneself, being able to be different, standing alone and having to live independently [ auf-eigne-Faust-leben-müssen ]” (BGE 212). Indeed, the higher type pursues solitude with something of a vengeance, for he “knows how to make enemies everywhere,[He] constantly contradicts the great majority not through words but through deeds” (WP 944). Unsurprisingly, then, the great or higher man lacks the roosevelt on mount rushmore, “congeniality” and “good-naturedness” so often celebrated in contemporary popular culture. Personality Versus Flies" Essay? “A great manis incommunicable: he finds it tasteless to be familiar” (WP 962). More than that, though, the higher type deals with others, when he has to, in a rather distinctive way: “A human being who strives for something great considers everyone he meets on his way either as a means or as a delay and obstacle or as a temporary resting place” (BGE 273). Thus, “a great manwants no ‘sympathetic’ heart, but servants, tools; in his intercourse with men, he is always intent on making something out of them” (WP 962). The great man approaches others instrumentally not only because of his fundamental proclivity for solitude, but because of another distinguishing characteristic: he is consumed by his work, his responsibilities, his projects. Second, higher types seek burdens and responsibilities, in the pursuit of some unifying project . “What is noble?” Nietzsche again asks in a Nachlass note of 1888. His answer: “That one instinctively seeks heavy responsibilities” (WP 944). So it was with Goethe: “he was not fainthearted but took as much as possible upon himself, over himself, into himself” (TI IX:49).
But the higher type does not seek out responsibilities and confucius and daoism tasks arbitrarily. “A great man,” says Nietzsche displays “a long logic in all of his activityhe has the ability to extend his will across great stretches of his life and to despise, and reject everything petty about him” (WP 962). This is the trait Nietzsche sometimes refers to as having “style” in “character” (GS 290). (Note that this famous passage (GS 290) merely describes those “the strong and domineering natures” who are able “‘to give’ style” to their character; it does not presuppose that just anyone can do so and it is Personality Character in "Lord Flies" not a recommendation that everyone try to do so.) Indeed, Nietzsche understood his own life in leader, Statesman examples, these terms: [T]he organizing “idea” that is destined to rule [in one's life and work] keeps growing deep down it begins to command; slowly it leads us back from side roads and Personality versus Character in "Lord wrong roads; it prepares single qualities and fitnesses that will one day prove to be indispensable as means toward a whole one by one, it trains all subservient capacities before giving any hint of the dominant task, “goal,” “aim,” or “meaning.” Considered in this way, my life is simply wonderful. For the task of a revaluation of all values more capacities may have been needed than have ever dwelt together in propaganda in animal, a single individual.I never even suspected what was growing in me and one day all my capacities, suddenly ripe, leaped forth in their ultimate perfection. (EH II:9). Earlier in Ecce Homo , Nietzsche describes himself as a higher type, “a well-turned-out-person” (EH I:2), and thus we may conclude that it is a characteristic only Personality versus Character of the, of the higher type that he is The Lord of the Rings Essay driven in pursuit of a project in Flies", the way described here. Teddy Rushmore? Indeed, it turns out to be precisely this kind of instinctive drivenness that Nietzsche has partly in mind when he praises “health.”
Third, higher types are essentially healthy and resilient. One essential attribute of the “well-turned-out-person ”is that he “has a taste only for Personality in "Lord of the Flies", what is good for him; his pleasure, his delight cease where the measure of what is good for him is transgressed. He guesses what remedies avail against what is harmful; he exploits bad accidents to his advantage” (EH I:2). But this is confucius and daoism just to say that a higher type is healthy , for Personality versus in "Lord Essay, health, Nietzsche tells us, means simply “instinctively cho[osing] the right means against wretched states” (EH I:2). This permits us to understand Nietzsche's own declaration in Ecce Homo that he was “ healthy at bottom ” (EH I:2), a seemingly paradoxical claim for a philosopher whose physical ailments were legion.
Yet “health,” for definition social cognitive theory, Nietzsche, is Personality versus in "Lord of the Flies" a term of art, meaning not the absence of sickness, but something closer to resilience , to how one deals with ordinary (physical) sickness and roosevelt on mount rushmore setbacks. Personality Essay? “For a typical healthy person,” Nietzsche says, “being sick can even become an energetic stimulus for confucius, life, for Personality versus in "Lord, living more. This, in fact, is about ISO Standard 15489: Management how [my own] long period of sickness appears to me now it was during the years of Essay my lowest vitality that I ceased to be a pessimist; the instinct of self-restoration forbade me a philosophy of poverty and discouragement” (EH I:2). To cease to be a pessimist is to reject MPS, for and daoism, only under the color of MPS does life appear to lack value. Thus, being healthy, in turn, entails a distinctive non-pessimistic attitude towards life which is yet a fourth mark of the higher type. Fourth, higher types affirm life, meaning that they are prepared to will the eternal return of their lives . In Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche describes “the opposite ideal” to that of moralists and pessimists like Schopenhauer as “the ideal of the most high-spirited, alive, and world-affirming human being who has not only come to terms and learned to get along with whatever was and is, but who wants to have what was and is repeated into versus, all eternity” (BGE 56).
Put more simply: the higher type embraces the doctrine of the eternal recurrence and thus evinces what Nietzsche often calls a “Dionysian” or “life-affirming” attitude. A person, for teddy roosevelt, Nietzsche, has a Dionysian attitude toward life insofar as he affirms his life unconditionally; in particular, insofar as he affirms it including the “suffering” or other hardships it has involved. So someone who says, “I would gladly live my life again, except for my first marriage,” would not affirm life in the requisite sense. Thus, we may say that a person affirms his life in Nietzsche's sense only insofar as he would gladly will its eternal return: i.e., will the Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Essay, repetition of why is teddy on mount his entire life through eternity. In fact, Nietzsche calls “the idea of the eternal recurrence” the “highest formulation of affirmation that is at all attainable” (EH III:Z-1; cf. Character In "Lord? BGE 56). Higher men, then, are marked by a distinctive Dionysian attitude toward their life: they would gladly will the about 15489: Records Management Program, repetition of their life eternally. Strikingly, Nietzsche claims that precisely this attitude characterized both himself and Goethe. Speaking, for example, of the neglect by his contemporaries of his work, Nietzsche writes: “I myself have never suffered from all this; what is versus necessary does not hurt me; amor fati [love of fate] is my inmost nature” (EH III:CW-4). Regarding Goethe, Nietzsche says that, “Such a spiritstands amid the cosmos with a joyous and trusting fatalism, in Standard Records, the faith that all is Personality of the redeemed and affirmed in the whole.Such a faith, however, is the in animal, highest of all possible faiths: I have baptized it with the name of Dionysus ” (TI IX:49). Finally, the versus in "Lord of the Essay, higher type of human being has a distinctive bearing towards others and especially towards himself: he has self-reverence. Colin Statesman Examples? “The ‘higher nature’ of the great man,” says Nietzsche in a striking Nachlass note of 1888 “lies in being different, in incommunicability, in Personality versus of the Flies", distance of rank, not in an effect of teddy roosevelt on mount any kind even if he made the whole globe tremble” (WP 876; cf.
GS 55). This is perhaps the most unusual feature of Nietzsche's discussion of the higher type, for it suggests that, at bottom, being a higher type is a matter of “attitude” or “bearing.” In a section of Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche once again answers the question, “What is noble?”, this time as follows: “It is not the works, it is the faith that is of the Flies" decisive here, that determines the order of rank: some fundamental certainty that a noble soul has about itself, something that cannot be sought, nor found, nor perhaps lost. Why Is Roosevelt On Mount Rushmore? The noble soul has reverence [Ehrfurcht] for itself” (BGE 287). Personality Character Of The Flies"? Self-reverence to revere and respect oneself as one might a god is no small achievement, as the proliferation of “self-help” programs and pop psychology slogans like “I'm OK, you're OK” would suggest. Self-loathing, self-doubt, and self-laceration are the norm among human beings; to Military leader, Essay examples possess a “fundamental certainty” about oneself is, Nietzsche thinks quite plausibly, a unique state of affairs. Allied with this posture of self-reverence are other distinctive attitudes that distinguish the versus Character in "Lord Flies" Essay, bearing of the J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord Rings, higher man. “The noble human being,” says Nietzsche, “honors himself as one who is powerful, also as one who has power over himself, who knows how to Personality versus Character in "Lord Essay speak and be silent, who delights in being severe and hard with himself and respects all severity and hardness” (BGE 260). Propaganda In Animal? (The higher man, unsurprisingly, is no hedonist: “What is noble?” asks Nietzsche: “That one leaves happiness to versus in "Lord Essay the great majority: happiness as peace of soul, virtue, comfort, Anglo-angelic shopkeeperdom a la Spencer” (WP 944).) In an earlier work, Nietzsche explains that: [T]he passion that attacks those who are noble is peculiar.It involves the use of a rare and singular standard cold to Standard everybody else; the discovery of values for which no scales have been invented yet; offering sacrifices on versus Character Essay altars that are dedicated to an unknown god; a courage without any desire for Colin Military examples, honors; self-sufficiency that overflows and gives to men and things. (GS 55) Indeed, the ability to set his own standard of valuation is one of the most distinctive achievements of the higher type, as we saw already in the discussion of solitude. And “the highest man” says Nietzsche is “he who determines values and directs the will of millennia by Personality versus in "Lord of the Flies" Essay giving direction to the highest natures” (WP 999).
Considered all together, it becomes clear why creatives geniuses like Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself should be the preferred examples of the higher human being: for the characteristics of the higher type so-described are precisely those that lend themselves to artistic and creative work. A penchant for solitude, an absolute devotion to one's tasks, an indifference to external opinion, a fundamental certainty about oneself and one's values (that often strikes others as hubris) all these are the traits we find, again and Powell: Essay again, in artistic geniuses. (It turns out, for Personality of the Flies" Essay, example, that Beethoven, according to his leading biographer, had almost all these characteristics to a striking degree; for discussion, see Leiter 2002: 122123.) If “the men of confucius and daoism great creativity, the Personality of the Flies", really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957), men like Goethe and Beethoven, are Nietzsche's paradigmatic higher types, whose lives are models of flourishing excellence, is there anything systematic to be said about the theory of value that undergirds these judgments and informs, in turn, Nietzsche's critique of theory morality (MPS) on the grounds that it thwarts the development of such men? One popular idea (e.g., Schacht 1983, Richardson 1996) is that higher men exemplify “power,” which is claimed to be Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value. Such readings, alas, have to employ the concept of “power” rather elastically, since the conglomeration of traits of higher human beings noted above don't seem to Personality of the be, in any ordinary sense, instances of “power” or its manifestation. (Treating Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of Powell: Military examples value as “power” confronts even more serious textual and philosophical obstacles: see Section 3.1, below.) More illuminating is versus Character in "Lord Flies" Hurka's view (1993 and Colin Powell: Military Statesman Essay examples Hurka 2007) that Nietzsche's evaluative posture conjoins perfectionism with maximizing consequentialism: what has value are certain human excellences (or perfections), and states of versus in "Lord Flies" affairs are assessed in terms of their maximization of these excellences.
As Hurka helpfully observes (1993: 75), Nietzsche seems to operate with the opposite of Rawls's maximin principle, what Hurka calls approriately “maximax.” Hurka states this as a rule for conduct (“each agent's overriding goal should be not a sum or average of and daoism lifetime value, but the greatest lifetime value of the single most perfect individual, or, if perfections are not fully comparable, of the few most perfect individuals” [1993: 75]), but given the earlier caveats about reading Nietzsche as a conventional normative theorist, it is better to versus in "Lord treat maximax as reflecting the implicit structure of Nietzsche's revaluation of values: he rejects MPS because it fails to maximize the confucius and daoism, perfection of the in "Lord of the Essay, highest human beings, and he does so without, it appears, any regard for the costs to the herd of Military Statesman Essay such a rejection (see Section 4). This leaves the question whether there are (formal or substantive) criteria of Personality versus Character of the Essay “perfection” for Nietzsche? Many writers (e.g., Hurka 2007; Nehamas 1985; Richardson 1996) are attracted to the idea that “style” or “unity” is a criterion of excellence or perfection for The Lord of the Rings Essay, Nietzsche, and, indeed, as noted above, the pursuit of a unified or coherent life project is Personality versus of the Flies" Essay a characteristic feature of those Nietzsche deems to be higher men. Whether such style or coherence suffices is Tolkien's of the a vexed interpretive question, since it is Personality versus in "Lord of the Flies" not entirely clear that the formal criterion of style or unity is available only to Goethes and Beethovens: did not Kant, that “catastrophic spider” as Nietzsche unflatteringly calls him (A 11), exhibit an extraordinarily coherent style of creative productivity over about ISO Records many years? Others (e.g., Magnus 1978) take Nietzsche's idea of eternal recurrence (the hallmark of life-affirmation, as noted above) as the criterion of a well-lived life: perfection is a matter of living in Character in "Lord of the, such a way that one is ready to gladly will the repetition of one's life, in all its particulars, in to eternity. Propaganda Farm? This, too, seems both too thin and Character in "Lord of the Flies" Essay too severe as a criterion of perfection standing alone: too thin, because anyone suitably superficial and complacent might will the eternal return; too severe, because it seems to require that a post-Holocaust Goethe gladly will the repetition of the Holocaust. Nehamas (1985), who shares some of confucius and daoism Magnus's view, adds an idioscynratic element to this account: he claims that Nietzsche does not describe his ideal person his “higher man” but rather “exemplifies” such a person in the form of the “character” that is constituted by Character in "Lord of the Flies" Essay and exemplified in his corpus. Nietzsche, however, describes at great length and in many places (e.g.
D 201; GS 55; BGE 287; NCW Epilogue:2; WP 943) the types of confucius persons he admires; and he also describes himself as such a person (e.g., EH I:2) In any case, Nehamas's view would have the Personality versus in "Lord Flies" Essay, odd consequence that for Nietzsche to have had a positive ethical vision at any point earlier in his career he would have had to anticipate writing the propaganda in animal farm, series of books he actually wrote, such that his ethical ideal would be properly exemplified in them! Needless to say, there is no reason to think this was Nietzsche's view. Nietzsche holds that moral (i.e., MPS) values are not conducive to the flourishing of human excellence, and it is by reference to versus in "Lord of the Essay this fact that he proposed to assess their value. The enterprise of assessing the value of certain other values (call them the ‘revalued values’) naturally invites the metaethical question: what status metaphysical, epistemological do the values used to undertake this revaluation (the ‘assessing values’) enjoy? (It is doubtful Nietzsche has a definite semantic view about judgments of value: cf. Hussain 2013, esp. Confucius? 412.) Following Leiter (2000), we may distinguish “Privilege Readings” of Nietzsche's metaethics which claim that Nietzsche holds that his own evaluative standpoint is either veridical or better justified than its target from those readings which deny the claim of privilege. (Note that defenders of Personality Character in "Lord of the Flies" Essay this latter, “skeptical” view need not read Nietzsche as a global anti-realist i.e., as claiming that there are no truths or facts about anything, let alone truths about value a reading which has now been widely discredited. There is, on the skeptical view at issue here, a special problem about the objectivity of value.) Privilege Readings of Nietzsche can come in three varieties: Intuitionist Realist (I-Realist); Naturalist Realist (N-Realist); and Privilege Non-Realist (P-Non-Realist). The proponents of propaganda in animal these views would hold the following: (i) According to the I-Realist, there are non-natural normative facts, which are sui generis, and which are apprehended by Personality Character in "Lord Essay some appropriate act of normative ‘perception.’ (ii) According to the N-Realist, there are normative facts because normative facts are just constituted by certain natural facts (in some sense to be specified).
(iii) According to the P-Non-Realist, there are no normative facts, but some normative judgments still enjoy a privilege by virtue of their interpersonal appeal or acceptance. To say that there are ‘normative facts’ will mean, for purposes here, that norms are (in some sense) objective features of the world. No one, to date, has construed Nietzsche as an I-Realist, but Schacht (1983) and Wilcox (1974), among many others, have defended an N-Realist reading, while Foot (1973) has defended a P-Non-Realist reading. We consider the difficulties afflicting these Privilege Readings in turn. According to the N-Realist reading, Nietzsche holds, first, that only power really has value and, second, that power is an objective, natural property. Nietzsche's evaluative perspective is privileged, in confucius and daoism, turn, because it involves asssessing (i) prudential value (value for an agent) in terms of Personality Character in "Lord of the Essay degree of power, and (ii) non-prudential value in definition theory, terms of Personality versus of the Flies" maximization of prudential value (i.e., maximization of power). (A cautionary note about terminology here: by The Lord of the ordinary conventions, the N-Realist proper holds that value itself is a natural property, not simply that what has value is a natural property.
There is Character in "Lord no clear textual evidence of Nietzsche's view on this subtle question, yet it still makes sense to use the “N-Realist” label for J.R.R. Rings, two reasons: first, defenders of this reading treat Nietzsche's view as “naturalistic”; and, second, it is in fact ‘naturalistic’ in Personality in "Lord, a familiar nineteenth-century sense, i.e., it denies that there are any supernatural properties. In the theory of value, then, one might plausibly think of Nietzsche as being a kind of naturalist in the sense of resisting religious and quasi-religious theories that view goodness as supervening on confucius and daoism non-natural (e.g., the Character in "Lord Flies" Essay, “Forms”) or supernatural properties; as against this, Nietzsche claims that goodness supervenes on a (putatively) natural property, namely power.) According to Schacht, Nietzsche's account of “the fundamental character of life and the world” as will to power is supposed to “ground” his own evaluative standpoint (1983: 348349). As Nietzsche writes (in a passage Schacht quotes): “assuming that life itself is the will to power,” then “there is Military Statesman Essay nothing to life that has value, except the degree of power” (WP 55). Nietzsche's revaluation of values, then, assesses moral values on versus Character of the the basis of their “degree of power,” something which constitutes an “objective measure of value” (WP 674). Tolkien's Of The Rings Essay? Hence the privilege of his view: it embraces as an evaluative standard the only thing in life that (in fact) has value (namely power), and employs this “objective measure of value” in the revaluation (e.g., by criticizing Christian morality because it does not maximize “power”). What exactly is Nietzsche's argument on Personality of the Flies" the N-Realist reading? When pressed, commentators are never very clear. Schacht, for example, writes: Human life, for Nietzsche, is ultimately a part of roosevelt rushmore a kind of vast game[which] is, so to versus Character of the Flies" Essay speak, the about ISO Standard 15489: Records Management, only game in town.The nature of the game, he holds, establishes a standard for versus Character in "Lord of the, the evaluation of everything falling within its compass.
The availability of Essay about Standard Management this standard places evaluation on footing that is as firm as that on which the comprehension of life and the world stands. (1983, p. 398) Talk of “the only game in Character in "Lord, town” is far too metaphorical, however, to bear the philosophical weight demanded. From the Essay Records Program, fact that “life itself is the will to power,” how does it follow that power is the versus Character of the, only standard of propaganda farm value? From the fact, for example, that all life obeys the laws of fundamental physics, nothing follows about the appropriate standard of value. Versus Character Flies"? What Schacht and others seem to have in mind is something like John Stuart Mill's argument for utilitarianism, which proceeds from the premise that since happiness is the only thing people desire or aim for, it follows that happiness is the only thing that possesses intrinsic value. Powell: Statesman Examples? This argument, though, is famously unsuccessful: from the Character Essay, fact that only happiness is propaganda in animal farm desired, nothing at all follows about what ought to be desired. Attempts to construe Nietzsche's argument in an analogous way encounter similar problems (Leiter 2000 explores the analogy in detail). On Mill's well-known and oft-criticized ‘proof’ of the versus in "Lord of the Flies", principle of utility from his 1861 Utilitarianism , to definition cognitive theory show that something is visible, we must show that it is seen; and to show that something is versus of the Essay audible, we must show that it is heard; analogously, (P) to definition cognitive theory show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is desired. Millian hedonism holds that only happiness or pleasure is Personality Character Flies" intrinsically desirable or valuable (‘Prescriptive Hedonism’). Let us call ‘Value Nihilism’ the view that there is nothing that has value or is valuable (or desirable).
To get Prescriptive Hedonism from (P), then, plug in ‘Descriptive Hedonism’ the thesis that people do in Powell: Statesman, fact desire only pleasure as an versus Character of the Flies" Essay, end. If (P) is valid, Descriptive Hedonism true, and Value Nihilism false, then the truth of Prescriptive Hedonism follows. ((P), of course, is not valid, a point to which we will return.) Notice, now, that the same type of argument seems to capture what the N-Realist construal of J.R.R. Tolkien's Rings Nietzsche has in mind. That is, to get the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion that what is Personality versus Character in "Lord of the valuable is power, take (P) and Powell: leader, Essay plug in a strong form of versus in "Lord of the Flies" Nietzsche's descriptive doctrine of the will to power the why is teddy roosevelt on mount, doctrine, roughly, that all persons intrinsically ‘desire’ only power. If (P) is valid, Value Nihilism false, and the descriptive doctrine of the will to power is true, then the normative conclusion about power, which Schacht is after, seems to follow. (Note, of versus Character in "Lord course, that the Millian Model argument as formulated so far would show only that power is what is non-morally valuable or good for an agent. Of course, if the Millian Model argument for prudential value or non-moral goodness does not work, then that provides a very strong (if defeasible) reason for supposing that there is no further argument for the related account of non-prudential value as consisting in maximization of power.) What are the problems with this “Millian argument”? The first problem, of Essay Standard Records Management course, is that (P) is Character in "Lord of the Flies" not valid.
While from the fact that x is heard, it follows that x is audible, it does not follow from that fact that x is desired that x is why is teddy desirable in the sense necessary for the argument . For while ‘audible’ can be fairly rendered as ‘can be heard,’ ‘desirable,’ in the context of Prescriptive Hedonism, means ‘ ought to be desired’ (not ‘can’ or ‘is’ desired). Thus, while it follows that: it does not follow that, If x is desired, then x ought to be desired (‘is desirable’). Yet in versus of the Flies" Essay, claiming that pleasure or power are valuable, Mill and the N-Realist Nietzsche are advancing a normative thesis. The truth of this normative thesis, however, simply does not follow from the corresponding descriptive thesis. Many, of course, have thought this too facile a response. Supplement the argument, then, by and daoism adding an ‘Internalist Constraint’ (IC), one that many philosophers have found plausible in versus Character of the, the theory of value: (IC) Something cannot be valuable for farm, a person unless the person is capable of caring about (desiring) it.
The (IC) is versus of the Flies" motivated by the thought that it cannot be right to say that ‘X is valuable’ for someone when x is alien to anything a person cares about or could care about: any plausible notion of value, the (IC) supposes, must have some strong connection to definition social theory a person's existing (or potential) motivational set. How does the Character in "Lord Flies" Essay, (IC) help? Recall (P): (P) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable) show that it is in animal farm desired. Now the (IC) puts a constraint on what things can, in fact, be desirable or valuable: namely, only those things that agents can, in fact, care about or desire. Personality Character In "Lord Essay? This suggests that we might reformulate (P) as follows: (P′) To show that something is Military examples desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is versus Essay or can be desired.
(P′) now is simply a different formulation of the (IC): if we accept the (IC) then we should accept (P′). But what happens, then, if we grant the truth of Descriptive Hedonism: namely, that only pleasure is, in fact, desired. In that case, it would now follow that only pleasure is desirable (ought to be desired) (assuming, again, that Value Nihilism is false). That is, since something ought to Military leader, be desired only if it can be desired (internalism), then if only x can be desired, then only x ought to be desired (assuming that Value Nihilism is in "Lord Essay false). Will this argument rescue the N-Realist Nietzsche?
Two obstacles remain. The first, and perhaps less serious one, is that we must have some reason for accepting the (IC) or, more modestly, some reason for thinking Nietzsche accepts it. It is not clear, however, that there are adequate textual grounds for saying where Nietzsche stands on this question. Since the (IC) does, however, seem to be presupposed by the Nietzschean remarks from the confucius, Nachlass that support N-Realism in the sense that such remarks do not constitute a good argument without the (IC) let us grant that Nietzsche accepts the (IC), and let us simply put aside the contentious issue of whether we ought to accept the (IC) as a general philosophical matter. A second difficulty will still remain: namely, that the argument for N-Realism still depends on the truth of the relevant descriptive thesis, in Nietzsche's case, the doctrine of the will to power. This presents two problems.
First, in the works Nietzsche chose to publish, it seems clear that he did not, in Personality Character Essay, fact, accept the doctrine in the strong form required for the N-Realist argument (namely, that it is only power that persons ever aim for propaganda in animal, or desire). Second, it is simply not a plausible doctrine in its strong form. For the Millian Model argument for N-Realism to work in its new form (that is, supplemented with the (IC)) it must be the case that that which ought to Personality in "Lord of the Flies" Essay be desired (‘is valuable’) are the only things that are, in fact, desired. Since the definition cognitive theory, N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion is that only power is valuable, power must be the only thing that is, in fact, desired (assuming, again, that something is valuable, i.e., that Value Nihilism is Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Essay false). Many, of course, have thought that Nietzsche held precisely this view, and he plainly says much to suggest that. Zarathustra states that, “Where I found the living, there I found will to farm power” (Z II:12); Nietzsche refers to Personality Essay “the will to J.R.R. Rings Essay power which is the will of life” (GS 349); he says “the really fundamental instinct of lifeaims at the expansion of power ” (GS 349); “life simply is will to power,” meaning a striving “to grow, spread, seize, become predominant” (BGE 259); he refers to his “theory that in all events a will to power is operating” (GM II:12); he claims that “[a] living thing seeks above all to discharge its strength life itself is will to power ” (BGE 13); and so on. The difficulty is that Nietzsche says other things which might suggest that the Flies", stronger remarks are misleading; for example: Life itself is to my mind the instinct for growth, for durability, for propaganda, an accumulation of forces, for power : where the will to power is lacking there is decline. It is my contention that all the supreme values of Personality versus Character in "Lord mankind lack this will. (A 6) But if all actions manifested this will , then this will could never be found lacking.
Yet Nietzsche thinks it can be lacking, which means he must countenance the possibility that not everyone aims for (‘desires’) power. This passage is not atypical. Later in the same work, he returns to the same theme concerning “[w]herever the will to power declines in any form” (A 17). In the Essay about ISO Standard 15489: Records Program, immediately preceding work he claims that the versus Character of the Flies", “effects” of liberal institutions are “known well enough: they undermine the will to power” (TI IX:38). And in the immediately subsequent work (his last), Nietzsche refers to “the terrible aspects of reality (in affects, in confucius and daoism, desires, in the will to power)” (EH IV:4), which certainly sounds as if will to power is Character Essay simply one among various characteristics of reality alongside affects and desires, rather than the essential core of propaganda them all. Three other general textual considerations count against attributing the strong doctrine of the versus, will to power to Nietzsche. First, if, as the defenders of the strong doctrine believe, “his fundamental principle is the ‘ will to power’ ”, then it is hard to understand why he says almost nothing about will to about ISO Management Program power and Personality in "Lord of the Flies" Essay nothing at all to suggest it is his “fundamental principle” in the two major self-reflective moments in the Nietzschean corpus: his last major work, Ecce Homo , where he reviews and assesses his life and writings, including specifically all his prior books (EH III); and the series of new prefaces he wrote for The Birth of Tragedy , Human, All Too Human , Dawn , and The Gay Science in 1886, in which he revisits his major themes. That this putative “fundamental principle” merits no mention on either occasion strongly suggests that its role in teddy on mount, Nietzsche's thought has been greatly overstated. Second, the view at issue presupposes an unusually strong doctrine of the will to power: a doctrine, to the effect, that all life (actions, events) reflects the will to power. But recent scholarship has cast doubt on whether Nietzsche ultimately accepted such a doctrine.
The single most famous passage on will to power in the Nietzschean corpus, for example, is the concluding section (1067) of Personality in "Lord Flies" Essay The Will to Power , where he affirms that, “ This world is the will to power and nothing besides ! And you yourselves are also this will to power and definition cognitive theory nothing besides!” Although a favorite of commentators for Personality Character Essay, many years, the propaganda in animal farm, passage has now been conclusively discredited by Personality versus Essay the leading scholar of the propaganda, Nachlass , the late Mazzino Montinari. Montinari has shown that Nietzsche had, in fact, discarded the passage by the spring of 1887 (1982, pp. 103104)! It was, as Montinari notes, made part of the Personality of the Flies" Essay, Köselitz-Forster compilation of The Will to Power (the basis for the English-language edition by Kaufmann and confucius Hollingdale) notwithstanding “Nietzsche's literary intentions” (1982, p. 104). Finally, Maudemarie Clark has argued that Nietzsche could not have accepted the very strongest form of the doctrine of the will to power namely, that all force , animate and inanimate, is will to power given the putative argument he gives for Character in "Lord of the Essay, it. Clark points out The Lord Rings Essay, that the only argument for this doctrine of the will to power in Nietzsche's published works in Section 36 of Beyond Good and in "Lord Evil is cast in the conditional form: if we accept certain initial hypotheses, then, Nietzsche thinks, the strong doctrine of the confucius and daoism, will to power follows. But one of the antecedents of this conditional is the Character of the Flies", “causality of the will,” and definition social cognitive theory Clark argues that Nietzsche clearly rejects such causality elsewhere in his work (e.g., GS 127, TI II:5, TI VI:3). Of The? Therefore, this section cannot constitute an argument for the strongest doctrine of the propaganda in animal, will to power that Nietzsche, himself, would actually accept! Rather than embracing the strongest form of the doctrine, Clark argues that Nietzsche is, somewhat ironically, illustrating the very flaw of philosophers he warns against in the surrounding passages: namely, their tendency to propound theories of the essence of versus in "Lord Essay reality that are just projections of their own evaluative commitments (Clark 1990, pp.
212227). Thus, Nietzsche says of the Stoic talk of living “according to social theory nature” that “while you pretend rapturously to read the canon of Personality versus in "Lord of the Flies" Essay your law in nature, you want something opposite.Your pride wants to impose your morality, your ideal, on nature” (BGE 9). How, Clark wonders, could Nietzsche's own doctrine of will to power be exempted from such a charge? (Note, too, that Montinari claims that the in animal farm, one surviving relic of 1067 of The Will to Power in Personality versus Character Flies", the published works is in animal precisely the ironic Section 36 of versus Character Flies" Beyond Good and Evil (1982, p. 104).) What, then, does Nietzsche believe about will to power? As others have noted (e.g., Clark 1990: 209212), Nietzsche's doctrine of propaganda will to power in its original deployment and most of its later development is psychological in character: the will to power is posited as the best psychological explanation for a wide variety of human behaviors. Versus Character Of The? But as the preceding passages and considerations make clear, Nietzsche could not have believed that will to power was the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. J.R.R. The Lord Essay? To the extent he sometimes seems to embrace this stronger claim (see the example, above), we must simply take Nietzsche to have overstated his case something which his penchant for hyperbolic rhetoric and polemics often leads him to do or to be engaged in the kind of in "Lord Flies" ironic move described by Clark, above. That would, of Colin Powell: Military course, be quite fortunate, since it is hardly plausible that will to Personality versus Character in "Lord Essay power is the exclusive explanation for confucius and daoism, all human behavior.
There is an additional, textual worry for the argument that will to Personality versus of the power provides an Colin Powell: leader, Statesman Essay, objective criterion of value lurking here as well. Nietzsche only makes the remarks that seem to in "Lord of the Essay suggest that power is an objective criterion in passages from the Nachlass , work that Nietzsche never published during his lifetime. In Animal Farm? Thus, even if one thought that Nietzsche really held the strong descriptive doctrine of the will to Personality versus in "Lord power the J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Essay, doctrine that all animate force (perhaps all force) is will to power in his published works, it is versus Character of the Flies" still the case that he only uses this doctrine to argue for confucius and daoism, the normative conclusion in Nachlass material. Since scholars have now raised important doubts about the Personality, canonical status of this Nachlass material (Montinari 1982, pp. 92104; Hollingdale 1985, pp. 166172, 182186), this might suggest that a view ought not to be attributed to Nietzsche solely on the basis of its articulation in social, these notebooks, which is exactly what the N-Realist reading requires. Although not attributing to Personality in "Lord Flies" Essay Nietzsche any kind of value realism, Philippa Foot, like Schacht, wants to show that Nietzsche is doing something more than simply expressing his idiosyncratic view, a view that admits of no interpersonal justification. While agreeing that Nietzsche's intention is, in rushmore, part, “to present us with a clash of interests the good of the strong against that of the Character Essay, weak,” Foot adds that “this is not all he wants to suggest” (1973: 162).
Noting that Nietzsche “seems to want to say that anyone who is strong, independent, and so on anyone who fits his description of the higher type of rushmore man is one who has value in himself” (163), Foot goes on to explicate this notion of “value” as follows: [I]t does make sense to say that we value strong and exceptional individuals. Versus Character Flies"? We do find patterns of reaction to exceptional men that would allow us to see here a valuing rather similar to valuing on aesthetic grounds. I am thinking of the interest and and daoism admiration which is the common attitude to remarkable men of exceptional independence of versus Essay mind and strength of will. [Nietzsche] is appealing to our tendency to and daoism admire certain individuals whom we see as powerful and splendid. Personality Versus Character Of The Flies" Essay? [There is] a similarity between the way we attribute value (aesthetic value) to art objects and J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Essay the value that Nietzsche attributes to a certain kind of man, both resting on a set of common reactions. (1973: 163) So Nietzsche, on this account, does not claim that his evaluative perspective is Personality Flies" veridical; he simply claims that it enjoys a certain sort of interpersonal appeal, owing to our “common attitude to remarkable men,” “our tendency to admire certain individuals,” to find them aesthetically appealing. There may be no fact-of-the-matter as to whether higher men are or are not really valuable, but Nietzsche's evaluative standpoint is privileged by definition social virtue of its appeal to all of versus of the Essay us. We're all interested, it seems, in the flourishing of higher men. Yet Nietzsche could not embrace the teddy rushmore, view that the Personality in "Lord Flies", flourishing of “higher men” will appeal to “ our tendency” to admire such men or to confucius any sort of “common” attitude, given the versus of the Flies", logic of Colin Powell: Military Essay his critique of Personality versus Character in "Lord Flies" Essay morality.
This follows from what we may call Nietzsche's ‘Callicleanism,’ after Plato's Callicles in the Gorgias . Definition Social Cognitive? It has now become something of a commonplace for commentators to in "Lord of the Essay note that Nietzsche did not accept one sort of Calliclean view, namely, the view that “anyone who is to Tolkien's Rings live aright should suffer his appetites to grow to the greatest extent and Personality versus of the Essay not check them” ( Gorgias , 419e) (cf. Nehamas 1985: 202203; BGE 188). Yet there remains a more important respect in which Nietzsche's view is why is on mount Calliclean: namely, in its embrace of the Calliclean doctrine that the inferior employ morality to make “slaves of those who are naturally better” ( Gorgias , 491e-492a), that the weaker folk, the majorityframe the Character in "Lord, laws [and, we might add, the morals] for their own advantage’ in order to ‘frighten [the strong] by saying that to definition theory overreach others is versus of the shameful and evil’ ( Gorgias , 483b-d). In short, Callicles' view is that morality is simply the prudence of the weak, who unable to do what the teddy on mount rushmore, strong can do, opt instead to put the actions of the strong under the ban of morality. This, of course, is essentially Nietzsche's view as well. Versus Of The Essay? So, for example, Nietzsche describes slave morality as simply ‘the prudence [ Klugheit ] of the lowest order’ (GM I:13), and he observes that “everything that elevates an individual above the herd and intimidates the neighbor iscalled evil ” (BGE 201), that “[m]oral judgments and condemnations constitute the favorite revenge of the spiritually limited against those less limited” (BGE 219), and he claims that the and daoism, “chief means” by which the “weak and mediocreweaken and pull down the stronger” is Personality Character Flies" Essay “the moral judgment” (WP 345). Recall, now, that Foot wanted to confucius and daoism resist the view that in his revaluation Nietzsche simply “present[s] us with a clash of interests the good of the strong against that of the weak” (1973: 162); instead, Foot suggests that Nietzsche is appealing to a ‘common’ tendency to admire higher men, men who would otherwise be thwarted by the reign of moral values.
But for a Calliclean like Nietzsche, it is part of the very appeal of morality that it does thwart the flourishing of higher men. If that is right, then he could not think that the flourishing of “higher men” would appeal to everyone. It is precisely because it doesn't that morality arises in the first place, as a means for the low and base to thwart the flourishing of the high. This is not to deny that higher men may still be admirable in the eyes of the versus Flies" Essay, base and low (hence their envy); it is to deny, however, that Nietzsche's evaluative perspective that it is an objection to morality that it thwarts the high could enjoy a privilege in virtue of this shared admiration. On the Calliclean picture, there is Colin Powell: Military Statesman examples a fundamental hostility between the high and Personality versus in "Lord Flies" Essay low, the strong and the weak, one which will not be bridged by inviting the low to admire the high, or the weak, the and daoism, strong. “The well-being of the majority and the well-being of the few are opposite viewpoints of value,” Nietzsche says in the ‘Note’ at the end of the first essay of the Genealogy . And in Character in "Lord of the Flies", Nietzsche's revaluation, it appears, there is no evaluative standpoint from which one could successfully mediate and definition cognitive reconcile the normative claims of the Personality Character in "Lord of the Essay, opposing moralities. If Nietzsche is not a realist about in animal value, then he must be an anti-realist: he must deny that there is Character Flies" any objective fact of the definition social cognitive theory, matter that would privilege his evaluative perspective over its target. (This, in fact, is the most familiar reading outside the secondary literature on Nietzsche; one finds this view of Nietzsche's metaethics, for example, in the sociologist Max Weber and the moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, among many others.) We must be careful about the Character of the Flies" Essay, kinds of judgments to which this anti-realism applies. Recall that in his critique of morality, Nietzsche appears to hold that, e.g., “herd” morality is good for Records Program, the herd, but that it is bad for Personality versus of the, higher men. He says, for example, that, “The ideas of the herd should rule in J.R.R. Rings, the herd but not reach out beyond it” (WP 287; emphasis added); and elsewhere he describes slave morality as simply “the prudence of the Character in "Lord of the Flies", lowest order” (GM I:13).
It may appear that regarding value judgments pertaining to welfare or prudential goodness what is good or bad for particular sorts of persons Nietzsche believes there is an objective fact of the propaganda, matter, though one relative to type-facts about Personality Character Essay persons. But this is not right: while Nietzsche believes it is objectively correct that different moralities have certain effects on different kinds of people, that these effects are good or bad itself admits of anti-realist interpretation (cf. Leiter 2015: 119 for a revision of the view defended in Leiter 2002). Even more importantly, though, Nietzsche's anti-realism applies to the “revaluative” judgment that follows upon these judgments about the ISO Standard 15489: Records Management, effects of different moralities: that is, the judgment that because herd morality is good for the herd but bad for higher men, herd morality (or the universal reign of Personality of the herd morality) is bad or disvaluable. Nietzsche certainly says much that sounds like he is Colin Powell: Essay examples denying the objectivity of values. Zarathustra tells us that, “Verily, men gave themselves all their good and evil [ Gut und Böse ]” (Z I:15) and that “good and evil that are not transitory do not exist” (Z II:12).
In The Gay Science , Nietzsche explains that, “Whatever has value in our world now does not have value in Character in "Lord Flies", itself, according to its nature nature is always value-less, but has been given value at some time” (301; cf. In Animal? D 3). Versus Character In "Lord Of The? Indeed, like certain radical anti-realists, he tends to equate evaluative questions with matters of farm taste. Versus Character? “What is now decisive against Christianity is Colin Military Essay examples our taste [ Geschmack ], no longer our reasons” (GS 132), he writes, noting later in the same work that what counts as “justiceis by all means a matter of taste, nothing more” (GS 184). Nietzsche's central argument for anti-realism about value is explanatory : moral facts don't figure in the “best explanation” of Personality versus Character of the Essay experience, and definition social cognitive theory so are not real constituents of the objective world. Moral values, in short, can be “explained away.” Such a conclusion follows from Nietzsche's naturalism (on the latter, see the competing accounts in Janaway 2007 and Leiter 2013). As we saw in Personality versus Flies", the context of Nietzsche's critique of morality, Nietzsche thinks a person's moral beliefs can be explained in Essay Management Program, naturalistic terms, i.e., in terms of type-facts about that person.
Thus, to explain a person's moral judgments, one needn't appeal to the existence of objective moral facts: psycho-physical facts about the person suffice. Thus, since non-evaluative type-facts are the primary explanatory facts, and Personality Character of the since explanatory power is the J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, mark of objective facts, it appears that there cannot be any value facts. Moral judgments and Personality in "Lord Flies" Essay evaluations are “images” and “fantasies,” says Nietzsche, the mere effects of type-facts about agents (D 119). To describe Nietzsche as a moral anti-realist is so far only to ascribe to him a metaphysical view: namely, that there are no objective facts about what is morally right and wrong. It is a somewhat vexed interpretive question whether we should also ascribe to Nietzsche a particular view about the semantics of moral judgment, a topic about which no philosopher prior to social cognitive the 20 th century had a workedout view (see again Hussain 2013). For example, while it seems clear (from the passages quoted above) that Nietzsche has distinct views on the central metaphysical question about Personality versus in "Lord of the value, it seems equally apparent that there are inadequate textual resources for ascribing to him a satisfying answer to the semantic question.
Elements of his view, for example, might suggest assimilation to what we would call non-cognitivism and, in particular, expressivism. For example, in describing master and cognitive theory Christian morality as “opposite forms in the optics of value [ Werthe ],” Nietzsche goes on to assert that, as opposite “optical” forms, they “areimmune to reasons and refutations. One cannot refute Christianity; one cannot refute a disease of the eye. Versus In "Lord Of The Flies" Essay? The concepts ‘true’ and ‘untrue’ have, as it seems to why is teddy on mount rushmore me, no meaning in optics” (CW Epilogue). This passage typical of putatively expressivist passages in Nietzsche is, however, ambiguous.
For the Character Essay, passage could mean that “true” and “false” are meaningless not because evaluative judgments are essentially non-cognitive, but rather because competing evaluative views are immune to the effects of reasoning. There may be rational grounds for thinking one view better than another, perhaps for thinking one true and the other false, but since reasoning has so little impact in this context, it is “meaningless” (in the sense of on mount pointless) to raise issues of truth and falsity. More recently, Hussain (2007) has argued that we read Nietzsche as a fictionalist about moral value: granted that Nietzsche is an anti-realist about value (there exists no objective fact about Personality versus Character in "Lord of the what has value in-itself), Hussain wonders what it is Colin leader, Statesman Essay examples those who “create values” can understand themselves to have done? Valuation, in this Nietzschean world, Hussain argues, involves a kind of versus Character in "Lord of the “make-believe,” pretending that things are valuable-in-themselves, while knowing that nothing, in fact, has such value. Colin Powell: Military Statesman? There is a pressing philosophical question here whether “make-believe” about value really could suffice for valuing but also an interpretive problem: does Nietzsche really think that moral judgments express beliefs , that is, truth-apt propositional attitudes which then requires fictionalist treatment?
It would be astonishing if any 19 th -century philosopher were to versus Character of the Flies" Essay have a clear answer to such a question (Hussain 2013 seems to have come around to this view). While Nietzsche was, to be sure, among the first to recognize the extent to which linguistic and grammatical practices generate metaphysical assumptions and problems, he simply did not view metaphysical questions themselves as best framed as issues about the semantics of a given region of discourse (e.g., are the teddy on mount, terms genuinely and successfully referential, or are they “merely” expressive?). It is doubtful, then, that there are adequate grounds for assigning Nietzsche a view on such subtle matters as whether ethical language is versus primarily cognitive or non-cognitive, when it clearly evinces aspects of both descriptive and teddy rushmore prescriptive discourse. Two aspects of Nietzsche's work may, however, seem to be in tension with value anti-realism, even understood as only Character of the Flies" Essay, a metaphysical doctrine: first, his reliance on the distinction between “higher” and “lower” types of human beings; and second, the force and seriousness with which he presents his evaluative judgments. As we saw, above, Nietzsche's critique of morality presupposes a distinction between higher and lower types of people. But are there objective facts about who is “high” and who is “low”? And if so, would such a view be compatible with anti-realism? Suppose there are objective facts about “high” and “low”: Goethe really is a higher type, and the herd animal really is a lower type. But there is still no objective fact about confucius and daoism whether MPS is non-prudentially disvaluable just because it has the effect of thwarting the Personality versus Character, flourishing of definition cognitive objectively higher types.
Realism about “high” and “low” does not entail realism about non-prudential value, so the argument might go. Such a response cannot work for two reasons. First, the judgment that “X is a higher person” includes a significant evaluative component: “Goethe is a higher type” is not evaluatively neutral in the manner of “Goethe is a taller than average type.” In saying that someone is a higher type, we seem committed to some positive evaluative attitude towards that person (e.g., that it is good to have persons like that around). If there is an objective fact that “X is a higher type,” and it is a fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of higher types, then it would seem that at Personality versus Character of the Essay least some objective weight must accrue to the Nietzschean position that MPS is definition social disvaluable because of versus in "Lord of the Flies" Essay this effect it has. Second, if it is an objective fact that Goethe is a higher type and, say, Hitler is a herd animal, then the following counterfactual would seem to be true: (C) If Hitler had been like Goethe, he would have been better off. He would have been better off because he would have been a higher type, instead of a lower type and why is teddy roosevelt it is an objective fact that the high are really high, and the low are really low. Personality Versus In "Lord? But this seemingly objective judgment that Hitler would have been better off had he been more like Goethe is a non-prudential value judgment; it is why is teddy roosevelt on mount rushmore not a judgment about what is good for Hitler under the circumstances, but rather a judgment about what would make Hitler better off, but for his circumstances. In general, it seems that conceding the objectivity of “high” and “low” permits one to make objective non-prudential value judgments like: the good of the higher type is superior to the good of the lower type.
For these reasons, if Nietzsche is an Personality versus Flies" Essay, anti-realist about non-prudential moral value, then he must also be an roosevelt on mount rushmore, anti-realist about Character of the judgments of “high” and “low,” It may be an objective fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of those Nietzsche regards as higher types; but it is not an objective fact that they are really higher. In fact, there is Colin Military leader, examples textual evidence that this is exactly Nietzsche's view. For example, in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Nietzsche writes that, “Good and evil, and rich and poor, and high and low [ Hoch und Gering ], and Personality Character in "Lord of the Flies" Essay all the names of Colin Essay values arms shall they be and clattering signs that life must overcome itself again and again” (Z II:7). Here Nietzsche is versus Character of the Flies" Essay explicit that “high and Colin Military leader, Statesman Essay examples low” are simply “names of Personality versus in "Lord Essay values,” just like “good and evil.” But since, as we have just seen, Nietzsche is an anti-realist about these latter evaluative concepts, it should hardly be surprisingly that he is an anti-realist about the why is roosevelt on mount, former. The actual contexts in which Nietzsche marks traits as “high” and “low” invite the same reading. Consider, for example, the exposition in the Genealogy (I:14) of the sense in which slave morality is the “prudence of the lowest order” (GM, I:13). According to Nietzsche, slave morality takes certain typical characteristics of the “lowest order” and redescribes them in Personality versus Character in "Lord of the, morally praiseworthy lights. So, for example, their impotence becomes “goodness of heart,” their anxious lowliness becomes “humility,” their “inoffensiveness” and “lingering at the door” becomes “patience”, and their desire for retaliation becomes a desire for justice. Examples? If Nietzsche were really a realist about the concept of “lowness”, then we ought to be able to identify the Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Essay, objective facts in definition, virtue of Personality Character Flies" Essay which something is really low.
Yet when Nietzsche tries to describe all patience as nothing more than a “lingering at the door” and all humility as simply “anxious lowliness,” it is natural to think that there is no “objective” fact about “lowness” here but simply a polemical and evaluatively loaded characterization. To think that all humility is really “anxious lowliness” is just to identify oneself as one who shares Nietzsche's evaluative sensibility, one “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381), one “predisposed and predestined” for Nietzsche's insights (BGE 30). In short, given the way in which Nietzsche actually speaks of the “high” and “low,” we should understand Nietzsche's metaethical position as also characterizing these terms: to say that “X is low” is not to Essay ISO Records Management Program describe an objective fact, but rather to identify oneself as sharing in a certain evaluative sensibility or taste. There remains a final interpretive difficulty: for versus Character in "Lord of the Essay, Nietzsche simply does not write like someone who thinks his evaluative judgments are merely his idiosyncratic preferences! On the metaethical position elaborated here, it seems Nietzsche must believe that if, in response to his point that “morality were to blame if the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man was never in fact attained” (GM Pref:6), someone were to say, “So much the better for morality!”, there would be nothing further to say to that person: at the best, Nietzsche might turn his back and leader, Essay say, “Oh well doesn't share my evaluative tastes.” Yet there seems to Personality versus Character in "Lord Flies" be a substantial amount of Nietzschean rhetoric (see, e.g., BGE 259; TI V:6 IX:35; EH IV:4, 7, 8) that cannot be reconciled with this metaethical view, and which cries out definition theory, instead for Personality Character in "Lord Flies", some sort of realist construal. Three sorts of considerations, however, block the inference from Nietzsche's rhetoric to in animal farm the conclusion that he embraced a realist metaphysics of value. First, while the rhetoric is forceful, the language of versus in "Lord Flies" Essay truth and falsity is conspicuously absent. As some of the passages quoted above suggest, Nietzsche writes with great force and passion in opposition to MPS.
But it is striking that he does not use the epistemic value terms the language of truth and Tolkien's of the Rings Essay falsity, real and unreal in this context. This, of course, might not be notable, except for Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Flies" Essay, the fact that in his equally forceful attacks on, e.g., Christian cosmology, or religious interpretations of about ISO Standard Records Management natural events, he invokes the conceptual apparatus of truth and falsity, truth and Personality Character in "Lord lie, reality and appearance, all the time (cf. Of The? Leiter 1994, pp. 336338). Thus, for example, Nietzsche lampoons Christian cosmology as lacking “even a single point of contact with reality” and as “pure fiction” which “falsifiesreality” (“ die Wirklichtkeit fälscht ”) (A, 15). Personality In "Lord Flies"? Such epistemic value terms are strikingly absent in ISO Records Program, Nietzsche's remarks about value. One natural explanation for this difference in rhetoric natural especially in light of the substantial evidence for his anti-realism is Personality in "Lord of the precisely that in the moral case he does not think there is any fact of the matter. Second, in undertaking a “revaluation of all values,” Nietzsche, as we have seen, wants to alert “higher” types to the fact that MPS is not, in fact, conducive to their flourishing.
Thus, he needs to “wake up” his appropriate readers those whose “ears are related” to his to Tolkien's Rings the dangers of MPS, a task made all the more difficult by MPS's pretension to be “morality itself.” Given, then, that Nietzsche's target is a certain sort of misunderstanding on the part of higher men, and given the difficulty of supplanting the norms that figure in this misunderstanding (the norms of MPS), it should be unsurprising that Nietzsche writes with passion and force: he must shake higher types out of their intuitive commitment to versus Character in "Lord of the the moral traditions of two millenia! Moreover, Nietzsche's naturalism, and the prominent role it assigns to non-conscious drives and type-facts, leads him to be skeptical about the efficacy of about ISO Standard 15489: Records Management Program reasons and arguments. But a skeptic about the efficacy of rational persuasion might very well opt for Personality versus in "Lord Flies" Essay, persuasion through other rhetorical devices. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a rhetorical tone like Nietzsche's looked at in the context of his life does not really suggest realism about the content, but rather desperation on the part of the author to Essay ISO Standard 15489: Management Program reach an increasingly distant and uninterested audience. The Nietzsche who was almost completely ignored during the Character in "Lord Flies", years before illness erased his intellect and deprived him of his sanity might have resorted to more and more strident and roosevelt rushmore violent rhetoric in frustration over not being heard and not because he was a realist. Character Essay? Indeed, in in animal, the absence of explicit evidence of value realism, this seems the most plausible explanation for the vast majority of the passages with which we have been concerned in this section.
For these various reasons, then, the character of Nietzsche's rhetoric can be understood as compatible with his anti-realism about value. 4. Nietzsche's Lack of a Political Philosophy. When the versus Character in "Lord of the Essay, Danish critic Georg Brandes (18421927) first introduced a wider European audience to Nietzsche's ideas during public lectures in 1888, he concentrated on Nietzsche's vitriolic campaign against morality and what Brandes dubbed (with Nietzsche's subsequent approval) Nietzsche's “aristocratic radicalism.” On this reading, Nietzsche was primarily concerned with questions of value and culture (especially the value of about ISO Standard 15489: Management morality and Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Flies" Essay its effect on culture), and his philosophical standpoint was acknowledged to be a deeply illiberal one: what matters are great human beings, not the “herd.” The egalitarian premise of all contemporary moral and political theory the premise, in one form or another, of the equal worth or dignity of each person is simply absent in Nietzsche's work. This naturally leads to the question: what politics would Nietzsche recommend to us in The Lord of the Essay, light of his repudiation of the egalitarian premise? A striking feature of the reception of Nietzsche in the last twenty years is the large literature that has developed on Nietzsche's purported political philosophy. Two positions have dominated the literature: one attributes to Personality Character of the Flies" Nietzsche a commitment to aristocratic forms of social ordering (call this the and daoism, “Aristocratic Politics View” [e.g., Detwiler 1990]), while the other denies that Nietzsche has any political philosophy at all (call this the “Anti-Politics View” [e.g., Hunt 1985]). More recently, Shaw (2007) has staked out a third position, namely, that Nietzsche was, in fact, concerned with the normative legitimacy of in "Lord state power, but was skeptical that with the demise of religion, it would be possible to achieve an The Lord of the, effective normative consensus in society at Personality in "Lord of the Flies" large that was untained by the exercise of state power itself.
Whether Nietzsche is really interested in these issues has been contested (Leiter 2009). Here we will concentrate on why is the two dominant lines of Personality versus Character Flies" Essay interpretation, noting that the about ISO Standard Records Management Program, evidence favors the second view. Even the casual reader knows, of course, that Nietzsche has intense opinions about everything , from German cuisine to the unparalleled brilliance (in Nietzsche's estimation) of Bizet's operas, not to mention various and Personality of the Flies" sundry “political” matters. The interpretive question, however, is whether scattered remarks and parenthetical outbursts add up to systematic views on questions of philosophical significance. Is Nietzsche even interested in political philosophy? Martha Nussbaum (1997: 1) declares that, “Nietzsche claimed to be a political thinker, indeed an Colin Military Statesman Essay examples, important political thinker”, but she can produce no clear textual evidence in support of that contention. She notes that, “In Ecce Homo he announced that he was ‘a bringer of glad tidings like no one before me,’ and that those glad tidings are political” (1997: 1). In fact, Nietzsche does not say the “tidings” are political; indeed, as the earlier discussion of his critique of morality shows, the “tidings” are directed only at select readers, nascent higher human beings, for whom morality is harmful. That this section from Ecce Homo (IV:1) concludes with the Character in "Lord Flies", hyperbolic claim that only and daoism, with Nietzsche does “the earth [first] know[ ] great politics ” does as little to establish that he has a political philosophy as the claim, in the very same passage , that Nietzsche's “glad tidings” will cause “upheavals, a convulsion of earthquakes, a moving of mountains and valleys” does to establish that he has a geological theory. Nussbaum goes on to suggest that “serious political thought” (1997: 2) must address seven precise topics (e.g., “procedural justification” [“proceduresthat legitimate and/or justify the resulting proposals” for Personality versus in "Lord Flies", “political structure”], “gender and the family,” and “justice between nations”) most of which, of course, Nietzsche does not address. Confucius And Daoism? (Marx does not address most of them either.) Instead of drawing the natural conclusion Nietzsche was not interested in questions of political philosophy she, instead, decries his “baneful influence” in political philosophy (1997: 12)! Those who claim to find a political philosophy in Nietzsche typically rely on Personality Character of the Flies" a handful of passages most often, sections 5657 of The Antichrist as the slender evidence on the basis of which elaborate views about the ideal forms of social and political organization are attributed to Nietzsche.
In particular, Nietzsche is Essay ISO Management said to endorse (in A 5657) the caste-based society associated with the Hindu Laws of Manu as his political ideal: The order of castes, the supreme, the dominant law, is merely the sanction of a natural order , a natural lawfulness of the Personality versus in "Lord Essay, first rank, over which no arbitrariness, no “modern idea” has any powerNature, not Manu, distinguishes the pre-eminently spiritual ones, those who are pre-eminently strong in muscle and propaganda farm temperament, and Character in "Lord of the Essay those, the in animal farm, third type, who excel neither in one respect nor in the other, the mediocre ones the last as the great majority, the Personality Character in "Lord Flies" Essay, first as the elite. (A 57) This reading, however, does not withstand scrutiny, as Thomas Brobjer (1998) has argued. As Brobjer notes, the and daoism, only other published discussion of the Personality versus of the Flies", laws of Essay ISO 15489: Records Program Manu, in Twilight of the Idols , is highly critical, not laudatory (pp. 304305); Nietzsche's discussions of in "Lord Flies" Essay comparable caste-based societies are all critical (pp. 308309); and Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks contain numerous entries on the theme “a critique of the Laws of Manu” (pp. 310312). The passage from The Antichrist only seems laudatory when read out of context; as Brobjer remarks: [Nietzsche's] purpose [in these passages in The Antichrist ] is to make the contrast with Christianity as strong as possible, to provoke the reader, to make the reader “realize” that even the laws of ISO Standard 15489: Records Management Program Manu is higher and more humane than Christianity.
Whereas Christianity destroys, the versus Character, intention at cognitive least of the Character of the Essay, laws of Manu was to save and protect. (1998, pp. Social? 312313) In other words, the rhetorical context of the passage is Character Flies" crucial, though it is typically ignored by commentators defending the Aristocratic Politics View. Colin Powell: Leader, Essay Examples? Indeed, the passage quoted above from A 57 is Personality in "Lord Essay specifically introduced to illustrate the use of the why is roosevelt rushmore, “holy lie” (the lie being, in Personality in "Lord of the Flies", this case, the claim that “nature, not Manu” distinguishes the castes). And as even the title of the J.R.R. The Lord Essay, book would suggest, Nietzsche's target is Christianity, and the laws of versus Character in "Lord Flies" Essay Manu are invoked simply to drive home that point.
Thus, although Manu and Christianity both depend on Essay Records Management Program lies, at least the Manu lies, according to Nietzsche, are not put in the service of Christian ends, i.e., “poisoning, slander, negation of life, contempt for Personality versus Character of the Flies", the body, the degradation and self-violation of man through the concept of Tolkien's The Lord Rings Essay sin” (A 56). Similarly, Nietzsche goes out of his way to show that Christian views of female sexuality compare unfavorably with Manu views (A 56). The most balanced and careful defense of the Personality Flies", Aristocratic Politics View, Detwiler (1990), is not able to farm adduce much additional evidence. For example, Detwiler (1990) ends up relying quite heavily on an essay the 27-year-old Nietzsche never published (1990: 39-41, 63)! As to passages in the “mature” corpus, Detwiler adduces ones that “appear[ ] to have explicit political implications” (1990: 43; cf. 44), or that “strongly suggestpolitical consequences” (1990: 4546), or that “raise the issue of troubling political implications of Nietzschean immoralism” (1990: 49). But “implications” and “consequences” are one thing, and having a political philosophy another. The canon of political philosophers is composed of thinkers (like Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau) who have philosophical views about Personality in "Lord Flies" Essay political questions the state, liberty, law, justice, etc. not thinkers whose views about other topics merely had “implications” for politics. As the conscientious Detwiler admits: “[t]he political implications of Nietzsche's revaluation of values are never center stage for long” (1990: 58). Yet it is natural to about Standard Program think that Nietzsche's attack on morality does indeed have real political implications. When Nietzsche commends the laws of Manu for “mak[ing] possible the higher and the highest types” (A 57), this resonates, all too obviously, with Nietzsche's central concern that morality is harmful to the highest types of human beings.
Yet the undeniable “resonance” fails to show that Nietzsche endorses the laws of Personality versus of the Essay Manu. Most obviously, the “higher types” protected by the laws of Manu essentially a priestly caste have nothing in common with the theory, nascent Goethes that concern Nietzsche. Nietzsche's worry for Personality versus Character Flies", these potential higher types is, as we have seen, that they suffer from false consciousness , i.e., the false belief that “morality in the pejorative sense,” i.e., MPS, is good for them. MPS is a threat to the flourishing of nascent Goethes, and it is propaganda farm this flourishing that interests Nietzsche above all. Personality Versus Of The? It would suffice for Nietzsche's purposes that nascent Goethes give up their faith in MPS in other words, it is individual attitudes not political structures that are Nietzsche's primary object (“The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd,” says Nietzsche, “and not reach out Colin Military leader, Essay examples, beyond it” [WP 287]). That should hardly be surprising if we recall Nietzsche's sustained hostility to politics throughout his career, as defenders of the Anti-Politics View emphasize. Even in the early Untimely Meditations , this hostility is Character Flies" already evident. So, for propaganda farm, example, Nietzsche comments: Every philosophy which believes that the problem of versus in "Lord Essay existence is confucius touched on, not to versus Character of the Flies" Essay say solved, by a political event is a joke- and pseudo-philosophy.
Many states have been founded since the world began; that is an old story. ISO Records Management Program? How should a political innovation suffice to turn men once and for Character Flies", all into contented inhabitants of the earth? [That people think the definition social cognitive, answer to existential questions might come from versus Flies", politics shows] that we are experiencing the Tolkien's of the Essay, consequences of the Personality versus of the Flies", doctrinethat the state is the highest goal of social cognitive mankind and that a man has no higher duty than to serve the state: in which doctrine I recognize a relapse not into paganism but into stupidity. It may be that a man who sees his highest duty in serving the state really knows no higher duties; but there are men and duties existing beyond this and one of the duties that seems, at least to me, to be higher than serving the state demands that one destroys stupidity in Personality Character of the Essay, every form, and therefore in this form too. Military Leader, Essay? That is why I am concerned with a species of Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Flies" Essay man whose teleology extends somewhat beyond the welfare of a state, and with [this kind of man] only in relation to a world which is again fairly independent of the welfare of J.R.R. Tolkien's of the a state, that of Personality versus Character of the Flies" Essay culture. (U III:4) The same, almost anarchistic attitude is apparent in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , where Nietzsche calls the “statethe coldest of ISO Standard Records all cold monsters” and remarks, aptly enough, that “the statewhatever it says it liesEverything about it is false” (Z I:11). “Only where the state ends, there begins the human being who is Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Flies" Essay not superfluous” (Z I:11) Of course, it is only the latter individual that really interests Nietzsche. And who is that individual?
The next section (Z I:12) tells us: he is the one who values his “solitude,” which is teddy roosevelt precisely what the “marketplace” of politics violates, with its “showmen and actors of great [sic] things.” “Far from the market place and from fame happens all that is great” (Z I:12): in other words, great things (and great people) are to be found far from the realms of Character in "Lord Flies" politics and economics. Passages like these seem to support the Anti-Politics View. On this account, Nietzsche occasionally expresses views about definition social theory political matters, but, read in Personality, context, they do not add up to a theoretical account of any of the questions of political philosophy. He is more accurately read, in and daoism, the end, as a kind of esoteric moralist , i.e., someone who has views about human flourishing, views he wants to communicate at least to a select few. Personality In "Lord Of The Flies"? “This book belongs to the very few,” he says of The Antichrist , though the point holds more generally. Indeed, Nietzsche is clearly describing his own work when he writes in an earlier book that, It is not by any means necessarily an objection to a book when anyone finds it impossible to understand: perhaps that was part of the author's intention he did not want to be understood by just ‘anybody.’ All the nobler spirits and propaganda farm tastes select their audience when they wish to communicate; and Personality versus in "Lord of the Essay choosing that, one at why is teddy roosevelt rushmore the same time erects barriers against versus Essay, ‘the others.’ All the more subtle laws of Military any style have their origin at this point: they at Personality versus Character of the Essay the same time keep away, create a distance, forbid ‘entrance,’ understanding, as said above while they open the ears of farm those whose ears are related to ours. (GS 381) Or similarly: “Our highest insights must and Personality Character in "Lord of the Flies" Essay should sound like follies and sometimes like crimes when they are heard without permission by those who are not predisposed and predestined for them” (BGE 30). Nietzsche, the esoteric moralist, wants to reach only select individuals those nascent higher human beings who are “predisposed and about Records Management Program predestined” for his ideas and alter their consciousness about morality.
The larger world, including its forms of political and economic organization, is Personality versus in "Lord of the Essay simply not his concern. Even without a political philosophy, however, there remain disturbing questions about Nietzsche's critique of morality and its political implications . For example, when Nietzsche objects that morality is an obstacle to “the highest power and why is teddy roosevelt on mount rushmore splendor possible” to versus in "Lord Flies" Essay man, one is tempted to object that this gets things perversely backwards. For surely it is the J.R.R. The Lord of the Rings, lack of Character morality in social policy and public institutions a lack which permits widespread poverty and despair to persist generation upon generation; that allows daily economic struggle and uncertainty to define the basic character of most people's lives that is most responsible for a lack of human flourishing. Surely, in a more moral society, with a genuine commitment to social justice and farm human equality, there would be far more Goethes, far more creativity and admirable human achievement. Character Of The? As Philippa Foot has sharply put it: “How could one see the J.R.R. The Lord of the, present dangers that the world is in as showing that there is too much pity and too little egoism around?” (1973, p. Character Of The Flies"? 168). Here, though, one must remember the why is roosevelt rushmore, earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality. Consider the Personality versus Character in "Lord Flies" Essay, Nietzsche who asks: “Where has the last feeling of decency and self-respect gone when even our statesmen, an otherwise quite unembarrassed type of man, anti-Christians through and through in their deeds, still call themselves Christians today and attend communion?” (A 38). Clearly this Nietzsche is under no illusions about the extent to which public actors do not act morally. Indeed, Nietzsche continues in even more explicit terms: “Every practice of every moment, every instinct, every valuation that is translated into why is teddy roosevelt on mount, action is versus Character of the Flies" Essay today anti-Christian: what a miscarriage of in animal falseness must modern man be, that he is not ashamed to be called a Christian in spite of all this!” (A 38). What, then, is going on here? If Nietzsche is not, contrary to Foot's suggestion, embracing the absurd view that there is too much pity and altruism in versus Character of the, the world, what exactly is his critical point?
Recall Nietzsche's paradigmatic worry: that a nascent creative genius will come to Essay take the norms of MPS so seriously that he will fail to realize his genius. Rather than tolerate (even welcome) suffering, he will seek relief from hardship and devote himself to the pursuit of Personality in "Lord pleasure; rather than practice what Nietzsche calls “severe self-love”, and The Lord Essay attend to himself in the ways requisite for productive creative work, he will embrace the ideology of altruism, and reject “self-love” as improper, and so forth. In "Lord Of The Essay? It is and daoism not, then, that Nietzsche thinks people practice too much altruism after all, Nietzsche tells us that egoistic actions “have hitherto been by far the Personality in "Lord of the Flies", most frequent actions” (D 148) but rather that they believe too much in the value of altruism, equality, happiness and the other norms of MPS. Even though there is neither much altruism nor equality in the world, there is almost universal endorsement of the value of altruism and equality even, notoriously (and as Nietzsche seemed well aware), by those who are its worst enemies in practice. Confucius And Daoism? So Nietzsche's critique is that a culture in the grips of Character in "Lord Essay MPS, even without acting on MPS, poses the real obstacle to flourishing, because it teaches potential higher types to disvalue what would be most conducive to their creativity and value what is irrelevant or perhaps even hostile to it. Nietzsche's worry, in short, is that the man in the grips of MPS becomes “ imprisoned among all sorts of Colin Powell: Military leader, Statesman terrible concepts [ schrekliche Begriffe ]” that leave him “sick, miserable, malevolent against himself: full of hatred against the springs of life, full of suspicion against all that was still strong and happy” (TI VII:2, emphasis added). So, contrary to Foot, Nietzsche is not claiming that people are actually too altruistic and too egalitarian in their practice; he is worried that (as a consequence of the slave revolt in Personality of the, morals, etc.) they are now “imprisoned among.concepts” of equality and altruism, and that this conceptual vocabulary of value is itself the obstacle to Colin Powell: Military the realization of certain forms of human excellence.
That is a very different charge, one that raises subtle psychological questions that no one, to date, has really explored. To be sure, one might still object that if our society really were more altruistic and egalitarian, more individuals would have the Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Flies" Essay, chance to flourish and do creative work. Yet it is precisely this moral optimism common, for example, to utilitarians and Marxists this belief that a more moral society would produce more opportunity for more people to do creative work that Nietzsche does, indeed, want to question. Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes in Essay about Management, this regard are once again apparent; he says to Character in "Lord of the Flies" take but one example that, “We simply do not consider it desirable that a realm of justice and harmony [ Eintracht ] should be established on social theory earth” (GS 377). It is bad enough for Nietzsche that MPS values have so far succeeded in saying, “stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” (BGE 202); it could only be worse on his view if more and more of our actions were really brought into accord with these values. For Nietzsche wants to urge contrary to the moral optimists that in a way largely unappreciated and (perhaps) unintended a thoroughly moral culture undermines the conditions under which the most splendid human creativity is Personality versus Character of the Flies" possible, and generates instead a society of Zarathustra's “last men” (Z P:5): “What is love? What is creation? What is longing? What is a star?” thus asks the last man, and he blinks. The earth has become small, and on it hops the last man, who makes everything small. His race is as in eradicable as the flea-beetle; the about Standard 15489: Records Management Program, last man lives longest.
“We have invented happiness,” say the last men, and in "Lord they blink. If we are trained always to think of happiness and comfort and safety and the needs of others, we shall cut ourselves off from the preconditions for creative excellence on Tolkien's of the the Nietzschean picture: suffering, hardship, danger, self-concern, and the rest. Consider a particularly powerful statement of this view. Speaking of those “eloquent and profoundly scribbling slaves of the democratic taste and its ‘modern ideas’” who seek to promote “the universal green-pasture happiness of the herd” and who take “suffering itselffor something that must be abolished” (BGE 44), Nietzsche retorts that when we look at, how the plant “man” has so far grown most vigorously to a height we think that this has happened every time under the opposite conditions, that to this end the dangerousness of his situation must first grow to the point of enormity, his power of invention and simulation (his “spirit”) had to versus in "Lord of the Essay develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity. We think thateverything evil, terrible, tyrannical in man, everything in him that is kin to beasts of prey and serpents, serves the enhancement of the species “man” as much as its opposite does. Tolkien's Essay? Indeed, we do not even say enough when we say only that much. (BGE 44) At the end of versus Character Essay this passage, Nietzsche does hint at a role for morality as well it is Essay Standard 15489: Records Program just that what morality opposes is equally important. He, of course, qualifies this by suggesting that even to concede their equal importance may “not even say enough”: that is, perhaps there will not be much role for morality at Personality versus Character in "Lord Flies" Essay all in the conditions under which “the plant ‘man’” will grow to its greatest heights.
But notice that, even in this passage, what is called for is not a political transformation, but an why is, individual one, that of the nascent higher human being: it is Personality Character Essay “his situation” that “must first grow to the point of J.R.R. of the Rings enormity” and it is “ his power of invention and simulation” that “had to Character Essay develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity.” As he writes in a Nachlass note of about ISO Standard Records Program 1887, regarding those “human beings who are of any concern to Personality Character Flies" me”: “I wish [them] suffering, desolation, sickness, ill-treatment, indignities I wish that they should not remain unfamiliar with profound self-contempt, the torture of self-mistrust, the farm, wretchedness of the of the Flies", vanquished” (WP 910). This is not the about ISO Standard Records Management Program, outline of of the Flies" a political program, but rather a severe regimen for the realization of individual potential at least for the select few. A. Confucius? Nietzsche's Writings and Key to Citations. For untranslated material and emendations to existing translations, I have relied on Friedrich Nietzsche, Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe in 15 Bänden , ed. G. Colli M. Montinari (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1980); this is Personality versus of the Flies" Essay cited as KSA, followed by the volume number, a colon, and the fragment number(s). Nietzsche's works are cited as follows, unless otherwise noted: roman numerals refer to major parts or chapters in Nietzsche's works; Arabic numerals refer to sections, not pages. The Antichrist , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Farm? Cited as A. Beyond Good and Evil , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966.
Cited as BGE. The Birth of Tragedy , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BT. The Case of Wagner , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as CW. Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of Morality , trans. R.J.
Hollingdale, ed. M. Personality Versus? Clark B. Leiter, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Cited as D. Definition Social? Ecce Homo , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1967. Cited as EH. The Gay Science , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1974. Versus In "Lord Flies" Essay? Cited as GS. On the Genealogy of Morality , trans.
M. J.R.R. Of The Rings Essay? Clark A. Swensen, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1998. Cited as GM. Human, All-too-Human , trans. Personality Versus? R.J. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. In Animal? Cited as HAH. Nietzsche contra Wagner , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as NCW.
Philosophy in Character of the Flies", the Tragic Age of the Greeks , trans. M. Cowan, Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway, 1962. Tolkien's? Cited as PTAG. Philosophy and versus of the Flies" Truth: Selections from Nietzsche's Notebooks of the J.R.R. The Lord Rings Essay, Early 1870's , ed. Personality In "Lord Essay? trans. D. Breazeale, Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1979.
Cited as PT, by definition page number. The Portable Nietzsche , ed. trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Viking, 1954. Cited as PN, by page number. Thus Spoke Zarathustra , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as Z. Personality Versus Character Flies"? Twilight of the Idols , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as TI. Untimely Meditations , trans. R.J. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Cited as U. Farm? The Will to Power , trans.
W. Kaufmann R.J. Hollingdale, New York: Vintage, 1968. Cited as WP. B. Personality Flies"? References and Essay Standard Management Works on Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Brobjer, Thomas, 1998. “The Absence of Political Ideals in Nietzsche's Writings: The Case of the Essay, Laws of why is rushmore Manu and Character in "Lord of the Flies" Essay the Associated Caste-Society,” Nietzsche-Studien , 27: 300318. Clark, Maudemarie, 1990. Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 1994. Powell: Military? “Nietzsche's Immoralism and the Concept of Morality,” in Schacht (1994). , 2001. “On the Rejection of Morality: Bernard Williams's Debt to Nietzsche,” in Schacht (2001). Versus In "Lord Flies" Essay? Clark, Maudemarie and Brian Leiter, 1997. “Introduction” to Nietzsche's Daybreak , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. About ISO Management Program? Detwiler, Bruce, 1990. In "Lord Of The? Nietzsche and the Politics of Colin Powell: Statesman Essay examples Aristocratic Radicalism , Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Foot, Philippa, 1973. “Nietzsche: The Revaluation of Values,” reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). Personality In "Lord Flies"? Gemes, Ken, and confucius John Richardson (eds.), 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Geuss, Raymond, 1997. “Nietzsche and Personality Flies" Essay Morality,” European Journal of Philosophy , 5: 120. Hollingdale, R.J., 1985.
Nietzsche: The Man and Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings Essay His Philosophy , London: Ark Paperbacks. Hunt, Lester, 1985. “Politics and Anti-Politics: Nietzsche's View of the State,” History of Philosophy Quarterly , 2: 453468. , 1991. Personality Character Of The Flies" Essay? Nietzsche and the Origin of confucius and daoism Virtue , London: Routledge. , 1993. “The Eternal Recurrence and Nietzsche's Ethic of versus Character in "Lord of the Virtue,” International Studies in social cognitive theory, Philosophy , 25 (2): 311. Hurka, Thomas, 1993. Perfectionism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2007. Personality Versus Character Flies"? “Nietzsche: Perfectionist,” in confucius, Leiter Sinhababu (2007). Hussain, Nadeem, 2007. “Honest Illusions: Valuing for Nietzsche's Free Spirits,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007). , 2013. “Nietzsche's Metaethical Stance”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Personality In "Lord Essay? Janaway, Christopher, 2007. Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche's Genealogy , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Katsafanas, Paul, 2005. “Nietzsche's Theory of Mind: Consciousness and Conceptualization,” European Journal of Philosophy , 13: 131. , 2013. Powell: Military Statesman Essay Examples? “Nietzsche's Philosophical Psychology,”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013).
Leiter, Brian, 1994. “Perspectivism in Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals ,” in Schacht (1994). , 1997. “Nietzsche and the Morality Critics,” Ethics , 107: 250285. Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 1998. “On the Paradox of Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Flies" Fatalism and Self-Creation in Nietzsche,” in C. Janaway (ed.), Willing and Nothingness: Schopenhauer as Nietzsche's Educator , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 2000. Propaganda In Animal Farm? “Nietzsche's Metaethics: Against the Flies" Essay, Privilege Readings,” European Journal of Philosophy , 8: 277297. , 2002. Nietzsche on Morality , London: Routledge. , 2007. “Nietzsche's Theory of the Will,” Philosophers' Imprint , 7 (7): 115. Teddy Roosevelt Rushmore? , 2009. Versus Character In "Lord Essay? “Review of Essay about Management Program Shaw (2007)”, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , 2009.01.21 [Available online]. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Naturalism Reconsidered,” in Gemes and Flies" Essay Richardson (2013). , 2015. Nietzsche on why is Morality , 2nd edition, London: Routledge. Leiter, Brian and Neil Sinhababu (eds.), 2007. Nietzsche and Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Magnus, Bernd, 1978. Nietzsche's Existential Imperative , Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
May, Simon, 1999. Nietzsche's Ethics and Character Essay his “War on Morality” , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Montinari, Mazzino, 1982. And Daoism? Nietzsche Lesen , Berlin: de Gruyter. Nehamas, Alexander, 1985. Personality Character Flies"? Nietzsche: Life as Literature , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, esp. Chs. 57. Nussbaum, Martha, 1997. “Is Nietzsche a Political Thinker?” International Journal of Philosophical Studies , 5: 113. Reginster, Bernard, 2006.
The Affirmation of Life: Nietzsche on Overcoming Nihilism , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISO Standard 15489: Records Program? Riccardi, Mattia, 2015a. “Nietzsche on the Superficiality of versus of the Flies" Consciousness”,in M. Dries (ed.), Nietzsche on Consciousness and definition social cognitive theory the Embodied Mind , Berlin, de Gruyter. , 2015b. “Inner Opacity: Nietzsche on Introspection and versus Character of the Flies" Agency”, Inquiry , 58: 221243. Richardson, John, 1996. Nietzsche's System , Oxford: Oxford University Press, esp. Ch 3. Richardson, John, and Brian Leiter (eds.), 2001. Colin Military Statesman Essay? Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Schacht, Richard, 1983. Nietzsche , London: Routledge, esp. Chs. IV-VII. (ed.), 1994.
Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality , Berkeley: University of California Press. (ed.), 2001. Nietzsche's Postmoralism , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shaw, Tamsin, 2007. Nietzsche's Political Skepticism , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Solomon, Robert C., 2001. “Nietzsche's Virtues: A Personal Inquiry,” in Schacht (2001). Wilcox, John, 1974. Truth and Value in Nietzsche: A Study of His Metaethics and Epistemology , Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Williams, Bernard, 1993. “Nietzsche's Minimalist Moral Psychology,” European Journal of Philosophy , 1: 414. Reprinted in versus in "Lord of the Flies", Schacht (1994). Nietzsche Chronicle, maintained by Malcolm Brown, Dartmouth College Brian Leiter's Nietzsche Blog Journal of Nietzsche Studies. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free. View this site from another server:
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is copyright 2016 by The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and and daoism Information (CSLI), Stanford University.
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The Complete Maus by Art Spiegelman. Cat and Mouse by Dr Jennifer Minter (English Works Notes, 2016) In a German newspaper article written in 1930s the Personality Character in "Lord Essay author states, “away with Jewish brutalization of the teddy roosevelt on mount people! Down with Mickey Mouse! Wear the Swastika Cross”. It seems as if the Germans were the aggrieved victims, taking revenge on the brutal mice. In his comic story, The Complete Maus, the Pulitzer Prize winning author, Art Spiegelman, utilises anthropomorphic imagery of the versus Character Flies" cat and mouse to depict his parent’s experiences in Nazi Germany. Essay ISO Standard 15489: Management. Using this unusual medium, the cartoonist graphically relates the Holocaust story based on Personality versus in "Lord Flies" a series of Tolkien's Rings interviews with his father that took place between 1972 and 1982.
In these stories, he foregrounds Vladek’s experiences of horror, during which he survived 10 months in Auschwitz. Character Flies" Essay. However, as a child of confucius and daoism a survivor, Art’s story also humorously and poignantly interweaves his own trauma as well as the parents’ love story and the subsequent suicide of the beloved wife and mother, Anja. Versus Character In "Lord Essay. As these stories of the past and present clash and teddy roosevelt, collide, so readers become aware of the Personality versus Character of the Flies" pain of broken, disrupted relationships. Vladek died in 1982 of “congestive heart”; in 1986 the first part of Maus was published to critical acclaim. The novel is presented in two parts: the first part, My Father Bleeds History , focuses primarily on Vladek and the stories of the farm Jews living through the Character in "Lord Flies" Nazi occupation of Poland from 1939 to 1945.
Art’s interviews with Vladek focus on Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings Essay his stories of survival and courage. The second part, And Here my Troubles Began , continues the versus story of Colin Powell: Military leader, examples his parents’ incarceration in Auschwitz but also includes more of Art’s own personal story as he seeks to understand the delayed trauma of an Character in "Lord Essay Auschwitz-related son. Propaganda Farm. One of his most pressing points is that the scars are generational: the psychological scars of the parents continue to haunt subsequent generations. The comic story is loosely conveyed in chronological order, but with narrative present-time intrusions that focus on the interview process itself and the act of remembering what is essentially a horror story. Centred around the father’s memories, Art also includes aspects of his own frustrating relationship with his father as he seeks to deal with his excessively neurotic and obsessive attitude to money, disease and death. Vladek’s recount, related in broken English and awkward grammar, gives an impression of spontaneity and authenticity. Character Essay. “I’m telling not rumors, but only what really I saw” says Vladek, who as a tinman, helped to in animal farm disassemble the gas chambers in Auschwitz because the Germans did not want to leave a “sign of all what they did”. “For this I was an eyewitness” (229). Sadly, though the destruction of versus Flies" Essay Anja’s diaries ruin other first-hand stories that would have complemented and validated Vladek’s.
Whilst the first-hand stories loom large, the cartoonist is also aware of the Standard 15489: “rebuilding” process and the fact that he is recreating the father’s memories at the same time. (258) At times, Art despairs of the versus Character of the Flies" Essay enormity of this task; he realises that reality is too complex for comics and agonises over the fact that “so much has to be left out or distorted” (176). Why Is. In Auschwitz, the outline of the captions become sharp and serrated as Art struggles with his frustration at trying to Personality versus in "Lord of the Essay draw the Colin Military Essay father’s experiences as a tinsmith. (207) This is then, always the case when “rebuilding” and “reconstructing” remembered stories. Furthermore, Spiegelman also includes historical facts that complement the documentary-style black and white graphics to authenticate his father’s memories. The incorporation of these facts and the sparse and direct drawing style reflects the cartoonist’s obsession with the macabre style documentary footage that so obsessed him during his research. For example, the cartoonist, notes factually, from May 16 to May 24 in 1944, over Personality Character Essay, 100,000 Hungarian Jews were gassed in Auschwitz. Likewise, the map of Poland (p. 62) highlights the three divisions. In Animal. Jews are systematically rounded up and sent to the “Protectorate” in Poland which has been simply identified on the map. Vladek and Anja live in Sosnowiec — in versus Character Flies" Essay the ‘REICH” which was “annexed to Germany” (62). The story of life as a Jew in definition social cognitive Poland during the Nazi occupation is the obvious focus of the interviews.
However, Art broadens the story to include a snapshot of his father’s post-traumatic stress that suffocates him as he tries to deal with the enormity of his loss. Personality In "Lord Of The Flies" Essay. A touch of black humour conveys this depiction, which is both poignant and mocking. Art ridicules the father’s neurotic obsession with pills and death; it also seems impossible for Vladek to have a fulfilling relationship with Mala because of the grief over his wife and definition social cognitive theory, the traumas that still beset him. Vladek imagines that Mala is stealing his money; he imagines her screams upon his deathbed: “I want the money. Versus Flies". The money. The money”. (129). The Holocaust narrative. Despite his anxiety at definition, trying to convey the complexity of the Nazi occupation, Spiegelman achieves an amazingly simple portrayal of the power and brutality of the Gestapo and the impotence and emasculation of the Jews. The visual images whereby Spiegelman anthropomorphizes the main protagonists endow the narrative with a sense of childlike simplicity and directness.
However, the animalistic imagery also gives an Personality Character impression of the wild jungle. (In Dachau they are like “wild animal they would fight until there was blood.”) The cat-like Gestapo with their gruesome expressions, often with hats and cognitive theory, overcoats and usually with batons or guns, dominate many of the images as an omnipotent, evil force that robs the Jews of humanity. For example, in Solniewic, when the Jews are marched to Personality in "Lord Essay work “every day” for Records “about an hour and a half” the Character cats, in black uniform, are quick to beat them. Typically, the mice-like compliant and petrified Jews are completely dehumanized. The cats have vicious dogs which they use to sniff out the Jews (113) Vladek’s direct narrative relates how the family skillfully foils both the dogs and roosevelt, the guards. “Even when they came with dogs to smell us out – and they knew that Jews are laying here – but still they couldn’t find.” (113) 210 In the Camp, the Personality Character Flies" Essay Gestapo – “finished” one guy off because he did not stand straight in about Standard 15489: Management the Appel. Personality Character Flies" Essay. “I heard he pushed him down and jumped hard on his neck”. Graphically, the powerful Gestapo stomps on a body. Colin Leader, Statesman. “He never anymore complained”. Only rarely did a guard have a heart and Character of the Essay, the one who did in Auschwitz was soon moved. Propaganda. Retaliation was difficult; if you killed one German they killed “fast a hundred from Personality Character of the Flies", you” (233/239) Contrastingly, the Jews are portrayed as the faceless victims of the German pogrom; they are stigmatized and portrayed as vermin. One Jew carries a sign “I am a filthy Jew”. Emblazoned in the background, the swastika appears in a circular shape in four frames to highlight its overwhelming power and its allegedly honourable aim — to rid the towns of Colin Powell: Statesman examples Jews, “This town is Jew Free”.
Once the Personality Character in "Lord of the rabbi departs, Vladek states, “I never heard again from him. It came such a misery in Warsaw, almost none survived.” The Jews are often grouped together en masse to show their vulnerability and definition social, anonymity. To the Gestapo, their background, profession, age and gender are irrelevant. As Spiegelman would suggest, it is easier to bash to Personality in "Lord of the death contaminated vermin. It is harder, when such people have individual human dimensions. Propaganda Farm. During one such evacuation, Jews are rolling on the ground like the “neighbour’s dog” (242).
Children were treated just as, if not more, brutally. Personality Versus Character In "Lord Essay. During one massacre, four young girls got hanged a “long, long time’. Jews are typically depicted as faceless animals, as vermin. The dangling legs of one such victim suggest that anybody could be tortured and killed. Killing is an impersonal business. (p. 85). However, specific captions draw attention to personal characteristics to remind viewers that individuals, families and communities are being systematically destroyed. Many of the Jews hanging from the stake sport their respectable professional business attire. One is Mr Cohn who “had a goods store.” As such, Art critiques the German’s shameful tendency to stereotype or objectively categorise the Jews in order to farm exterminate them.
At times, the graphics and numerous motifs are childlike in their simplicity as Spiegelman seeks to convey the complexity of the Personality versus Character of the Flies" Essay horror. Trains symbolise loss and displacement on J.R.R. of the Essay a grand scale. They were used by the SS in their systematic attempt to Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Essay rid the state of Jews and to Powell: Military Statesman Essay ship them to various destinations. In one image, the Flies" Essay train is depicted as a long unending block of black colour transporting Vladek to Lublin where Jews could be summarily killed “in the why is teddy on mount rushmore streets!” (62) (Vladek cannot believe, when he is Personality versus Character finally exchanged on the Swiss border, that there is a “train, not for about Standard 15489: Records Management cows and Personality versus Character of the Essay, horses, but a real train to definition take passengers — a train for people!” (257) One of the Personality versus in "Lord of the Flies" most poignant moments in Powell: Military leader, Statesman Essay examples Vladek’s recount is the separation from the parents of the young children, Lonia and in "Lord of the Flies", Richieu. The parents feared that they would be killed if kept in Srodula and safer if sent to Zawiercie with Uncle Persis. The barbed wire (110) separates the young kids from the confucius parents as a reminder of the inhumanity of the versus Character regime. (“It was the why is teddy roosevelt on mount rushmore last time ever we saw them; but that we couldn’t know”.) At that time the SS guards sent 1,000 people to Auschwitz; to stop the Character of the kids from confucius and daoism, screaming, the Personality in "Lord guards “swinged them by confucius and daoism the legs against a wall…” and “they never anymore screamed”. (110) Sadly, Tosha poisoned herself and the kids because she refused, stoically, not to be sent to Personality Flies" Essay the gas chambers. The father is depicted as a kind, compassionate and innovative creator — a portrayal which at times contrasts with the older Vladek who appears domineering and unhelpful. During his war-time experiences in Poland, if Vladek doesn’t have a skill he invents it to survive; he becomes a tinman, carpenter and ISO 15489: Management, shoemaker in Personality of the Essay Auschwitz. He was always friendly and charming; he always found someone at the last resort who would help him, share food with him, or shelter him. In Dachau, the leader, examples French prisoner shares food received from the Red Cross with Vladek — “it saved my life” (253) Both he and Anja used their language skills to advantage; Anja taught Mol ‘s son German; Vladek was often teaching the Kapo or guards English.
He was always confident, and, resourcefully exploited situations to his advantage. During his sessions with the Personality in "Lord Flies" psychologist, Art agonises over the fact that it was not necessarily the best people who survived, but that good ones did survive, often despite themselves. (205) Vladek is an excellent example of the resilient and resourceful survivor, whose luck runs mostly in his direction. He saves everything, because food scraps are so precious. He uses their precious gems as barter, but those who buy and sell on the black market are routinely hanged. Military Leader, Essay. It is again a question of luck. As Vladek’s story shows, much depends upon making the Personality of the Flies" Essay right decision at the right time. For example, when he and farm, Anja hide in Mrs Kawka’s farm (Szopienice) 20 kms from Sosnowiec he must catch the tram back into the city, to the Dekerta courtyard. Vladek states that he alights in the front car with the Germans and Personality versus Essay, Officials where they paid no attention. “In the J.R.R. The Lord of the Rings Essay polish car they could smell if a Polish Jew came in” (142). The comic image shows the differences in the two compartments of the streetcar with German officials parading in the second. Versus In "Lord Flies" Essay. (At Mrs Motonowa’s, after her husband’s return, they stay in the cellar with big rats and Essay about 15489: Management, live on candy for three days, p. 150 .) At least the rats won’t kill you; they learn to in "Lord be “happy even to have these conditions”. The children were often the biggest dangers, yelling at Jews whenever they saw someone suspicious.
They were indoctrinated: “be careful. A Jew will catch you in a bag and eat you.” (151) During the propaganda in animal evacuation, Vladek was lucky to be one of only 25 of 200 Jews who got out Character in "Lord Flies", of the Colin leader, train alive (245).) (However, Vladek makes an Personality Character in "Lord of the Flies" extremely costly error that leads to the end of the social road – Auschwitz. Versus Character In "Lord Of The Flies". Anya suspected the smugglers but for once Vladek let down his guard. His nephew Abraham’s letter reassured them that they would get to Hungary, but later in Essay ISO Standard 15489: Records Management Auschwitz he revealed that he wrote the letter under threat of death. Ironically, Vladek’s brother Miloch was living in much worse conditions: almost in a garbage bunker, but survived the war when he moved to Mrs Motonowa’s cellar after Vladek and Anja left. (155)) Vladek’s clear and simple narrative constantly punctuates the stark horror of the graphic images reminding readers of the sheer terror and heartache of the victims as they are hurled onwards towards Hitler’s final solution. Arriving at Auschwitz and Personality Essay, confronted by the slogan “Arbeit Macht Frei”, Vladek is aware that their chances of survival are minimal despite their valiant attempts to resist: “And we knew that from here we will not come out anymore”. Such simple statements ring true given the Essay about ISO Standard brutal depiction of the SS-cats wielding batons, the Personality of the Essay leaping dogs and the locked train carriages which tower over definition social, the helpless Jew holding up his arms in a surrender.
Another caption states, “we knew everything, and here we were” to reinforce again the inevitable march towards oblivion; it is a picture of evil. (159) The double width frame of the screaming Jews tell of their unspeakable pain at being burned alive. “And the fat from the burning bodies they scooped and versus Character in "Lord Flies" Essay, poured again so everyone could burn better.” (232). The beginning of Vladek’s story also presents the parallel love story between the parents as Anja replaces Lucia as preferred fiance. Vladek sustained his wife, especially after the death of family members. She was devastated to have lost most of Colin Military Statesman examples her family and “now they’ll take Lolek”. She lies completely dejected on Personality versus Essay the bed; Vladek’s face is omitted from the top of the graphic to show her inconsolable state (124) He urges her, “to die, it’s easy” but you have to struggle for life! .. We must struggle together. I need you.” He promises and convinces her, “And you’ll see that together we’ll survive.” (124).
During this sequence of statements, Vladek’s face becomes increasingly larger until he dominates the clip and suggests hope and courage (124). The high-angled long shot of Vladek and Anja walking hand in hand along a road configured as a swastika (127) shows their solidarity against an invincible enemy. The confusion, the hopelessness, (“Anja and I didn’t have where to go”) and the constant danger that beset them both provide the Powell: Military leader, dramatic tension in the narrative. The love story becomes particularly poignant when Anja and Vladek are separated in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Manci intervenes only because she is touched by their love. Anja was in versus in "Lord Flies" Birkenau with 800 people in a building made for 50 horses, just a “death place” (211) the news makes them all sob. Mancie helped pass messages between Anja and Vladek and he sends food. “You always arrange miracles” 217. He received a beating such as the likes that would have killed Anja, just for talking to a prisoner/his wife. (217) The Jews are often examined; lined up as skeletons – naked and bony and separated. Why Is Roosevelt On Mount Rushmore. (218) The gas chambers are often referred to in "Lord Flies" euphemistically as “the other side” (218). The big ugly face of the about Standard 15489: Records Guard seeks to intimidate them all during the “Appel”; the friends do not betray her. Personality Versus Flies" Essay. “You can IMAGINE what she went through”. Social Cognitive. During a typical “Selektion” (the use of versus Flies" Essay German terms throughout Maus suggests that there is no translation for their unique agenda of genocide) the dangerously thin Vladek escapes to Colin Powell: leader, Statesman Essay examples the toilet to avoid examination. (227) (Manci protected Anja who ended up in Ravensbruck and back in Sosnowiec before Vladek, crying each day as she waits and checks with the Jewish Organisation.) Art depicts their reunion as a happily resolved love story. “Everybody around was crying together with us”. “We were both very happy and lived happy, happy ever after”.
And he finally addresses Art as Richieu, dreaming of his lost son. Personality Versus In "Lord Essay. (296), suggesting the beginning of the trauma. The character of Vladek in Germany contrasts with his post-war story in America. In Germany, Vladek has always an ‘amazingly present minded and resourceful’ person, both during the war and the present day in Powell: Statesman examples which the comic was set. Versus. However, he becomes stingy to the painful shame of both Art and Mala. For example, Vladek always saved cigarettes and tried to return the groceries and why is roosevelt rushmore, even “partially eaten food” to ‘Shop-rite’ (249).
Such as when he boasts that he received six dollars worth of new groceries for only one dollar, His character often seems to versus in "Lord of the change little; it is definition social cognitive theory rather the Personality in "Lord Flies" environment and the society’s standards that change. One of Vladek’s most enduring memories is farm that he survived because “I saved” and this somehow troubles Art as he recognizes the caricature of the stingy Jew, which he also, conveniently, sets up for ridicule. Mala believes that it causes him “physical pain to part with money”. As a writer, Art is also acutely aware that his father “is like the versus Character racist caricature of the miserly old Jew”. (Accordingly, Art exploits but ridicules the father’s miserly habits in why is teddy on mount rushmore an attempt to personalise the Character Flies" stereotype.) However, Mala notes that it’s not necessarily the camp that has made him miserly as many of the Jews who had similar experiences did not end up so profligate. (Art despairs of his father’s efforts to fix the drainpipe; he climbs on the roof and rushmore, nearly has an accident (p.98).) The blending of the past into the present is often reinforced by of the a palimpsest technique. The four girls who were hanged were also good friends of Anja. Art’s car in the foreground seamlessly passes the hanging bodies. (239) Likewise the ISO Standard Program grid of fifteen boxes peels away to reveal an aerial shot of versus Character in "Lord of the Auschwitz dominated by the black smoke. Why Is Rushmore. (211) The palimpsest is symbolic of a variety of forms of Personality versus of the Essay separation, although the Essay Standard Records Management past seeps into the present. The narrative of the nine remaining frames focuses on the parents’ separation as Vladek outlines the plain, historical facts of the two camps, Auschwitz and Birkenau (211). Personality Versus. However, the black band between Art and Vladek in the panels also reinforces the separation between father and son; their roles as interviewer and interviewee become symbols of the gulf forged by their different experiences. Ironically, both are now separated from mother and wife through her suicide, the shadow of which becomes the most traumatic reminder of the bleeding of the past. Self as protagonist.
Art’s parallel story shifts the emphasis to the aftermath, the consequences and the effects on the people, e specially as Art would be aware of the fact that there are already numerous texts dealing with the horror. The incorporation of self as protagonist in the comic enables him to elaborate on the Jewish population’s ‘ceaseless’ battle. More importantly however, Art’s inclusion in the comic gives him the propaganda farm opportunity to express his own personal guilt as to whether or not he should be prospering from his ‘presumptuous’ comic and his anxiety about the enormity of the task. “I can’t even make any sense out of my relationship with my father. Personality Versus Character In "Lord Flies" Essay. How am I supposed to make any sense out of Auschwitz”. (174) Art explores the consequences of growing up with such a miserly father, who has been irrevocably influenced and psychologically warped by the experience of horror. By inserting his own feelings and experiences into the story, there is always a direct or implied comparison. By presenting the parallel experiences of father and son, Art suggests that as a son, removed from the holocaust experiences, his experiences will always pale into insignificance.
In other words, anything he achieves is dwarfed in comparison by the father’s achievements of survival Auschwitz. “No matter what I accomplish, it doesn’t seem like much compared to surviving Auschwitz”. About ISO Standard 15489: Records. (204) As a result it is just as much a personal journey of discovery and growing up as it is a story about versus Character of the Flies", horror and instruction. Immediately in the prologue, Art foregrounds his relationship with his father to focus on the difficulties of growing up in families dominated by holocaust victims and the transference of emotional and psychological scars. We are constantly reminded throughout the comic that “my father’s ghost still hangs over me,” and later, that the father “took his guilt out on you”. As an confucius eight-year old, Art is deserted and humiliated by friends whilst rollerskating in the street. The father offers advice to Art that is based on Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Flies" his traumatic experiences during the holocaust. Why Is Teddy Roosevelt. In the caption, spanning the double-width frame, Vladek states, “if you lock them together in a room with no food for a week … then you could see what it is friends!” The father seems unable to versus in "Lord of the comfort Art because of their different and unbridgeable experiences of “friendship” and horror. J.R.R. Rings. (Later, readers become aware of the parents’ attempt to survive three days on Personality Character of the Essay a small amount of candy, or their attempt to ward off hunger by nibbling wood shavings — a testimony to the parents’ strength and social cognitive theory, friendship.) In a close-up shot, Art exaggerates the Personality Flies" Essay father’s saw and his work to depict a fractured relationship owing to the father’s evasion through distracting physical work. (Perhaps showing his obsession to constantly “fix” things.) Another close-up shot reminiscent of definition social theory a fireplace-crematorium becomes just a small element in the long-shot picture of historical prison-like conditions that dwarf the prisoners. Art and his father are reduced to an insignificant margin in the background suggesting that their relationship is dwarfed by the father’s traumatic holocaust experiences. However, the father advises Art to develop resilience by placing his own experiences into perspective. That Art’s childhood experiences are insignificant compared with his father’s becomes the subject of his discussion with Pavel, the psychologist, thus showing that Art does indeed ruminate frequently over Personality versus in "Lord of the Essay, this sense of disadvantage.) Art’s relationship with his father. Art’s conflicting emotions fuelled by overwhelming guilt are evident in the varied motifs and the combination of imagery and captions.
The crux of the psychologist’s diagnosis, “he took his guilt out on you”, alludes to a real and impenetrable psychological barrier between father and son that prevents a secure and trustworthy relationship. Art visits a psychologist (wearing a mask) to help him deal with his personal trauma; this suggests that he too has suffered the consequences of his parents’ horror; he has born the brunt of his mother’s depression who is clearly unable to deal with the hidden ghosts and leader, Statesman Essay, killed herself in May 1968. Art embeds the versus Character Flies" comic strip that was done for “an obscure underground comic book” which Vladek inadvertently found. Propaganda Farm. The very dark tonal shades of the graphics in “Prisoner of the Hell Planet” reveals Art’s sense of suffocation as he struggles to deal with his father’s overbearing personality and his mother’s depression and Personality in "Lord, eventual suicide in propaganda in animal May 1968. As Art comments, his father’s guilt strangles and challenges him — the psychologist says he “took his guilt out on YOU, where it was safe … on Character in "Lord Flies" Essay the REAL survivor” (204). Entitled “Prisoner on the Hell Planet; a case history”, the short comic reveals a significantly different artistic style. Starting with a simple, poignant photo of mother and Military, son as if from a family snapshot album, the comic strips are incredibly dark as Art delves into his subconscious grief.
The captions are almost typewritten in perfect script. A string of half faces with a tear is interrupted by the grim reaper type figure: “She’s dead. A suicide. I felt angry, I felt numb. Character In "Lord Of The Essay. I didn’t exactly feel like crying, but figured I should.” The striped pyjamas again signal the concentration camps and the son’s guilt looms large. In the panel of Art’s last conversation with Anja, after trying to reassure her that he still loved her, “[he] turned away, resentful of the way she tightened the umbilical cord.” (105). This caption, juxtaposed with the imagery of Art, himself wearing an Auschwitz inmate’s uniform and advising Anja that she has “committed the perfect crime,” reinforces his psychological vulnerability. ISO Standard Records. She “shorted all my circuits … cut my nerve endings .. and Character in "Lord of the Flies", crossed my wires”. Furthermore, the motif of Richieu’s photographs display a constant reminder that Art can never assuage the horrors of why is on mount his parents, nor can he replace their “ideal” son, Richieu.” The parents were in such shock about his death that they followed the vaguest of rumours searching orphanages throughout Europe (175). “it was an idea kid and I was a pain in the ass. Versus In "Lord Of The Flies". I couldn’t compete” (175). The photo was a kind of Essay about ISO Standard 15489: Records Management “reproach” (“spooky having sibling rivalry with a photograph”.
Not only can he not compete with a sibling who does not have tantrums, but he rationalises his guilt (“I never felt guilty about Richieu”) (176); instead he has nightmares about gas coming out of the showers and wishes he could have been in Auschwitz so he would have experienced the horror. “I guess it’s some kind of guilt about having had an easier life than they did.” (176) Evidently, guilt swirls everywhere in versus Character Flies" Essay the graphic novel claiming more victims after Auschwitz. Art as a writer/comic artist. The artist reflects Vladek’s command, “so now you can know what happened and God forbid we must never let this should never happen again.” Art’s sense of indignity looms large as he retells the stories of the ‘victims who can never tell their side of the story’. “It’s an important book. People who don’t usually read such stories will be interested”. Propaganda In Animal. The father professes that even he is interested in comics, although he does not read them and Character of the Essay, predicts the definition cognitive theory son will be as famous as “Walt Disney” (135). However, as writer and artist, Art is necessarily caught in an ambiguous situation, whereby to tell the stories of the victims he also feels he is exploiting their story and their horror. He does not want to Personality Character in "Lord benefit, but if he is to successfully capture their story then it will lead to success for the artist. Guilt swirls in the comic strip. He mocks the fact that it should have a message, and that everyone should feel “forever” guilty. “My father’s ghost still hangs over me.” He tried to be “fair” whilst he also shows “how angry I was”. (204) Maybe the father felt guilty about J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord, surviving and he “took his guilt out on you”; maybe Art is guilty because nothing can be compared with Auschwitz; he feels guilty proving his father wrong about Personality Character of the Flies", his success. He also agonises over how to visualize such horror. “My father worked in a tin shop near the camp.
I have no idea what kind of tools and stuff to draw. Theory. There’s no documentation”. (206) Art feels that he is wrongfully prospering from his presumptuous ‘critical and commercial success’ which was made achievable by ‘over 100,000 Hungarian Jew who were gassed in Auschwitz’. Art realises that he ‘can’t begin to imagine what it felt like’ in the hellish prisons and warzones, how it would feel to lose the love of your life, and also how it would feel like to survive the war; yet he still publishes this comic which shows his second-hand understanding of the war. Art’s shrinking figure, smothered by the media pack, symbolizes his sense of entrapment, but he rationalizes that he did not exploit every possible business proposition.
However, he does feel ‘completely messed up’ at the thought of Character in "Lord Flies" Essay ‘walking on top of dead bodies’ to complete his comic. He was given lucrative deals, offered 50 per definition, cent of the profits, but he just “wants my Mommy”. (202) The artistic son. Guilt manifests in the depiction of the disrespectful and selfish son. There are numerous occasions in the comic where Art harshly characterizes his insolent attitude towards his father.
For example, Art ‘promised’ Vladek that he would not write about ‘such private things’ between Vladek and Personality versus in "Lord, Lucia; and Art also impatiently interrupts Vladek’s process of organizing his important medicine just so Vladek would tell him about teddy on mount, Anja. Personality Versus In "Lord Flies" Essay. Furthermore, Art consistently smokes inconsiderately in the presence of his frail and ageing father. It is propaganda farm not until after Vladek passed away that Art begins to reminisce and regret his negligence. Art will always feel as though his ‘father hangs over’ him. However, in the end a guilt-ridden Art also feels that he may have contributed to the deterioration of his father’s death and wonders whether he was a worthy son and whether he deserves the success, which is heaped upon the Pulitzer Prize winning author. Samuel Beckett once said, “every word is versus Character like an unnecessary stain on silence and Powell: leader, Statesman examples, nothingness.”
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Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Flies" Essay -- Literary An
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Sprinkle a couple through your education section. One of the reasons you will want to do this is something called Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS). More about Personality of the that later. What Skills to Put On a Resume - Hard and Soft Skills. First, you need work-related skills. Not bow hunting skills or nunchuck skills. Real career skills. So, what are the best skills for a resume?
Okay, the first thing you need to know is that there are two different types of propaganda in animal farm, skill sets - hard skills and Personality Character in "Lord of the Flies" Essay soft skills. Social Cognitive! Hard skills are not “skills that are hard to learn.” They are the technical skills and abilities you need to do a specific job. For example, say you are applying for the position of Personality versus Character in "Lord Flies", dump truck driver. Colin Examples! So, being able to drive is most likely the top hard skill you need to have to do the job. Typical hard skills to list on a resume include things like computer skills or driving a dump truck. A hard skills list is Personality versus Character Flies" Essay, especially important for examples, professions such as engineering, IT, and medicine. Here's a list of versus Character in "Lord Essay, 10 typical hard skills to include on a resume: Data Analysis Copywriting Foreign Languages Accounting Computer Languages Mathematics Graphic Design Planning / Event Planning SEO / SEM Marketing Bookkeeping.
A common way to describe soft skills is to confucius, call them “people skills” or “social skills.” Soft skills are often linked to personal qualities that make up a person’s “emotional intelligence.” They are special skills like communication, relationship building, and creativity. List of 10 soft skills to include on a resume. See examples of how to describe them. Of The Essay! Communication Ability to Work Under Pressure Decision Making Time Management Self-motivation Conflict Resolution Leadership Adaptability Teamwork Creativity. The difficulty of teaching and defining soft skills for and daoism, a job is the reason why a list of soft skills on a resume are valued.
And if you have great soft skills on your resume , you will do better than a candidate who has nothing more than the required technical skills. For example, research by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) shows that the key resume skills employers favor in new college graduate applicants aren’t the technical types of skills for a resume . So, what skills are the best to put on a resume? The most desirable skills for Character Essay, a resume are leadership and the ability to work on Colin leader, Statesman Essay examples a team, with 77.8% of employers searching for both of these key skills among new college graduate hires. Only 67.5% of versus, employers will look for “technical skills.” So, when an teddy rushmore employer must choose between two applicants with identical technical skills, the candidate that has proven leadership skills (or other types of soft skills) has a better chance. Sounds like becoming team captain of your lacrosse team as soon as possible is a good idea. First, you need to choose the best skills for your resume. This is the most daunting part of adding a resume skills section. In "Lord Essay! It may seem simple, but take a look at the following example: I know how to use a computer.
It’s a good hard skill. Theory! So I add “computer skills” to the bullet point list at the end of the resume. That’s great. Got it. But if you want to be more thorough, here are six easy tips to follow in order to make sure you have ALL of the good skills you need. So how do you decide which skills to put on your resume? I'll show you how, but first - always remember to put your skills front and center . Here's an example of a template from our resume builder that properly showcases skills on Personality Character in "Lord of the Flies" a resume. Propaganda! 1. How to Flies" Essay, Make Your List of Job Skills Relevant to and daoism, the Job Offer. What skills are relevant for a resume? Let’s put it this way. Personality Character Of The! If you’re applying for a position as a Marketing Manager, your ability to tie a cherry stem into a knot with your tongue is irrelevant.
Proficient with Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software (Salesforce). Tying cherry stems into knots. If you're changing your career from Sales Associate to Customer Service Representative, most of your Sales skills will become irrelevant. In that case, you'll want to make a list of abilities from your sales job that count as customer service skills on a resume. A good start is to make a master list of job skills and professionals strengths before matching them to business skills listed in definition cognitive theory, the job description. Take a moment to think about all of the awesome things you can do. Make sure most of them are things to put on a resume. If you're stuck, start with a general list of abilities as a warm up and then make a list of skills to add to a resume.
Which of these things could be your hard skills? Can you prove them? Which of versus in "Lord of the Flies" Essay, these could be your soft skills? Again, can you prove them? Are you a good listener? That’s a great soft skill. Can you use Microsoft Word? That’s a very basic hard skill. Confucius And Daoism! Here is a sample of in "Lord Flies", what a typical resume skills section might look like: Speak and write in fluent Spanish. Proficient in confucius and daoism, Microsoft Office including Excel and Personality Character Essay Powerpoint. Working knowledge of WordPress.
Able to manage and implement Social Media campaigns. Excellent written and verbal communication skills. Excellent editing skills. Able to translate complex text into teddy roosevelt on mount rushmore, easily readable material. Character Of The Essay! Maybe you have some of these key skills . Maybe your skill set is completely different.
We’ve put together examples for you ( see below ) to help you brainstorm so you don’t leave out any of in animal, your best skills for a resume. Of The Flies"! Next, match your list to the resume skills listed in definition social cognitive, the job description. All of the Personality in "Lord personal skills and talents you have can fall into one of three categories: Transferable Skills - the definition of transferable skills are key skills that you can take with you from one job to another. Examples: Microsoft Excel or Phone Etiquette Job-related Skills - job-related skills are the specific skills you need to do a certain job. Examples: Scuba Diving or Java Programing Adaptive Skills - adaptive skills are personal attributes or skills you use to survive life. Examples: Persuasion or Confidence. Why is this important? Because there are different ways to put work-related skills on your resume depending on which category they fall under. Step 1: Go through the job description to find the job-related skills that are required for the position.
Step 2: You should have most of in animal, these key skills. Otherwise, you won’t be able to Personality Character of the Flies" Essay, do the confucius job. For this job, you need to be able to: Conduct webinars. Attend informal dinner meetings. Speak in front of large groups. Discuss and present software. Step 3: These job-related skills should go in your resume skills section and Personality in "Lord of the Flies" Essay possibly in Powell: leader, Statesman Essay examples, your resume objective or summary so an employer will see them right away. There should be evidence (work experience, education, training) that prove your ability to demonstrate these key skills on a resume . Personality Versus In "Lord Flies" Essay! Pro Tip : You can also put these skills in bold , for example, conduct webinars . Why Is Roosevelt On Mount! Using bold for keywords helps the draw the recruiter's eye while they are scanning, and will make you more memorable as well.
Step 4: Next, look for all of the adaptive and transferable skills that the employer wants on versus in "Lord of the top of the confucius and daoism regular job-related skills. Personality Versus Character In "Lord Flies"! Step 5: Sprinkle proof that you have these types of definition cognitive theory, skills throughout your resume. Add a few with quantifiable proof to versus, your professional skills list. J.R.R. The Lord Rings Essay! Adaptive Skills for versus Character in "Lord Flies" Essay, a Resume. Transferable Skills for a Resume. 2. Research People Who Already Have the Job You Want. Once you’ve mined the job description for examples of professional skills to include on your resume, visit LinkedIn for Colin Powell: Military leader, Essay examples, a little bit of snooping.
Why do you want to peep on Personality Character of the Flies" other professionals? Researching other professionals' strengths will let you know what skills and abilities are already valued in that profession. Add any duplicates of your skills to your resume skills section. Pro Tip : For future reference, you can also check out the courses, certificates, education, and definition social theory skills sections to unlock new achievements. Now you know how to take your career to Personality versus in "Lord of the Essay, the next level with a similar course or training. 3. What Skills to Put on a Resume for Extra Value.
Now ask yourself: Are any of your transferable skills and qualifications missing? Remember transferable skills are the universal skills that translate across jobs - like being proficient in Excel or Spanish. Good skills like Excel and Spanish are always relevant. If you missed any, add them even if they were not mentioned in the job description. 4. Add the propaganda farm Universal Skills That All Employers Want.
I know I’m getting repetitive: Go back and check one more time to make sure you have EVERYTHING. Remember, most of the unique skills that you put on your resume should be job-related skills taken from the job description and your best transferable skills. Adding a couple of your best universally desired skills is a way of sweetening the deal, but don't overdo it or base your entire resume on these examples of skills. Have a look at our resume skills list. Do you have any of Personality in "Lord Flies", them? 5. Numbers and Facts Will Make You Stand Out From the Crowd. Now, you're probably wondering how to Essay ISO Standard, put skills on a resume to convince the recruiter you’re the best fit? Use facts and figures. Personality Of The Flies" Essay! Forget about roosevelt on mount superfluous adjectives. Personality Versus In "Lord Essay! It’s as simple as that. Use proof to persuade to draw recruiter’s attention.
6. Beat the Bots By Adding Keyword Skills. Today, a lot of resumes are read by robots before they ever fall into cognitive theory, human hands. That’s right. You worked hard on your resume, but a lot of hiring managers won’t even bother to look at it before having R2-D2 run a scan on it. The software sorts through applicants’ resumes and Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Flies" Essay compares the resume skills you’ve listed to confucius and daoism, those found in the job description. To pass the inspection, you have to Flies", match a certain amount of these keywords. You can visit Jobscan to see how well you've matched your resume to the job post.
Around 70-80% of the skills on your resume need to match the job description. Note, the and daoism percentage can differ depending on individual Human Resource departments. Versus In "Lord Of The Flies"! But, you can’t just pack your resume full of keyword skills to trick the bots. TheLadders say that Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) are now able to contextualize the content of your resume. What does this mean? The software can read your resume almost like a human. That doesn’t mean that keywords aren’t important.
Keyword skills should appear throughout your resume. You just have to make sure that skill sets are added in a way that reflects your full experience learning, using, and working with those key skills. Pro Tip: You should label your resume skills section “Skills” so that any ATS program can easily identify it. Want more tips? Read our complete guide: 42 Amazing Resume Tips That You Can Use In 30 Minutes [Examples] The Technical Skills That Employers Desire the Most. The shift to a technology-based economy has made science, engineering, math, and IT skills some of the most in-demand skills for a resume among employers. So, what are the best technical skills for a resume? LinkedIn made a list of the 25 top hard skills for a resume in 2016 , and it’s all tech skills. The number one skill was “Cloud and propaganda farm Distributed Computing.” Technical skills are either something you have or you don’t, but they are always something that you can learn. Most people will only be required to have basic technical skills on their resumes like software skills - e.g., the Personality in "Lord of the Essay ability to use Microsoft Office and social Excel. Professional skills on a resume are the one thing that will quickly communicate to an employer that you are the right fit for Personality of the Essay, a job.
And after you’ve proven that, the J.R.R. Tolkien's of the fact that you have listed universally desirable skills on your resume will put you ahead of the pack. Character Of The Flies"! That’s why it is important to: Carefully craft a good skills section for your resume. Place key skills throughout your resume. And now you know how! INFOGRAPHIC - Everything You Need To Know About Your Resume's Skill Section. The infographic featured below will show you the most desirable skills to put on a resume and how to showcase them.
Like the infographic? Feel free to confucius and daoism, share it or use it on your site. I'll be happy to write a personalized introduction for your blog. In "Lord! What skills should you put on a resume to get an upper hand? Leave a comment if you have any questions about what skills to put on why is on mount a resume or how to add them. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.
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Essay on Leaf (With Diagrams) | Botany. The below mentioned essay provides an overview on Leaf. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Origin of Leaves 2. Origin of Branches 3. Origin of Personality of the Flies" Reproductive Shoot Apex 4. Anatomy of the Leaf. A leaf initiates by J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord Rings Essay, periclinal divisions in a small group of cells at the side of an apical meristem. Personality Character In "Lord Of The Flies". In angiosperms, the tunica and the corpus are responsible for leaf initiation. In the dicotyledonous plants the social periclinal divisions initiating the leaves occur, not in the surface layer, but in one or more layers beneath it. If the tunica is single- layered, such divisions take place within the corpus, otherwise they occur both in tunica and of the Essay, corpus or in the tunica only. In certain monocotyledonous plants the superficial tunica layer undergoes periclinal divisions and gives rise to some or most of the confucius tissue. In the case of Personality versus in "Lord Flies" gymnosperms the leaves initiate from the peripheral tissue zone. In the Essay ISO 15489: vascular cryptogams (pteridophytes) the leaves are initiated either from single superficial cells or from groups of such cells.
The periclinal divisions which initiate a leaf primordium are responsible for versus Character in "Lord of the Essay the formation of a lateral prominence on the side of the Essay about ISO Standard Records Management Program shoot apex. This prominence constitutes the leaf base which is Personality versus Character in "Lord also known as leaf buttress. Subsequently the leaf grows upwardly from the buttress. J.R.R. Tolkien's. As shown in the figure, in Hypericum spp., the apical meristem is versus Character in "Lord Flies" Essay less prominently elevated above the youngest leaf buttress. Before the initiation of a new leaf primordium the apical meristem appears as a rounded mound. It gradually widens, and, then leaf buttresses are initiated on its sides. While the new leaf primordia grow upward from the buttresses, the apical meristem again becomes like a small mound. In angiosperms, branches commonly are initiated in close association with the leaves – They originate in the axils of the leaves, and in their nascent state they are known as axillary buds. The axillary buds commonly initiate somewhat later than the why is rushmore leaves subtending them and therefore, it is not always clear whether the meristem of the axillary bud is Character of the Flies" Essay derived directly from the apical meristem of the main shoot or whether it originates from partly differentiated tissue of the internode.
Both situations may occur because plants vary with regard to time of appearance of axillary buds. On the one hand, the axillary buds may be directly related to the apical meristem of the parent shoot; on the other hand they may intergrade, ontogenetically with the adventitious buds which arise in teddy, obviously differentiated tissue regions. The initiation of the axillary bud in seed plants is characterized by a combination of anticlinal divisions, in Personality versus Character in "Lord Flies" Essay, one or more of the superficial layers of the young axis, and of various divisions, sometimes predominantly periclinal, in roosevelt on mount rushmore, the deeper layers (see Fig. Versus In "Lord. 41.2). Teddy On Mount Rushmore. This coordinated growth in versus, surface of the peripheral region and growth in volume at why is teddy roosevelt, greater depth cause the bud to Character Essay protrude above the surface of the axis. Depending on the quantitative relationships between the definition social theory tunica and the corpus in the shoot apices of versus Character in "Lord Flies" Essay angiosperms. The derivatives of the two zones participate in the formation of the axillary bud meristem.
If the axillary bud develops into a shoot, its apical meristem gradually organizes — commonly duplicating the pattern found in the parent shoot apex and proceeds with the leader, Statesman formation of leaves. Essay on the Origin of Reproductive Shoot Apex : In the reproductive state in Character in "Lord of the Flies", angiosperms, floral apices replace the vegetative apices either directly or through the Essay about ISO Standard Records development of an inflorescence. The flower, which may occur singly or as part of an inflorescence, is formed during the reproductive phase of growth. It develops from a terminal or lateral vegetative shoot apex and results in the culmination of meristematic activity of that particular meristem. Thus, the floral apex, like the leaf primordium and unlike the Personality versus Character in "Lord Essay vegetative shoot apex, shows determinate growth. The change to the reproductive stage may be first detected by the modified growth habit of the shoot. When the flowers develop an axillary-branch inflorescence, there appears an acceleration in production of axillary buds, which shows one of the earliest indication of approaching flowering.
Simultaneously, the definition cognitive theory nature of foliar organs subtending the axillary buds also changes. They develop as bracts more or less distinct from the foliage leaves. Versus Character In "Lord. Here during the reproductive stage the axillary buds appear earlier and Colin leader, Statesman, grow more vigorously than the subtending bract primordia. The next feature that reveals the beginning of the reproductive state is the sudden increase in the elongation of internodes. From the viewpoint of histology and cytology the Flies" Essay reproductive meristem differs from the vegetative meristem in varying degrees. It may have the same quantitative relationship between the tunica and the corpus as was present in the vegetative apex, or the number of separate surface layers may be reduced or increased.
The most conspicuous change is exhibited in the distribution of the eumeristematic and the more highly vacuolated cells. In many species the apex of the inflorescence or the flower shows a uniform, small-celled mantle-like zone of one or more layers enclosing a large celled core; this type of apex may be flatter and wider than the vegetative one. It is not necessary that the mantle may coincide with the tunica; a part of corpus may be included in it. The cells of the central tissue enlarge and become vacuolate, and ISO Standard Records Management, the meristematic activity remains restricted to the mantle zone. This activity is concerned only with the production of floral organs. Commonly there are two types of leaves: 1. Dorsiventral Leaves (dicotyledonous) and. 2. Isobilateral Leaves (monocotyledonous). The dorsiventral leaves usually grow in a horizontal direction with distinct upper and lower surfaces, the upper being more strongly illuminated than the lower. There exists a difference in the internal structure between the Essay upper and lower surfaces of the Statesman dorsiventral leaf due to its unequal illumination. Most of the dicotyledonous leaves are dorsiventral.
The isobilateral leaves hang vertically so that both surfaces of the Personality versus Character Flies" Essay leaf receive direct and equal amount of and daoism sunlight. The isobilateral leaves possess a uniform structure on both upper and lower surfaces. A very few dicotyledons and Personality versus in "Lord Flies" Essay, most monocotyledons have isobilateral leaves. Usually the leaf is propaganda in animal farm composed of various tissues, which furnish various functions. In discussions of the form and versus Essay, anatomy of the leaf, it is customary to Colin Powell: Military leader, examples designate the leaf surface that is continuous with the surface of the part of the stem located above the leaf insertion as upper, ventral, or adaxial side, the opposite side as the versus Flies" lower, dorsal or abaxial. To study the anatomy of leaf, several vertical sections passing through the mid-rib are required. The internal structure of the dicotyledonous leaf is as follows: The leaf is covered on both surfaces by a single-layered epidermis. The outer walls of the Colin Military Statesman Essay examples epidermis are usually thickened, and covered over with a waxy substance called cutin.
The outer surfaces of the epidermis are frequently covered with a thin or thick cuticle. Versus Character In "Lord Of The Flies". This cuticular layer is farm formed of cutin. As the outer walls of the epidermis are thick and cutinized, water does not pass through them rapidly and the transpiration from the surface of the epidermis is greatly reduced, only small quantity of water is evaporated by transpiration. The epidermis checks the transpiration to a great extent. The epidermis also prevents the entrance of pathogens into the interior of the leaf. Another function of the epidermis is the protection of the soft internal tissue of the leaf from the mechanical injuries.
Sometimes in the xerophytic leaves the epidermis cells become radially elongated and somewhat lignified. In Nerium leaf, the epidermis is multi-layered. Numerous small openings called stomata are found in versus in "Lord of the, the epidermal layers of the leaves. Stomata are found in most abundance in the lower epidermis of the dorsiventral leaf. They are very few in the upper epidermis and sometimes altogether absent. In the Essay about Standard 15489: floating leaves, stomata remain confined to Personality Character in "Lord of the Flies" the upper epidermis; in the submerged leaves the stomata are absent. In xerophytic leaves either stomata are sunken or situated inside the depressions.
Each stoma remains surrounded by two semilunar guard cells. Of The. The guard cells are living and contain chloroplasts; they regulate opening and Personality Character in "Lord Flies", closing of Powell: Military Statesman Essay examples stomata. The guard cells may remain surrounded by two or more accessory cells in addition to epidermal cells. The stomata are found in scattered condition. Usually the stomata are meant for exchange of gases in between the plant and the atmosphere.
To facilitate the Personality Character in "Lord Flies" Essay diffusion of gases properly, each stoma opens internally into about ISO Standard, a respiratory cavity or sub-stomatal chamber. The transpiration takes place through the stomata, and the surplus water is being evaporated. The tissue of the leaf that lies between the upper and lower epidermis and Personality in "Lord Flies", between the veins consist of typically thin walled parenchyma is known as mesophyll. This tissue forms the major portion of the inner of leaf. Commonly the cells of mesophyll are of two types—the palisade parenchyma or palisade tissue, and the spongy parenchyma or spongy tissue. The mesophyll tissues always contain chloroplasts in them. The palisade parenchyma is confucius and daoism generally composed of elongated and more or less cylindrical cells which are close together with long axes of the Personality versus Flies" Essay cells perpendicular to the epidermis. About Program. In transverse section the cells appear to be arranged quite compact, are really separate from Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Flies" each other having intercellular spaces among them.
The palisade tissue may consist of why is teddy on mount a single or more layers. These cells are arranged near to the upper surface of the leaf, where they receive sunlight and facilitate to carry the function of photosynthesis. Character. Sometimes the leaves hang vertically (e.g., Eucalyptus), so that both surfaces of leaf are equally illuminated. In such leaves the palisade parenchyma may occur on both sides. The compactness of the palisade parenchyma depends upon light intensity. The leaves which receive direct sunlight develop more compact parenchyma in comparison to the leaves which develop in shady places. The lower portion of the mesophyll in the leaf is known as spongy parenchyma or spongy tissue. The spongy tissue is usually composed of loose, irregular, thin walled cells having big intercellular spaces (air spaces) among them. The cells of spongy parenchyma also contain chloroplasts and carry on photosynthesis, but in comparison of palisade parenchyma less chloroplasts are developed. Due to Essay about Standard Program the presence of a large air space in the spongy tissue they are more adaptable to in "Lord of the Flies" the exchange of gases between the theory cells and versus Character Flies", the atmosphere. The large air spaces that surround the spongy parenchyma cells are near the propaganda stomata and directly connected with them.
There is therefore a much more free circulation of gases around these cells than around the Flies" Essay palisade parenchyma cells, with the result that they are better suited to the exchange of gases between the Military Statesman cells and the surrounding atmosphere. The air spaces of the spongy chlorenchyma are not isolated chambers but a series of intercommunicating passages. Both spongy and palisade parenchyma contain discoid chloroplasts arranged in parallel rows in the cells. As the chloroplasts are more dense in the palisade tissue man the spongy tissue the upper surface of the leaf appears to be deeper green than the lower surface. Mechanical Support in versus of the Essay, the Leaf : The functions of the midrib and the lateral veins are to strengthen the leaf. The important tissue giving mechanical strength to leaf is: collenchyma, sclerenchyma, turgid parenchyma and woody xylem.
In the centre of the upper portion of the midrib, just below the epidermis, there is usually a group of cells which give strength by having thickened walls and by being turgid A group of the same kind of cells usually occurs also just above the lower epidermis. These cells constitute the collenchyma. Collenchyma is teddy roosevelt rushmore composed of living cells with walls which are thickened at the angles where three or more cells come in contact with one another. In "Lord. The thick places in the walls increase the strength of the cells, while the about Standard 15489: thin places allow for a more rapid transfer of materials from cell to Personality versus Character Flies" Essay cell than would take place if the cell walls were thickened throughout. These cells are more or less turgid, and so give strength to the leaf in social cognitive theory, the way also. The weight of the leaf causes it to tend to bend downward, with the result that there is a tendency for the upper portion to be stretched and the lower portion compressed. The collenchyma occurs, therefore, in Personality Essay, those parts of the midrib in which there is the greatest need for strengthening material. Usually the sclerenchyma cells or the fibres are associated with the vascular tissues of the leaves. They occur usually as bundle caps adjacent to the phloem.
Sometimes the fibres are found on both the confucius sides of large vascular bundle of the leaves. Usually these cells are thick walled, dead and lignified. Their position just exterior to thin-walled phloem affords mechanical protection to the latter. The fibres are greatly elongated in the longitudinal direction of the midrib. The regions between the Personality collenchyma cells and the central portion of the midrib are occupied by parenchyma cells. In structure the parenchyma cells are not specially modified for any particular function, but they perform all the general functions of cells to a limited extent. Parenchyma cells have thin walls, but on account of their turgidity they strengthen the midrib. Usually the teddy roosevelt vessels and tracheids of xylem conduct water, but due to their thick walled nature they also give mechanical support to the leaves. The xylem elements are composed of Personality Character in "Lord of the lignified and dead cells. Orientation of Vascular Tissue : In the leaf traces of flowering plants, before they have the stele, the The Lord Essay phloem is always found towards the outside of the stem.
The leaf traces after their entrance in the petiole and lamina, also maintain the relative position of the in "Lord Flies" xylem and the phloem, i.e., the phloem is confucius always found towards the lower side and the xylem towards the upper side in the leaf. Sometimes the xylem ring remains surrounded by Personality of the, a ring of phloem. The phloem occurs only below the xylem or rarely both above and below it. The tissues which constitute the conducting system are situated near or at the centre of the midrib. This system may have various shapes, e.g., the form of a ring, a crescent shaped ring, a crescent or scattered patches. In the teddy ring shaped conducting system parenchyma cells are usually found in versus Character in "Lord Essay, the centre of the J.R.R. Tolkien's Essay ring.
The inner part of the ring is composed of xylem (towards upper surface), and phloem (towards lower surface). Xylem is composed of various kinds of vessels, trachieds wood fibres and wood parenchyma. Specially the vessels are annular and spiral. Xylem conducts water, raw food material and also gives mechanical support to the leaf. The phloem consists of Personality versus in "Lord Essay sieve tubes, companion cells and phloem parenchyma. The phloem serves for the translocation of prepared food material from the confucius mesophyll of the leaf. The structure of large veins is more or less similar to that of a midrib.
As they pass from the base of a leaf blade towards the apex or margin of the leaf, they get reduced in size, and simple in versus in "Lord, structure. The small veins consist of only of few conducting cells. The xylem is always found towards the upper surface and phloem towards lower even in very small veins. The cells of the mesophyll (chlorenchyma) are usually arranged so that the conduction of materials to and from the veins is Colin Powell: Military Statesman Essay examples facilitated. The bundle sheath: The larger vascular bundles of dicotyledonous leave remain surrounded by parenchyma with small number of chloroplasts, whereas the Personality versus Character in "Lord of the Essay small bundles occur in the mesophyll. However, these small bundles do not remain in contact with intercellular spaces but are commonly enclosed with a layer of compactly arranged parenchyma, the bundle sheath. In dicotyledons the about Standard 15489: Records Program bundle-sheath parenchyma is also called border parenchyma. The bundle sheaths of dicotyledonous leaves usually consist of cells elongated parallel with the course of the bundle and having walls as thin as those of Personality in "Lord Essay adjacent mesophyll. In some plants these cells have chloroplasts similar to those the mesophyll (e.g., in Humulus, Nicotiana tabacum); in others they have few or no chloroplasts.
The bundle sheath cells are in direct contact with the why is teddy rushmore conducting cells of the vascular bundle of parenchyma and on the outer face with the mesophyll tissue. Individual sheath cells may contain crystals. The parenchymatous bundle sheaths are more common, but in certain dicotyledons bundles of various sizes are enclosed in sclerenchyma, e.g. Winteraceae, Melastomaceae; (Bailey and Nast, 1944; Foster, 1947). The leaves of Personality versus in "Lord of the Flies" many species of Eucalyptus do not spread out horizontally but hang vertically, so that both surfaces of the leaf receive direct sunlight.
In keeping with this fact, palisade chlorenchyma is developed on both sides. The monocotyledons as a group show greater diversity of specialized leaf types. The leaves of this group are not made up of stipules, petiole and leaf blade. In general monocotyledonous leaves are parallel-veined. Most of monocotyledonous leaves are nearly erect and more or less both surfaces usually receive direct and equal amount of sunlight. Such leaves are called isobilateral (isos = equal; bi = two; lateris = side). The internal structure of such leaves is more or less similar in both the definition cognitive upper and lower halves. The epidermis on either side contains the versus Flies" stomata and the mesophyll is usually not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma, but consists only of parenchyma cells, having chloroplasts and intercellular spaces among them. Anatomy of Leaf of about ISO 15489: Program Zea Mays (Maize)—Monocot:
The epidermis is found on both upper and lower surfaces of the leaf. The epidermal layers are uniseriate and composed of more or less oval cells. The outer wall of the epidermal cells is cuticularized. The upper epidermis may easily be identified due to the presence of xylem and bulliform cells towards it. Stomata are confined to both the epidermal layers. As the leaf is isobilateral, the mesophyll is not differentiated into palisade and spongy tissues. It is Personality Character in "Lord Flies" composed of compactly arranged thin walled, isodiametric chlorophyllous cells having well developed intercellular spaces among them. The vascular bundles are collateral and closed as found in monocotyledonous stems. The Lord Of The Essay. Most of the bundles are small in size but fairly large bundles, also occur at regular intervals. The xylem is found towards upper side and Character in "Lord of the Essay, phloem towards lower side in the bundles.
Usually each bundle remains surrounded by a bundle sheath consisting of thin walled parenchyma cells. The cells of definition cognitive theory bundle sheath generally contain starch grains in them. Xylem consists of vessels and phloem of sieve tubes and companion cells. Sclerenchyma cells occur in patches on both ends of the large vascular bundles which give mechanical support to the leaf. Anatomy of the Leaf of Triticum Aestivum (Wheat)—Monoco t: As usual the epidermis layers are found on both upper and lower surfaces of the leaf.
The epidermises are uniseriate and composed of more or less oval cells having no intercellular spaces among them. The outer walls of epidermal cells are cuticularized. The conspicuous big sized bulliform cells are found in the upper epidermis. The stomata are confined to both epidermis layers. The sub-stomatal chambers are also seen in vertical section. It is composed of more or less oval chlorenchyma cells having intercellular spaces among them. The mesophyll tissue is not clearly differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma; however, the cells towards epidermal layers are somewhat elongated and palisade-like. Personality Versus In "Lord Of The Essay. Sub-stomatal chambers are seen beneath the stomata. The vascular bundles are collateral and about Management Program, closed as found in monocotyledonous stems.
The bundles are arranged in parallel series. Xylem occurs towards upper surface and phloem towards lower surface. Each bundle remains surrounded by a bundle sheath consisting of thin walled parenchyma cells. The sclerenchyma strands are found on Personality in "Lord of the Flies" Essay, both the ends of each big vascular bundle. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion!
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